Knygotyra 2019-09-17T19:51:10+03:00 Domas Kaunas Open Journal Systems <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;">Founded in 1961.&nbsp; Seeks to cover interdisciplinary research topics on book and digital media history and culture, including book history and historiography, traditional and digital publishing, research on media literacy and reading, printed and digital heritage etc. Indexed in the Scopus database from 2018.</p> Johannes Hevelius’s Selenographia Manuscript in Vilnius 2019-09-17T19:51:10+03:00 Rima Cicėnienė <p>The aim of this article is to investigate the history of the Cyrillic manuscript transcription of Selenographia (1647), which details Moon observation – the work of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth astronomer Johannes Hevelius (Jan Heweliusz, 1611–1687). The codex is relevant in two aspects: first, as an example of a late-17th century book, incorporating the characteristics of both a manuscript and a printed publication; and second – as an example of scientific&nbsp;literature in the Commonwealth. Hevelius is a well-known sciencist. The researcher is recognized as the first precise topographer of the Moon. He has composed a catalogue of 1564 stars, discovered four comets, and defined new boundaries of several constellations. In historiography, the manuscript translation of Selenographia has been known since the end of the 19th century. However, in the beginning of the 20th century, the transcript was equated to a piece owned by Tsar Feodor III Alexeyevich (1661–1682), which was present in his library in 1682. The manuscript has been studied by multiple linguists, astronomers, and museologists from various countries; however, it is still yet to receive attention from Lithuanian scientists. This article aims to clarify the currently available scientific information regarding the manuscript version of J. Hevelius’s work Selenographia, which is presently kept in the Manuscript Department of the Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences (LMAVB). This study also seeks to answer the following questions: whether the scientists of the GDL were aware of the piece and its Slavic translation, if there is a possibility that the codex may have belonged to the library of Tsar Feodor III Alexeyevich, and what are the history and the lifecycle of the codex. The object of this investigation is a manuscript codex (LMAVB RS F19–318) archived in the LMAVB. A digital copy of an exemplar archived in the Zurich ETH Library was used for comparative analysis. The history of astronomy in 17th century Europe and the GDL, as well as the placement of this work of Hevelius in that history, is shortly discussed and based on a literary analysis. This information was used to evaluate the scientific value of the manuscript codex under investigation and make conclusions regarding any possible demand for the translations of Selenographia in the GDL’s scientific environment of that time. Codicological and comparative analyses with the original print enabled to consider the circumstances of the translation and transcription of Selenographia and establish the characteristics of the manuscript codex. It was determined that the text is written in a hybrid Church Slavic language; it is written by several scribes in the Calligraphic Book Font with characteristics of the Chancellerie Font, distinctive to the cursives used in the 17th century in Kiev and Moscow. The transcription of the translation is illustrated with original copper engravings (17 of 140), hand-drawn copies of original drawings (17), and original (3) pictures. The majority of illustrations are missing, some blank gaps meant for tables are present, and several tables have been redacted completely. The contents of Selenographia were adapted to fit the environment of its purchaser: all dedications and celebratory texts dedicated to Hevelius were removed and supplementary texts were eliminated, an original preface created by the translator was added, and only an anonymous “ruler” is mentioned. The transcription of the text was intended to maintain the order of the text and illustrations as well as the exact glosses system present in the margins. All numbers and dates have been written in the Cyrillic alphabet; however a Western year numbering system was maintained, and the surnames of scientists were retained in their original Latin forms; objects named in schemes and diagrams were presented in the Latin alphabet. The coinciding fragments of an extant Selenographia translation (chapters 48, 51, 54, and 55) and texts of the codex kept in the LMAVB archives allow us to conclude that it is a translation made by S. Chizhinski during his service in Posol’skii prikaz (Moscow) in 1678–1681. Based on all the defined characteristics, as well as the unfinished appearance of the book and the variety of paper used, it may be concluded that it is a transcription meant for the diplomatic needs of Posol’skii prikaz rather than for the personal library of the Tsar.