Informacijos mokslai 2019-09-16T20:02:50+03:00 Zenona Atkočiūnienė Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: left;">Founded in 1994. Dedicated to publishing articles on the information and knowledge society, information and knowledge management, organizational communication management, investigations of media management, media culture, international and intercultural communication. Indexed in the Scopus database from 2018.</p> An Evaluation of the Types and Models of Controlling as the Basis for Creating an Efficient Information Provision Controlling System in a Company 2019-09-16T20:02:07+03:00 Daiva Tamulevičienė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>In order to solve issues of a company’s daily activities and predict further development directions in the current conditions of the ever-changing market environment, it is crucial for managers to have the right information at their disposal. Both the excessive information and the lack of it constitute the basis for inefficient or even disastrous decisions. Controlling is an efficient informative system that can provide managers with data needed for efficient management decisions. A properly designed controlling system can provide various information on all the areas of activity. Thus, when creating such a system, it is important to evaluate the possibilities of a controlling system, which are best revealed by a controlling system analysis and evaluation. The article analyzes the possibilities of information provided by a controlling system in terms of of evaluating controlling types and models. Such an evaluation creates possibilities to perform a cross-cut analysis of the characteristics of the provided information and define what is the content and scope of information that managers receive from a controlling system.</p> <p>The article reveals that in the context of information provision for a company, strategic and operational controlling are to be considered the most significant ones. Strategic controlling provides information on how to do the right activity, whereas operational controlling – on how an activity can be done right. The goals of a company can be achieved only through both of them. Tactical controlling is what connects strategic controlling to operational controlling; its paradigm can be expressed through two questions: 1) how to do the right activity right? 2) what should be done when a wrong activity is being done or the activity is being done wrongly? Information provision for the answers to these questions would ensure a direct relation and feedback of strategic and operational controlling. After analyzing the typologization of controlling based on its origin, it was identified that the two main schools of controlling practice exist that led to the development of two different models of controlling: the Anglo-Saxon (American) and European (German). An exemplary controlling model adapted for Lithuanian companies was prepared after comparing the American and German controlling models and evaluating them on the basis of the scope of tasks, dominant orientation, the role of the controller, and the information base. On the basis of this adapted model, an individual information provision controlling system can be created for any Lithuanian company. This article analyzes other types of controlling as well, evaluation of which is important when creating an efficient system for controlling information provision in a particular company.</p> 2019-03-29T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hidden Identity Conflict: Discourses of Heritage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Lithuanian and Belarusian Internet Media (2013–2014) 2019-09-16T20:02:03+03:00 Valius Venckūnas <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article is aimed at presenting an insight into national identities as constructed on the basis of the heritage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) in the major Lithuanian and Belarusian news sites (2013–2014). By performing content analysis, it was revealed that in the vast majority of news publications, either Lithuania or Belarus, respectively by country of publishing, was considered as the main or only successor of the GDL, although this narrative was not elaborated upon and was seen as self-explanatory. The neighboring state was rarely criticized and its narrative mostly considered as frivolous and not worthy of attention. A lack of contact, discussion and mutual explanation between the Lithuanian and Belarusian narratives in the public sphere means that a conflict between both national identities can be seen as hidden or potential.</p> 2019-03-29T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-04-08T19:24:36+03:00 Informacijos mokslai <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-07T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2019-04-08T19:24:35+03:00 Informacijos mokslai <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-07T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Renaissance of Conspiracy Theories about Brainwashing 2019-09-16T20:02:50+03:00 Gintaras Aleknonis <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The discourse of information warfare, challenges posed by adverse propaganda and political declarations about the need to protect the society from misleading information all create favorable conditions for new research on brainwashing. This article examines the new wave of studies on brainwashing, which emerged at the turn of the 21st century. An analysis of the historical context of brainwashing encourages the investigation of competitive concepts and reminds us of the negative scientific attitude toward brainwashing from the moment of its inception. The concept of brainwashing is examined as a mature conspiracy theory, which functions on three levels: the primary (or spontaneous), elite initiated (or official) and secondary (or mirror) levels. The principle aim of this article is to reveal the reasons behind the communicative vitality of brainwashing and to disclose the risks posed to democracy, which are created with the misuse of conspiracy theories and similar concepts.