Kalbotyra 2019-03-23T20:01:17+02:00 Aurelija Usonienė Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1958. Dedicated to publishing articles on synchronic and diachronic research into various aspects of language studies as well as studies addressing cross-linguistic issues.</p> The Corpus of Lithuanian Children Language: Development and application for modern studies in language acquisition 2019-03-23T20:00:09+02:00 Ingrida Balčiūnienė Laura Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper describes The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language and its possible applications for modern studies on the first language acquisition. First of all, the procedure of data collection for the Corpus is discussed. Furthermore, the main methodological principles of longitudinal and experimental data compilation and transciption are decribed. Finally, different studies in developmental psycholinguistics which have been carried out so far and which demonstrate possible ways of the application of the Corpus data for different scientific purposes are introduced.</p> <p>The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language developed at Vytautas Magnus University comprises typical and atypical, longitudinal and experimental data of the Lithuanian language development. The Corpus was compiled using different methodological approaches, such as natural observation and semi-experiment. The longitudinal data (conversations between the target children and their caretakers) compiled according to the requirement of natural observation includes transcribed and morphologically annotated speech of two typically-developing children, one late talker, one early talker, one child from a low SES family, and a pair of twins. The data was collected during the period of 1993–2017 and and it can be divided into three cohorts. The semi-experimentaldata (~ 124 hours) comes from numerous studies in narratives and spontaneous dialogues elicited from typically-developing and language-impaired monolingual and bilingual (pre-) school age children.</p> <p>From the very beginning of data collection for the The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language, studies in the develomental changes of typical child language have been carried out. Over the past decade, these studies have been supplemented by statistical analysis of elicited semi-experimental data; the majority of these studies deal with typical vs. atypical (delayed or impaired) language acquisition and with differences between acquision of Lithuanian in a monolingual vs. bi-/polylingual settings.</p> <p>The paper provides an overview of data of The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language, which have been collected from 1993 but still needed to be structurized according to the employed methodology of data compilation and possible applications for different scientific purposes.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Verkehrsberuhigen, karrierefördern, nervenzerrütten: Zur Rolle partizipialer Objektinkorporation bei der pseudokompositionellen Verbbildung im Deutschen 2019-03-23T20:00:00+02:00 Arash Farhidnia <p>[full article and abstract in German]</p> <p>Die Wortbildung des Verbs im Deutschen beruht bekanntlich im Wesentlichen auf Präfix‑ und Partikelverben. Neben diesen existiert allerdings auch eine nicht unbeträchtliche Zahl von Verben, die als ‘Pseudokomposita’ bezeichnet werden (des Typs <em>bausparen, notlanden</em>, <em>schlussfolgern</em>, <em>schutzimpfen</em> u.a.). Diese gelten zwar, was das ihnen zugrundeliegende Wortbildungsmuster betrifft, als marginal produktiv und sind durch Konversion bzw. Rückbildung aus Substantiven entstanden und damit nominalen Ursprungs. Gleichwohl lässt sich für viele unter ihnen (z.B. <em>staubsaugen</em>, <em>verkehrsberuhigen</em>,<em> karrierefördern</em>, <em>nervenzerrütten</em> etc.) auch ein syntaktischer Ursprung konstatieren, der ebenso plausibel erscheint und unter bestimmten Bedingungen zur Bildung neuer Verben im Deutschen führen kann. Jedoch handelt es sich bei diesen Verben oft um Augenblicksbildungen, die von keinem Wörterbuch verzeichnet werden und auch in den anerkannten Belegkorpora allenfalls am Rande begegnen; dennoch sind sie, vom Sprachsystem her gesehen, möglich und bildbar. Der folgende Beitrag untersucht, wie und unter welchen Bedingungen Verben des sogenannten inkorporierenden Typs im Deutschen entstehen können. Es wird sich zeigen, dass bei dieser Art Verbbildung der Inkorporation des Akkusativobjekts durch Partizipien eine Schlüsselrolle zukommt: die so entstandenen komplexen Partizipien stellen die Ausgangsbasis für verbale Infinitive bereit und ebnen damit letztlich auch den Weg zur Verbbildung im Deutschen.