Archaeologia Lituana <p>Founded in 1999 and dedicated to publishing articles on the history and methodology of archaeology as well as publishing important archaeological research in the Baltic region.</p> lt-LT <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> (Violeta Vasiliauskienė) (Vigintas Stancelis) Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>[text in English and Lithuanian]</p> Algimantas Merkevičius ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Hillforts. From Emergence to Present Day <p>The 19th volume of Archaeologia Lituana is dedicated to the topic of hillforts as important monuments of cultural identity of the past and present.</p> <p>Eleven scientific articles were published in this volume, nine of which have been based on papers presented during the international scientific conference “Hillforts. From Emergence to the Present Day.” Another two articles were written by people who had not participated in this conference.</p> <p>The idea of the mentioned conference of its organizers arose after finding out information about the initiative of the Seimas on June 23, 2015, based on the Decree No. XII-1845, in which the year 2017 was declared as the Year of Hillforts. This important initiative of the Seimas served as an inspiration for organizing the international scientific conference in 2017 to discuss the important issues related to hillforts and their study.</p> <p>The three-day conference was held in Vilnius and Klaipėda. It was attended by archaeologists from nine countries, which presented 25 papers during the course of two days.</p> <p>The first day of the conference was organized in Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. Algimantas Merkevičius, Chairman of the Organizing Committee, started the conference with a short welcome speech. The conference was welcomed and opened by members of the Seimas Prof. Eugenijus Jovaiša and Prof. Arūnas Gumuliauskas. In the next day of the Conference, on the 20th of October, a tour was organized for the participants of the conference that led them through the Vytautas Magnus War Museum and several hillforts and castles on the way from Kaunas to Klaipėda. On October 21, the third day of the conference was held at Klaipėda University.</p> <p>The articles published in this volume are grouped in a chronological order and cover a long period of time, from Prehistory to the late Medieval Period, starting with early hilltop settlement sites and the emergence of fortified settlements up to the construction of masonry castles on hills and other elevated locations across the landscape during the Middle Ages.</p> <p>This volume opens with an article by Estonian archaeologist, Professor of the University of Tartu Valter Lang, the guest lecturer of the conference. The first part of the article reviewed an investigation of early fortified settlements in the eastern Baltic Region and provided with the earlier interpretations of this type of settlement sites. In the second part of the article, Lang, relying on the material culture of the early fortified settlements and recent investigations on the ethnogenesis of the Baltic and Finnic people, has put forward a new hypothesis, claiming that the fortified settlements in the eastern Baltic Region could have been built by a new inhabitants that could have come from the eastern European forest belt.</p> <p>Two articles in this volume are devoted to the research of fortified and hilltop settlements in the Czech Re- public. They provided our readers with new information and insights on the appearance and the development of fortifications as well as the studies of hillforts in this part of Central Europe. The article by Josef Hložek, Petr Menšík, and Milan Procházka reviewed the emergence and development of hilltop and fortified settlements in southern Bohemia from the beginning of the Prehistoric Period to the end of the Middle Ages. The authors discussed the main features of fortified settlements, as well as the classification, chronology, functions, and de- velopment of fortifications over several millennia.</p> <p>In the next article, Roman Křivánek analyzed the use of geophysical methods for investigating Czech hillforts. The article discusses the development of geophysical research of fortified sites in the Czech Republic and the potential this non-destructive method has in studying the different types of settlement sites. This article also presents the results of this type of research in seven sites to illustrate the results, possibilities, and limitations of this method.</p> <p>The hillforts of Central Nadruvians, dated back to the 1st part of the 1st millennium AD, are focus of Russian archaeologists Olga Khomiakova, Ivan Skhodnov, and Sergey Chaukin. The authors touch upon many aspects of hillforts, such as their morphological characteristics, the distribution of these sites across the landscape, and their functions and significance for society. The main idea of their study is that these sites served as social centers in the discussed area. Some of the most important hillforts, located in the valleys of the Prieglius River and its tributaries, were described in further detail.