Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika <p>Founded in 2001. Publishes articles on social work and social policy.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press lt-LT Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika 1648-2425 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Front Matter and Editorial Board <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> STEPP 2018 Nr. 17 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 1 4 Table of Contents <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> STEPP 2018 Nr. 17 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 5 5 The Causes of Informal Elderly Care at Home: a Look at the Caregivers‘ Experience <p>[only abstract and keywords in English; full article, abstract and keywords in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The topic of informal care is relevant in our country, because Lithuania is outstanding for being a country where population ageing is one of the fastest in the European Union and emigration of working-age population is very high. Moreover, traditional family ties are still strong in Lithuania. The aim of this article is to reveal the causes of informal elderly care at home. The analysis of causes is based on the experience of informal caregivers. Data for the research was obtained from 20 semi-structured interviews with informal carers. The method of qualitative content analysis was used for data analysis. The carried out research confirms the complexity of the relationship between an elderly person in need of care and an informal caregiver and reveals the variety of informal care causes. It turned out that the decision to take care of a close elderly at home is determined not only by social aspects such as the feeling of children’s duty, no-confidence in institutional care, but also by economic aspects such as expensiveness of formal care services, the assessment of nursing benefit as an additional source of income.&nbsp;</p> Jolita Junevičienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 7 20 10.15388/STEPP.2018.17.11928 Experiences of Elderly Residential Care Transitions: a Review of Literature <p>[only abstract and keywords in English; full article, abstract and keywords in Lithuanian]</p> <p>Relocation to residential care facility in older age is considered as one of the most significant life transitions, that causes great deal of stress, depression and anxiety to the elderly. It is said, that transition to residential care facility is only slightly less stressful event than divorce or death of a spouse. After relocation older people are faced with a lot of unknowns in form of new people, new physical surroundings and new social demands. Relocation to residential care facility is a challenge for usual lifestyle: changes in one’s social network, loss of autonomy, reduced opportunities of maintaining favorite activities, adapting to new social and physical environment, attempts to create new home in residential care facility demand a lot of adaptive efforts from the elderly. These are the most common challenges to identity and well-being of the elderly. On other hand, relocation to residential care facility not only creates new challenges for elderly people, but also creates a new opportunities in form of new friends, new activities and sense of security since in case of emergency there are always staff close by. So there are possibilities of reconstructing one’s identity and maintaining well-being.</p> Jūratė Charenkova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 21 36 10.15388/STEPP.2018.17.11929 Challenges for Institutions of Social Care Providing Services for Elder Persons and Attitude of the Staff to the Quality of Provided Services <p>[only abstract and keywords in English; full article, abstract and keywords in Lithuanian]</p> <p>In the article the quality of the social care services is analized in the context of the public services organization and evaluation, considering the aspects of the institutional care reorganization. The main challenges, that social care institutions working with elderly people face at the moment, are revealed. In 2017 the quantitative study was carried out in order to collect empirical data. The method of the research was a questionnaire. The quality of social services is assessed and the questionnaire was formed on the basics of EQUASS methodology.</p> <p>In order to collect empirical data in 2017 quantitative study was carried out. The SPSS data processing program is used to analyze the research data. The specific efficiency of quality indicators of social care institutions are calculated in accordance with the 10 qualitative principles of the EQUASS system: leadership, personnel, rights, ethics, partnership, participation, orientation to person, complexity, performance orientation and continuous improvement.</p> <p>Research Subjects: Employees of social welfare institutions providing long-term / short-term social care services for the elderly in Lithuania according to the list of occupations of employees in the field of social services (2014). The research involved 105 heads of institutions, 122 social workers, 36 employment specialists and 78 social work assistants working in social care institutions providing services for the elderly people.</p> <p>Results of the research: The research results revealed that, according to the subjective opinion of the research participants, the service quality level in social care institutions working with elderly people is rather high. The quality of social care home care services is mostly related to orientation to person, leadership, rights and ethics, and, to a lesser extent, to complexity, personnel, performance orientation, continuous improvement and participation, and the least to the partnership.&nbsp;Care homes employees of different positions similarly evaluate the overall quality, the response rates vary slightly. The vast majority of respondents indicate that social services provided in their care institutions are sufficient. A majority of respondents evaluate the general and special services very well and well. The analysis of the results of the research revealed that according the vast majority (85.6%)</p> Jolita Gečienė Vida Gudžinskienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 37 56 10.15388/STEPP.2018.17.11930 The Ability of Disability and Possibilities to Use it in the Process of Social Help: Case Analysis of Integrated Camp for Persons with Mental Disabilities and Street Youth <p>[only abstract and keywords in English; full article, abstract and keywords in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The aim of this paper was to discuss experiences of combination of different groups of clients in social help area. Research is orientated to revelation of mutual benefit of interpersonal interactions between persons with mental disabilities and street youth in regular summer camps, giving particular attention to disclosure of abilities of persons with mental disabilities and to revelation of possibilities to use these abilities in the process of social help.&nbsp;<br>Qualitative research was carried out. There where taken non-structured and semi-structured interviews form persons, who participated in integrated summer camps, where possibility for interactions between persons with mental disabilities and street youth was created. Research participants were workers, volunteers and clients (all of them representing two different organizations).