<br>Efforts to find any evidence of the discussed Selenographia translation in the history of astronomy and book history in Lithuania were unsuccessful. It was not possible to clarify the history of the function of the codex as well. Nonetheless, the history of this book focuses one’s attention to another little-studied topic in Lithuania – the connections of literature and book culture in the 17th century that bridge the GDL and the Tsardom of Russia. To sum up, it may be concluded that access to new archival sources in Russia and Lithuania and a detailed chemical analysis of materials making up the codex (the ink in particular) would affirm or deny the conclusions reached in this study.</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editions of the 1613 Map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Historiographical Aspect 2019-09-17T19:51:05+03:00 Alma Braziūnienė <p>Based on the initiative of Duke Nicolaus Christophorus Radziwill the Orphan (1549–1616), Great Marshal of Lithuania (1579–1586) and Voivode of Vilnius (1604–1616), a map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, titled Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae caeterumque regionum illi adiaciencium exacta descriptio…, was printed in 1613 in the printing house of Willem Janszoon (Blaeu), which was famous at that time for the manufacture of globes and wall maps. It was drawn by Hessel Gerritsz (Lat. Gerardus) and prepared by a team of professionals gathered by N. Ch. Radziwill. The written part of the map (which addresses the reader), separately published also in 1613, glued together from three pages, and designated to the buyers of the wall map of the GDL, was prepared by the famous GDL painter Tomasz Makowski (1575–1630). From 1613 to 1631, this map of the GDL functioned only as a wall map. When W. Blaeu began to publish atlases as well, he included the 1613 wall map of the GDL, which was pressed from four copper plates and included a narrow ornamental edging, in his atlas Appendix Theatri A.Ortelii et Atlantis G. Mercatoris. The readers of the atlas could not observe the territory of the GDL in its entirety, as it was depicted in four pages. Thus, already in another edition of the atlas that was published during the same year of 1631, the map of the GDL was changed and its copper plates were reordered: the segment depicting the lower part of the Dnieper was cut away, and the whole ornamental edging of the map was discarded. Two maps then took shape: one of the GDL’s territory, glued together from four disproportionate plates, and one depicting the lower part of the Dnieper, glued together from two plates. Such a large map of the GDL’s territory (73 × 75 cm) was collapsible and would be included in Blaeu’s atlases near a written piece on Lithuania in the editions of 1631, 1634–1649, and even in one that was published in c. 1670. This map, unconventional for usage in atlases (as it was not bound), was replaced in 1649 by another map made on the basis of the original 1613 variant by W. Blaeu’s son, Joan. This particular specimen was a smaller-scale version of the GDL’s map and was oriented toward the west, not the north. However, as Blaeu’s printing house began to include the 1613 map of the GDL in its atlases, this does not mean that it had also stopped publishing it as a wall map – the buyer could have it made in the same printing shop and purchase, for example, a wide ornamental edging as a supplement to their order (e.g., the specimen belonging to the Uppsala University Library). Only two copies of this 1613 wall map of the GDL are extant, and these can be found in the Uppsala University Library and the Herzogin Anna Amalia Library in Weimar. These specimens are unique in that they allow us to see how an authentic 1613 wall map of the GDL looks like, together with T. Makowski’s text about Lithuania, also marked by a 1613 date. Knowing the history of how the copper plates of this map were used, we may state that the Weimar copy is of earlier origin than the one housed in Uppsala (at least by one year within the 1631 period). <br>This article examines the 1613 map of the GDL from the perspective of book science – we provide an analysis of the publications devoted to the 1613 map of the GDL based on the aspect of how it was published. An all-encompassing historiographical study of the 1613 GDL map is not the goal of the present paper. By chronologically analyzing the works of Lithuanian and foreign authors in an historiographical retrospective, it is emphasized how the various authors writing about this map chose to consider its bibliographical information, how did the perspective regarding the structure of this map shift, etc. An historiographical analysis of the publications on the 1613 map of the GDL has demonstrated that the formal aspects of the map’s origins (what kind of copper plates were prepared for the wall map, of what structure was the map used by William Janszoon Blaeu in the atlases of his printing house and how exactly was it used, etc.) are important in attempting to discern how its functioning had developed over the years.