</p> <p>Four articles in this volume are devoted to the analysis and interpretations of materials obtained during the investigations of late hillforts in various parts of Lithuania. In the first article, Ramūnas Šmigelskas, based on the results of his own small-scale archaeological excavations carried out in the Palace of the Vilnius Upper Cas- tle in 2016 and nine radiocarbon dates obtained during these investigations, aims to answer the question when a wooden castle was built on Gediminas Hill. Another important conclusion that he offered, which is based on radiocarbon data, is that the Gediminas Hill was settled during the 7th –5th century BC. The review of archaeo- logical excavations, which took part in this site throughout the whole of the 20th century, are also an important part of this study.</p> <p>The results of geophysical research, soil analysis, and archaeological small-scale excavations in the Senieji (Old) Trakai Castle and its settlement site were summarized in an article written by a group of seven researchers: Albinas Kuncevičius, Inga Merkytė, Justina Poškienė, Regina Prapiestienė, Rokas Vengalis, Gintautas Vėlius, Jonas Volungevičius. The article also reviews the written sources and historical studies as well as previous ar- chaeological excavations at the Senieji (Old) Trakai Castle. The main focus of this article is the transformation of the natural environment and landscape during the building activities of the castle.</p> <p>Mantas Užgalis analyzes in his article the hillforts of the Lamata land, which located in the southern part of western Lithuania. The author has counted 22 hillforts in the area under examination. Most attention is payed to the paleogeographical reconstruction of these fortified settlements, dated from second part of the 1st Millennium AD to the 13th century. The article also sets the political and administrative center of the Lamata land, which, according to Užgalis, was in the Skomantai Hillfort.</p> <p>In her article, Dovilė Baltramiejūnaitė reviewed the features and development of wheel-turned pottery dated to the 10th –14th centuries and found in the hillforts of the northeastern part of the area attributed to the Jotving- ian tribes. The morphological, technological, and decorative features of this pottery were examined. The stages of development, typology, chronology, classification, and contexts of wheel-tuned ceramics were discussed.</p> <p>The last article devoted to the topic of hillforts is produced by Ukrainian archaeologist Sergey Panishko on the “motte” type fortifications of the Medieval, so-called Lithuanian Period in the Volyn land. The author of- fered a classification of these late fortifications, presented their main characteristics, tried to trace the origin, and discussed their chronological development.</p> <p>Two articles in this volume are presented not by the participants of the mentioned conference and not devoted to the topic of hillforts. In the first of them, Erika Buitkutė and Giedrė Motuzaitė Matuzevičiūtė, using research methods for the investigation of ecofactual material, tried to determine the function of a wooden building dis- covered during the archaeological excavations in the eastern part of the Palace of the Lower Castle in Vilnius, which, according to the authors, could have served economic purposes.</p> <p>In the second catalog-type article, Russian archaeologists Vladimir Dryakhlov and Vladimir Kulakov published the data and the related interpretations on an items collection from the Merovingian epoch that is stored in the Alexander Pushkin State Art Museum (Moscow). According to the authors, these items, dated back to the 6th–7th centuries AD, were mainly found in the eastern territories of the Frankish tribes and belonged to the members of the Frankish aristocracy, who practiced their native, traditional religion.</p> <p>In the chapter “In memoriam” Prof. Mykolas Michelbertas briefly reviewed the scientific achievements of the famous Latvian archaeologist and historian Ēvalds Mugurēvičs, who passed away at the end of 2018. It is important to note that Mugurēvičs was an editorial member of the journal Lietuvos archeologija from 2000 to 2005, and in 2013, he was awarded to the Cross of the Knight of the Order for Merits to Lithuania.</p> <p>In the chapter “Publications of the Department of Archaeology,” Algimantas Merkevičius briefly presents a book published in 2018 that is devoted to the Early Metal Period settlement sites of Lithuania. The book contains basic data about more than 500 settlement sites of the period.</p> <p>In our usual chapter titled “Scientific Life Chronicle,” Violeta Vasiliauskienė overviews the key academic activities of the Archaeology Department’s teachers and students.</p> <p>We hope that this volume of Archaeologia Lituana will be interesting and useful to our readers.</p> <p>Algimantas Merkevičius</p> Algimantas Merkevičius ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Fortified Settlements in the Eastern Baltic: From Earlier Research to New Interpretations <p>[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>A brief history of research and earlier interpretations of fortified settlements east of the Baltic Sea are provided in the first part of the article. The earlier research has resulted in the identification of the main area of the distribution of fortified settlements, the main chronology in the Late Bronze and Pre-Roman Iron Ages, and their general cultural and economic character. It has been thought that the need for protection&nbsp;– either because of outside danger or social tensions in society&nbsp;– was the main reason for the foundation of fortified sites. The second part of the article adds a new possibility of interpreting the phenomenon of fortified settlements, proceeding from ethnogenesis of the Finnic and Baltic peoples. It is argued that new material culture forms that took shape in the Late Bronze Age&nbsp;– including fortified settlements and find assemblages characteristic of them&nbsp;– derived at least partly from a new population arriving in several waves from the East-European Forest Belt.