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Subject case alternation in negated existential, locative, and possessive clauses in Latvian 2019-03-23T19:59:55+02:00 Andra Kalnača Ilze Lokmane <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #221e1f;">The goal of this article is to analyse the alternation between the genitive and nominative cases in Latvian. As the alternation between genitive and nominative cases is possible in all clauses in which the verb </span><em><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman CYR','serif'; color: #221e1f;">būt </span></em><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #221e1f;">‘to be’ is used as an independent verb, this article examines existential, locative, and also possessive clauses, while also demonstrating that distinguishing these clause types is problematic for Latvian utilising the criteria given in the linguistic literature. Clauses containing the negative form of </span><em><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman CYR','serif'; color: #221e1f;">būt </span></em><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #221e1f;">‘to be’, i.e. </span><em><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman CYR','serif'; color: #221e1f;">nebūt</span></em><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; color: #221e1f;">, form the foundation of those selected for this study, as only in these sentences the genitive/nominative alternation can be seen for the subject in Latvian.</span></p> <p class="Pa61" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt; text-align: justify;"><span class="A9"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">There are only fragmentary descriptions of existential clauses as a unique semantic type, primarily in connection with the function of the verb </span></span><span class="A9"><em><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman CYR','serif';">būt </span></em></span><span class="A9"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">‘to be’ and the problems associated with distinguishing its independent and auxiliary meanings. Word order in existential, locative, and possessive clauses has, until now, been examined in connection with typical clause expanders – adverbial modifiers and the dative of possession as well as the information structure of the clause. At the same time, case choice for objects in negative existential clauses has traditionally been one of the most studied themes regarding language standardisation. In order to determine which factors affect the choice of either the genitive or nominative case, a corpus study was done analysing 979 examples: 882 with a genitive subject and 97 with a nominative subject. </span></span></p> <p class="Pa61" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt; text-align: justify;"><span class="A9"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">It was found that a connection exists between the definiteness of the subject, word order, and case choice; however, this manifests only as a tendency rather than as a strict rule. </span></span></p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Endophoric definiteness: An analysis based on Romanian data 2019-03-23T19:59:48+02:00 Antanas Keturakis <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>Definiteness as a grammatical or pragmatic category is usually explained via the act of reference. In this spirit, a definite noun phrase is said to ensure that the hearer can identify the entity to which the NP refers, thus establishing a successful act of communication. The well-known typology of definiteness types developed by Hawkins (1978) relies on this assumption. However, such an explanation fails to clarify all the definite noun phrases in discourse.<br>This paper argues that the information provided in the complex nominal constituent can yield a definite interpretation of the nominal regardless of the hearer’s ability to identify the real-life referent to which the noun refers. Such types of definite noun phrases are subsumed in this article under the term “endophoric definiteness”. I will discuss two subtypes of endophoric definiteness. First, the relational definiteness, based on the notion of reference-point constructions will be discussed. Then I will turn to modificational definiteness where the use of modifiers contribute to the definite interpretation of the nominal. The article focuses on how the endophoric definiteness types function and what strategies can be used to mark them formally. To illustrate this point, I use the qualitative analysis of Romanian data. It shows that a language may have different grammatical patterns for the two subtypes of endophoric definiteness. This formal distinction in linguistic expression shows that relational and modificational definiteness types must be taken into account as contributing, in distinct ways, to the category of definiteness.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination and modification: Topology of prenominal attributes in Lithuanian 2019-03-23T19:59:41+02:00 Ringailė Trakymaitė <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper offers a description of the linear structure of the definite Lithuanian noun phrase (NP) with an emphasis on prenominal attributes. Morphological and syntactical coding of definiteness is examined through the comparison of NP structures in Lithuanian (a language with relatively ungrammaticalised marking of definiteness) and Swedish (a language with fully developed overt marking of definiteness). The special role of definite attributes, quantifiers and adjectival modifiers is shown through identifying key positions in a linear structure of the Lithuanian NP. A topology of the Lithuanian NP is then suggested reflecting the multi-layered nature of the reference-assigning process mirrored in multi-exponential marking of definiteness, with adjectival marking being a very important one. Variations in NP structures are described using Lithuanian and Swedish data focusing on the combinatorial possibilities of definite adjectival modifiers and other determiners.