</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Library of Ignace Oginski (1755–1786): A Reflection of Geneological and Religious Identity 2019-09-17T19:51:01+03:00 Arvydas Pacevičius <p>This article examines the development and the contents of the library of Ignacy Oginski, appointed elder of the Darsūniškis and Vaiguva communities; his collection of books is discussed with an emphasis on how the sense of self as well as geneological and religious identity are expressed. The library of I.Oginski is discussed within the context of the history of his family and closest relatives as well as his connections with the Bernardines of Trakai. The bibliographical and provenance analysis is founded on I. Oginski’s books, which are stored in Vilnius University Library (10 specimens); also published at the end of this paper is a list of books bestowed by I. Oginski to the Trakai Bernardine Monastery, which itself was added into the 1787 catalogue of the monastery’s library. It was determined that I. Oginski belonged to the third order of the Franciscan tertiaries and was a financial affairs trustee (i.e., a syndic, Lat. Sindicus Apostolicus) of the Trakai Bernardine Monastery, which he, together with his mother Antonina Oginska, had amply sponsored and to which he bequeathed upon death a sum of 7 thousand Lithuanian Zloty. I. Oginski bestowed his personal library, which consisted of 201 volume, to the Bernardines on March 29, 1786 based on a testament written in Kruonis. It contained not only the more traditional printed materials but also some sheet music characteristic of courtly culture, ledgers, and silva rerum manuscripts. Noteworthy is the prayer “On the Appeal for a Fulfilling Life” (Pol. O uproszenie stanu życia przyzwoitego), handwritten by I. Oginski himself. A large part of the library consisted of ascetic lectures, spiritual exercises, and sermons typical of the Bernardine monks, but the collection was not limited in this aspect, as it also had some secular French works from the Enlightenment period and textbooks printed by the publishing house of the Vilnius Piarists. The considerable number of historical works and books containing dedications with references to the merits of the Oginskis to the state and the Church shows that I. Oginski was particularly attentive of his family history. Generally, the library demonstrates quite clearly a promotional-religious aspect of I. Oginski’s genealogical sense of self and identity. And here, too, the ascetic literature supplements the data from other sources regarding I. Oginski’s piety and his belonging to the tertiary community. The carried out study of I. Oginski’s identity and his personal library’s development and the relevant associations confirms the available possibilities of using the approaches and methodologies of cultural anthropology and social communication in book science studies.</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Wroblewski Library History: Case of the Purchase of the Plater’s Pustynia Estate Book Collection 2019-09-17T19:50:56+03:00 Daiva Narbutienė <p>The founder of the Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Tadeusz Stanisław Wróblewski (1858–1925), began to enrich the library of his parents, which he inherited in 1891, through his acquisitions of books, manuscripts, periodicals, collections of iconographic documents, and other valuables. One of such book collections, offered to him for sale in 1907, was from the Pustynia Estate located near the town of Kraslava, then part of the Vitebsk Province (Kraslava now is a municipality center in the Republic of Latvia, situated not far from Daugavpils and near the border with the Russian Federation). This collection belonged to Count Henryk de Broel-Plater (1868–after 1926). Having studied its catalogue, Wroblewski purchased from the count his entire collection (over 6000 volumes) on October 30, 1907, for 2.5 thousand roubles. However, Plater had hid several hundred of his most valuable books, which he later offered to <br>Hieronym Wilder’s antique bookshop in Warsaw. Wroblewski had to exercise a considerable effort to reclaim the books he rightly owned. Based both on archival materials kept in the Wroblewski Library of LAS and on evidence collected about publications carrying the Pustynia Estate pro­venance mark (350 copies have been identified so far), the article discusses the circumstances of the purchase of Plater’s book collection and overviews its content and development. <br>The Pustynia estate library was rather universal by its content and contained extremely valuable editions. Wroblewski purchased from the count, among other rarities, Joannes Radvanus’s Radivilias (Vilnae, Metropoli Litvanorum: ex officina Ioannis Kartzani, 1592), a Latin biography by the Lutheran pastor Paul Oderborn Ioannis Basilidis magni Moscoviae ducis vita (Witebergae: excudebat haeredes Ioannis Cratonis, 1585), and a treatise on the differences between the Catholic and the Orthodox faiths by the Kraków canon Jan Sakran, Elucidarius errorum ritus Ruthenici (Cracoviae: typis Joannis Haller, post V 1501). There are no more copies of these and several other Plater’ s books in Lithuania.