</p> Valter Lang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 An Overview of Southern Bohemian Hilltop Settlements from Prehistory to the Late Middle Ages <p>[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The Southern Bohemian Region belongs to regions where many hilltop settlements had been built since the Early Stone Age. However, the first fortified systems were built in the Late Bronze Age, as hilltops, mountain peaks, and promontories were fortified using complex systems of ramparts and ditches. This phenomenon thereafter continued into younger prehistoric periods, especially the Early Iron Age, resulting in the foundation of hilltops in the Early Middle Ages, starting with the 9<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century and frequently continuing in the form of castles and manor houses built in the Middle Ages and the Modern Period. This paper is not only an attempt to summarize and survey the use of hilltop sites and the continuity of settlements but also an effort to state their classification, characteristics, and function considering their practical, social and symbolical roles, which can be detected in both prehistoric (sophisticated fortifications with no practical use, relocation) and medieval (show of power, the question of defence) heritage.</p> Josef Hložek, Petr Menšík, Milan Procházka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Application of Non-Destructive Geophysical Measurements for Mapping and Surveying the Hillforts in the Czech Republic <p>[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The Czech landscape and its archaeological resources include the most varied types of prehistoric or early medieval hillforts. These fortified sites are found across a variety of different locations and possess different functions and dimensions (very often in units of hectares, unlike the later medieval strongholds, characterized by the dimensions of tenths of hectares of fortified areas). Due to this large area, the hillforts were verified using mainly small-scale archaeological investigations. Many other hillforts are also known to exist without any archaeological trenching, research or exact dating. A combination of various remote sensing techniques and non-destructive methods seems to be, in the last two decades, a fast and low-priced way to acquire new spatial information about these fortified sites. Geophysical measurements of hillforts and different me-<br>thods were under all circumstances limited by various field conditions and the performance of used equipment. But some of the geophysical methods now offer new surveys of large areas of hillforts or nearly complete fortified sites. Seven chosen examples of various geophysical methods and techniques in this paper should illustrate the different possibilities of modern prospection and non-destructive mapping of hillforts. Their results could be used in archaeology, heritage care of intangible archaeological monuments or on different occasions for particular kinds of conservation, new protection or systematic study of hillforts.</p> Roman Křivánek ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Hillforts of the Central Nadruvians: A Case Study of Settlement Patterns and Social Organization in Former East Prussia in the First Half of the 1st Millennium AD <p>[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>This article is devoted to the Central Nadruvians hillforts, located within the territory of the intercultural area of theWest Balt Circle (the so-called Inster-Pregolian group of sites), and concerns the possible role of hillforts in the context of settlement patterns and social organization in the first half of the 1<sup xml:lang="en-GB">st</sup>&nbsp;millennium AD. Morphological characteristics (sizes, structure) and the dating of Nadruvians hillforts, which can be inhabited in the Roman and Early Migration period, are discussed. Data regarding unfortified settlements and burial grounds are added. According to the results of a survey and a GIS analysis, local centers of settlement patterns in the 1<sup xml:lang="en-GB">st</sup>&nbsp;half of the first millennium AD could be formed in what can be considered a “key” for transport communications between the microregions of the Pregolya river.