&nbsp;<br>We can conclude that persons with mental disabilities offer such a relationship, in which young people (street youth) Btain feeling of unconditional acceptance. This relationship helps to restore their self worth and enables changes in their asocial behavior, as well as discloses their personal qualities such as sensitiveness, tenderness, attentiveness, openness. Thus persons with mental disabilities have ability to be with other because of the worth which he/she on its own (as opposite to the worth that he/she can create). This ability becomes essential motivating factor for street youth to change behavior. Experience of community life together with persons with mental disability demythises social stereotypes about defective humanness of these people. In contrary, their authenticity becomes gift for those who dare to participate in community life together with them and especially for those who experienced a lot of difficulties in their early social life – street youth</p> Miroslavas Seniutis Donata Petružytė ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 57 73 10.15388/STEPP.2018.17.11931 The Role of Preschool Education Services on Parents Employment in Lithuania <p>[only abstract and keywords in English; full article, abstract and keywords in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The aim of the article is to investigate the effect of a preschool educational institutions role on the employment of parents, who have preschool-aged children in Lithuania. After completing a survey about the employment of Lithuanian families with preschool-aged children and preschool establishments, one main hypothesis is put forward, aimed at understanding what impact not attending preschool has on parents’ employment.&nbsp;</p> <p>A quantitative research method is used to investigate the hypothesis. It is based on statistical analysis of a 2014 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). With the help of descriptive statistics, logistic regressions and Chi-square tests, this research analyses what impact not attending preschool has on children parents’ employment.</p> <p>It can be argued that the hypothesis is confirmed as the research results show that not using preschool services has a different effect on mothers’ and fathers’ economic activity. Therefore not attending preschool establishments has a major negative effect on mothers’ employment status rather than fathers’.</p> <p>In terms of family policy typologies it can be seen that paid and unpaid work distribution in Lithuania is associated with traditional family policy model. In this case, the provision of public preschool services is not the main family policy instrument, since the priority in Lithuania is to provide a financial support through the promotion of childcare at home. Lithuanian mothers choose to participate in a relatively long parental leave system. All this implies the view that the limited availability of preschool services might limit possibilities for mothers to participate in the labour market due to the traditional family policy model existing in the country.</p> <p>Finally, results allow to assume that an accessibility of preschool establishments stimulates parents to work, however, it is not a crucial factor due to financial aspects. An important role is played by unpaid care of the children provided by relatives and friends. Therefore, it can be interpreted as a compensation for the lack of public preschool services for families wishing to successfully continue their participation in the labour market.</p> Aušra Čižauskaitė Boguslavas Gruževskis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 74 91 10.15388/STEPP.2018.17.11932 Family Policy Issues in Lithuania: an Analysis of Previous Studies <div> <p>[only abstract and keywords in English; full article, abstract and keywords in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The article analyzes family policy problems in Lithuania through the prism of research carried out by county’s scientists during the period of independence, as well as through statistical analysis. Family policy issues are addressed through three selected analytical „fields“ that significantly reveal the results of family policy: women’s involvement in the labor market, child poverty and gender equality. Different sections of the article analyze how family support measures in the country affect these aspects of family policy and what main issues are confronted while achieving family policy goals. It is concluded that the state can implement the main goals of family policy only by securing a sustainable and steady family policy oriented towards the creation of conditions necessary for the independent functioning of the family.</p> </div> Kristina Senkuvienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 92 107 10.15388/STEPP.2018.17.11933 The Position and Shifts of Work Values in the Context of Different Generations in Lithuania <p>[only abstract and keywords in English; full article, abstract and keywords in Lithuanian]</p> <p>Work values are considered to be fundamental due to the peculiar impact of work on human life and the functioning of society. The realization of them largely determines the person’s position in society and the opportunities for his career, the potential of the human and economic capital of the country, the efficiency of the use of human resources in separate companies etc. There were found significant differences between cohorts of different generations in terms of work values. The concept of “generation” could be perceived in different aspects, in this paper it is used according to understanding of Mannheim, Steel and Taras, and Strauss and Howe. Generations of Veterans, Baby Boom, X, Y and Z were distinguished. Analysis of the changes in the work values of the Lithuanian population in the aspect of generational change in the turn of the XX - XXI centuries is based on the data of the second (1990), third (1999) and fourth (2008) waves of European values survey (EVS). The research has shown that the change of generations and their individual characteristics has the greatest impact on the change of emotional work-related values, while cognitive and instrumental work-related values are influenced by changes in the socioeconomic context.</p> Daiva Mažeikaitė Boguslavas Gruževskis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 108 131 10.15388/STEPP.2018.17.11934 Cochlear Implantation in Lithuania: Prevalence and System Overview <p>[only abstract and keywords in English; full article, abstract and keywords in Lithuanian]</p> <p>Previous researches have shown that cochlear implantation (or hearing implantation) together with hearing recovery program provides successful social integration for children with sensorineural hearing loss. Cochlear implantation is implemented from 1998 in Lithuania. About 377 people were implanted until the end of 2017. Vast majority of whom are children. Most of the studies carried out in this field are dealing with clinical or technical aspects. There is a lack of research related to aspects of health policy or social integration problems. We overview the system of cochlear implantation, prevalence, and patients’ pathway in this paper. We use a document analysis and descriptive statistics methodologies in this study. To the authors knowledge this is the first study overviewing cochlear implantation system in Lithuania.</p> Jurga Mataitytė - Diržienė Daumantas Stumbrys Jekaterina Byčkova Eugenijus Lesinskas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 17 132 148 10.15388/STEPP.2018.17.11935