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Albertas Steponavičius (1934–2018) 2019-03-23T19:59:33+02:00 Artūras Ratkus <p>[text in English]</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-03-22T11:04:31+02:00 Žurnalas Kalbotyra <p>[tekstas anglų ir lietuvių kalbomis]</p> 2018-12-20T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2019-03-22T11:06:18+02:00 Žurnalas Kalbotyra <p>[text in English and Lithuanian]</p> 2018-12-20T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A corpus-driven analysis of structural types of lexical bundles in court judgments in English and their translation into Lithuanian 2019-03-23T20:01:17+02:00 Donata Berūkštienė <p>Formulaicity is one of the characteristic features of legal discourse, which manifests itself not only at the level of wording, “but also in the content, structure and layout” of legal texts (Ruusila &amp; Londroos 2016, 123). Formulaic language, which includes phrasal and prepositional verbs, idioms, collocations, lexico-grammatical associations, lexical bundles, etc., are building blocks of legal discourse shaping legal text meanings. However, up to now, far too little attention has been paid to the nature of frequently occurring “sequences of three or more words that show a statistical tendency to co-occur” (Biber &amp; Conrad 1999, 183), i.e. lexical bundles, in different genres of legal texts. Most studies in the field of lexical bundles in legal texts have only been based on one language (e.g. Jablonkai 2009; Goźdź-Roszkowski 2011; Breeze 2013), whereas translation-oriented contrastive studies on lexical bundles are lacking. In respect of the aforementioned gaps, the aim of this pilot study is to analyse structural types of lexical bundles in court judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union in English and to examine the way these structures are rendered into Lithuanian. To gain insights into the frequency and structure of lexical bundles, the present study uses the methodological guidelines of corpus linguistics. The classification of lexical bundles into structural types is based on the framework suggested by Biber et al. (1999, 2004). For the purpose of this study, a parallel corpus of court judgments was compiled comprising approximately 1 million words of original court judgments in the English language and about 8 hundred thousand words of court judgments translated into Lithuanian. Lexical bundles in this research were identified using the corpus analysis toolkit AntConc 3.4.4 (Anthony 2015). A concordance program AntPConc 1.2.0 (Anthony 2017) was employed to find Lithuanian equivalents of the most frequent lexical bundles identified in the English court judgments. The evidence from this study suggests that different structural types of lexical bundles have more or less regular equivalents in Lithuanian; however, in most cases, these equivalents tend to be shorter.</p> 2017-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Adverbs as evidentials: an English-Spanish contrastive analysis of twelve adverbs in spoken and newspaper discourse 2019-03-23T20:01:10+02:00 Marta Carretero Juana I. Marín-Arrese Julia Lavid-López <p>This paper presents a contrastive analysis of six English evidential adverbs ending in -ly with their Spanish nearest translation equivalents, in spoken and newspaper discourse. The adverbs may be associated with varying degrees of reliability: high (clearly/claramente, evidently/evidentemente, obviously/obviamente), medium (apparently/al parecer) and low (seemingly/aparentemente, supposedly/supuestamente). The analysis is based on tokens of authentic language extracted from two contemporary corpora, the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual (CREA). The qualitative analysis focuses on the evidential functions of the adverbs and on their pragmatic interactional uses; the quantitative analysis centres on the relative frequency of type of evidential functions and the clausal position of the adverbs.<br /> The results uncover a number of differences between the English adverbs and their Spanish correlates and also between the two discourse types. Practically all the adverbs are strongly specialized in expressing either indirect-inferential or indirect-reportative evidentiality. English obviously and Spanish evidentemente show a high frequency of cases of loss of evidential meaning due to pragmaticalization, specifically in spoken discourse. Regarding position, the English adverbs are more frequent in medial clausal position, while some Spanish adverbs are often found in the more prominent parenthetical position.</p> 2017-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##