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Dynamic of Political Scandals in the Mediatized Lithuanian Public Sphere 2019-09-16T20:02:46+03:00 Austėja Masiokaitė-Liubinienė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The concept of mediatization, which analyzes how the dominance of media shapes political processes, is becoming continuously more relevant as a more important role is being assigned to the media in the public sphere. Despite the relevance, there are not many defined methods of analysis of political mediatization. This article presents such a method, which is designed for analyzing political scandals. This method adopts the concept of mediatization as a metatheory and uses the Veto Players theory to structure the political sphere and scandals in a way that allows for their analysis.</p> <p>A qualitative content analysis of three cases of Lithuanian political scandals, based on this method, is also presented.</p> <p>In the discussed cases, the interaction between the political and media actors appears to be very close and mutual. Not only do politicians take the initiative in asking for the political responsibility of the actors in the scandalous situations that the media reveal, but they also initiate the distribution of such information to the media, seeking the desired change of the status quo or the legitimization of their decisions. This provides means for talking about the self-mediatization of political actors.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Public Interest in Mass Media: Consumer Rights Protection Issues Raised By Individuals as a Public Interest Case in Lithuanian Online Media 2019-09-16T20:02:43+03:00 Renata Matkevičienė Marija Stonkienė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>Public good is the basis of public interest that determines the (co)existence of the community as well as the society. The media and its role in civic society play a major role in defining public interest, and it helps in manifesting this public interest to various stakeholders. Likewise, the public’s need to know of the role of the media in the presentation, consideration and representation of the public interest is extremely important.</p> <p>The relevance of public interest to a society is related to meeting the needs of a society. Changes in the functions of media from a forth power or a watchdog, to a moderator of public discussions had drawn media’s attention to the need for an inquiry of public interest and discussions about it in the media.</p> <p>The aim of this article is to determine how public interest is presented in Lithuanian online media. This article analyzes the case of presenting the protection of the rights of heat consumers – as an interest of the public – in Lithuanian online media. This article discusses the concept of public interest, the role of the media in discussing the public interest, and, when choosing a specific public interest issue, investigates how the topic of public interest is presented in Lithuanian online media.</p> <p>The case of public interest raised by the representative of the society – P. Markevičius, a lawyer and member of the Žvėrynas district community in Vilnius, was selected for the case study. The case is connected with the protection of the heat consumers’ rights, as P. Markevičius had detected potential violations of consumer rights being done by Vilnius energija (the provider of heat services in Vilnius city). All publications made during the period of 2010–2012 found using the Google search engine with the keywords “P. Markevičius” and “Vilniaus energija” were selected for the case study; qualitative and quantitative content analyses were used.</p> <p>The case study of public interest manifested in 2010–2012 in Lithuanian online media shows that the representation of the “public interest” by the representatives of the media is understood only as a way of giving space to citizens to present their views and talk about the problems relevant to them. The case leads to some consideration that the public interest in the media and by media is mostly understood as a way of supporting active citizens by inviting them to discussions and providing time for presenting their arguments, as well the position statements of experts and officials, but without any specific journalistic investigations.</p> <p>The development of civil society makes it possible to assume that the raising of issues related to public interest have also made some changes in the media – there could be seen an aspiration to raise problematic issues and promote discussions. Such monitored changes in civil society encourage the continuation of the ongoing investigation of the issue how public interest is manifested in online media – social media in particular.