</p> Olga Khomiakova, Ivan Skhodnov, Sergey Chaukin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Nine Absolute Dates from the Gediminas’s Hill Research <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>In 2016, exploratory archaeological research was conducted in the environs of the remains of the Vilnius Upper Castle Palace, which has been also known as the Grand Ducal Palace. The purpose of the current article was to present the results of the archaeological research conducted in 2016, the analysis of which allows for a closer look at the chronology of a wooden castle building on the Gediminas Hill. This article briefly covers the previous archaeological investigations of the Gediminas Hill. Also, the prior archaeological studies related to the early inhabiting of the Hill by people are analyzed; the chronological circumstances of a wooden castle’s emergence on the Hill based on archaeological data are overviewed as well. The archaeological research of 2016 did not result in a great quantity of finds, yet the radiocarbon dating of samples was quite large in number. The present article is aiming at the publication of results of the laboratory dating of samples that was conducted in 2016 as well as at encouraging the further academic discussion on the topic of the occurrence of a wooden castle on the Gediminas Hill, based on the possibilities provided by the statistical modelling of these results.</p> Ramūnas Šmigelskas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Senieji (Old) Trakai: A Case Study of Environmental Transformation <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>Extensive works of environmental transformations were carried out in the main administrative centers of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the 13<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>–14<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;c. These processes reveal the potential of the Gediminid ruling dynasty. Development processes in the 13<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>–14<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;c. Vilnius are being researched and give essentially new data on the genesis of the capital. Nevertheless, similar works, which were carried out in the other administrative centers of the State (the historical capitals Kernavė and Trakai) are not investigated. This article seeks to present the case of the Senieji (Old) Trakai Castle and its settlement regarding the scale, character and presumable chronology of environment transformations. It seeks to systemize the previously obtained data on Senieji Trakai as well as to present the results of geophysical research, small-scale archaeological excavations and soil analysis, which were obtained in 2018.&nbsp;</p> Albinas Kuncevičius, Inga Merkytė, Justina Poškienė, Regina Prapiestienė, Rokas Vengalis, Gintautas Vėlius, Jonas Volungevičius ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Lamata Hillforts in the Context of the Cultural Landscape’s Transformations <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The subject of this study is Lamata land hillforts in the context of transformations of cultural landscape. Before starting examine the main topic of this article there will be short summary about controversies of formation and ethnical dependencies of the microregion between Šilutė–Priekulė–Švėkšna in western Lithuania which, according to some scholars, had been existing as an ethnocultural Lamata construct in the (end of 6<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>?) 7<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>–13<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;centuries. The main goal of the article is to examine the influence of the paleogeographical environment and fertile and non-fertile soils for an allocation and allocation changes of the Lamata hillforts in the 1<sup xml:lang="en-GB">st</sup>&nbsp;millenium and in the beginning of the 2<sup xml:lang="en-GB">nd</sup>&nbsp;millenium AD. Finally, there is examine the functional transformations of Lamata hillforts after 13<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century&nbsp;– the period when hillforts in Lithuania territory ceased to be used as a defensive fortifications.&nbsp;</p> Mantas Užgalis ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Wheel-turned Pottery in Yotvingian Hillforts <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The application of wheel-turned technology in pottery production and its development among the Baltic people is little studied yet. The current paper is based on the archaeological material from the Užnemunė (Southwestern Lithuania) hillforts, which were investigated by P. Kulikauskas in the 1960s, and seeks to discuss the tendencies of how wheel-turned pottery had developed during the 10<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>–14<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;c. The materials in question derive from the northeastern part of the Yotvingian areal. Here, the suggested classification system is based on the possibly chronologically sensitive features of the pottery. They are distinguished after a detailed analysis of the technological, morphological and decorative attributes of the pottery in question. The classificatory units of pottery are dated in accordance with the contextual material as much as possible as well as in accordance with any similarities or analogies found in the closest archaeological sites. The identified stages of the development of pottery suggest a gradual mode of change, an improvement of the wheel-turned technology and a change of the forms and decorations. Even though there still is a lack of reliable absolute dates for the full reconstruction of the development of wheel-turned pottery in the northeastern Yotvingian areal, it is expected that a systematic approach to the material will lead to further studies and deeper knowledge.</p> Dovilė Baltramiejūnaitė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200