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Changes of Alcohol Control Law in Online Media: A Case Study 2019-09-16T20:02:39+03:00 Vaida Kalinkaitė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>Political science and mass communication studies have proven long ago that media outlets can affect public opinion. This is especially important when political choices are made. The media can determine how the public will react to changes. In our case, we delve into a potential threat of a biased public opinion (favorable to certain business subjects, politicians or others parties) being formed. This relates to the media outlets or organizations stepping over the boundaries of ethics for a chance to make a profit from certain interested individuals, organizations or companies.</p> <p>This study addresses the problem of how the changes in the legislation of alcohol control have been reflected in the Lithuanian online newspapers, and Our study object pertains to how the changes in the law of alcohol control are being reflected. The aim of this article is to examine how these changes of law have been reflected in Lithuanian media.</p> <p>A qualitative case study was conducted using content analysis. The results of the research show that the abovementioned Lithuanian online newspapers reflected a rather one-sided evaluation of the law changes. Most of the changes were reflected in a negative way; there were more negative than positive publications informing about the changes.</p> <p>Although similar tendencies have been identified in all the online newspapers, happened to stand out. There were publications that had no clear sources of information; the authors of the publications were not mentioned as well. Furthermore, there were publications criticizing not the changes themselves but certain members of the parliament. The appliance of ethical norms was deemed to be more characteristic of and</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## More of a Father, or More of an Employee? The Conditions of Working Men Raising Children in Poland 2019-09-16T20:02:34+03:00 Olga Kotowska-Wójcik Marta Luty-Michalak <p>[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The qualitative study, conducted in 2016, was divised to explore the respondents’ perceptions on balance between their roles as employees and as parents, as well as the similarities and differences between their expectations and experiences. Using data collected from semi-structured, single-person interviews with 27 fathers of young children, living in Warsaw, Poland, we identify and explore ways in which the participants construct their description of the work-life balance, especially in the perspective of family obligations.</p> <p>By analyzing the data on the work-life balance, our study makes a unique contribution to the literature by drawing attention to the circumstances of how fathers deal with everyday decisions, some living in families with partnership relations, and how it pertains to their attitudes in terms of being fathers while failing or managing the work-life balance. The moment of family life cycle (e.g. just married couple, couple with small children, couple with teenagers, etc.) particularly the experiences of fatherhood, illustrates the different narratives of respondents. Our findings show the demand for implementing more flexibility of work into the employment market, which is especially important for parents.</p> <p><strong>Summary</strong></p> <p>A qualitative research, conducted as a pilot study titled The Contemporary Father – at the Crossroads of Expectations and Reality, was conducted in Warsaw in 2017. The data analysis showed that fathers with full families (husband, wife and children) do express their willingness to participate in their family lives, and especially to spend time with their children. On the other hand, most of the respondents pointed out that their main responsibility is to provide the financial security of their families, so being active at the employment market is very important for them. Meanwhile, most of the fathers expressed satisfaction from having wives/partners that are also actively employed. Fathers face difficulties in achieving a work-life balance in their lives, as the dual model of having both a career and a family seems to be the most appropriate for them. The findings show that the respondents face the constant dilemma of having to choose where to devote their time – to the family or the workplace.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stalking and its Victims 2019-09-16T20:02:30+03:00 Ilona Michailovič <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>Stalking is a complex social phenomenon that can take on many different forms. Stalking is a vicious, subtle and devastating crime, and the victims of stalking seem to suffer long-lasting consequences. A clear relationship emerges between the functioning and dissemination of gender stereotypes and stalking as a form of gender-based violence. In this study, the way in which stalking occurs is discussed, and the defendants’ and victims’ backgrounds are taken into account. This article discusses the criminalization of stalking, the reasons for stalking being criminalized and the sanctions applied for stalking.</p> <p>This article also addresses a range of issues that expressly substantiate a need for effective measures to be taken against stalking. The prevention of stalking is certainly a long process and cannot be done without the inspiration and activity from the state police, non-governmental organizations and the collaborations of victims, which are all essential if law enforcement agents are to gather useful information and understand the exact nature of the occurrences. Hence, more research needs to be conducted in this field. Additional attention, research and training are required to better understand the most effective responses to reduce the risk of recidivism.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##