</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Books in Riga Sent by Martin Ludwig Rhesa to Abraham Jakob Penzel 2019-09-17T19:50:51+03:00 Ernesta Kazakėnaitė <p>Martin Ludwig Rhesa sent Lithuanian books to Abraham Jakob Penzel in Jena twice: in May 1818 and in the spring of 1819. Although this is a well-known fact, there is a lack of knowledge concerning which and how many books were in those two packages. Rhesa himself, in a letter to Scheffner dated April 1819, mentioned the following three books from the second package:Martin Ludwig Rhesa sent Lithuanian books to Abraham Jakob Penzel in Jena twice: in May 1818 and in the spring of 1819. Although this is a well-known fact, there is a lack of knowledge concerning which and how many books were in those two packages. Rhesa himself, in a letter to Scheffner dated April 1819, mentioned the following three books from the second package:1) A new edition of the Lithuanian Bible published by Rhesa (1816);2) Gottfried Ostermeyer’s Erste Littauische Liedergeschichte (1793);3) Gotthard Friedrich Stender’s Neue vollständigere Lettische Grammatik, Nebst einem hinlänglichen Lexico.But it is a mere drop in the ocean, as it is known that Rhesa not only bought books for this occasion, but also added 12 books from his own book collection, and a bundle from Ostermeyer.We also know little about the content of the first package sent to Penzel in May 1819. There are few books in the Latvian Academic Library that have inscriptions with the name Penzel in them. As it is clear from the published copies of the inscriptions (see pictures in this paper), in all of those, Rhesa is mentioned as a sender – all except for one book without any coherent record, which this paper concludes is also one of the books sent by Rhesa. This paper concludes that the following is the list of the books from 1818 (the first three in the list were noticed years ago by Tumelis and Jovaišas):</p> <p>1) May 29, 1818 Christian Daniel Hassenstein Nuſidawimai βwento Karawimo (1814) (LU AB sign: D6 5813);<br>2) May 31, 1818 Nathaniel Friedrich Ostermeyer Graudenimo balsas (1818) (LU AB sign: D6 5787);<br>3) June 1, 1818 Nathaniel Friedrich Ostermeyer Nedel=Dienos knygeles, krikſʒ́ćʒoniems ſuraβytos (1818), (LU AB sign: D6 5517);<br>4) June 2, 1818 Adam Friedrich Schimmelpfennig Iß naujo pérveiʒdėtos ir pagérintos giesmiû=Knygos (1791), kartu su Danielio Kleino Naujos labbay priwalingos ir Dußoms naudingos Maldû Knygélos (LU AB sign: D6 5515);<br>5) (without a provenance of Penzel himself) Christian Daniel Hassenstein Kaip krikßcʒonißzka Wiera bey Baznycʒia, Ʒmonû pagadinta (1818) (LU AB sign: D6 5518);<br>6) (supposedly) Christian Donaleitis Das Jahr in Vier Gesängen: Ein Ländliches Epos (1818).</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Contacts of Martin Ludwig Rhesa with Lithuanian Song Collectors Working in the Country 2019-09-17T19:50:46+03:00 Liucija Citavičiūtė <p>The personal archive of Martin Ludwig Rhesa (1776–1840), who had gathered and prepared the first known collection of Lithuanian songs, contains the letters of two of Rhesa’s respondents from the country – of Enrikas Budrius (1783–1852), teacher of the Brėdausių estate school, and of Wilhelm Ernst Beerbohm (1786–1865), chief inspector of littoral fishing. The archive itself was taken to Königsberg after the Second World War and is today stored in the Manuscript Department of the Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. Budrius wrote his letters during 1818–1827 and contained in them songs that he had heard in the Pilupėnų area. He was one of the contributors who had captured the melodies of the songs, which he would hear performed during Lithuanian feasts or other types of gatherings. Budrius has sent more than 20 songs, yet only one – Žvirblytis – was eventually included in the printed collection; Rhesa himself gave a copy to Budrius. The letters contain discussions on Lithuanian songs and their melodies; we see some talks regarding a project to write the Lithuanian history using the Lithuanian language, and there are some personal motives present in the letter as well. Beerbohm, the other respondent, corresponded with Rhesa during the former’s last years, during 1835–1839; these two men were from the same region and had met several times in Königsberg. Beerbohm’s letters contain ample supplementary content – songs and regional vocabularies, fishermen phraseology, Lithuanian names of littoral plants and sea fish, etc. The drawings and schemes of vytinė trading boats and ice fishing, complemented with Lithuanian terms, are the first Lithuanian visual and explanatory dictionaries. Some of these words are not included in any of the Lithuanian dictionaries – not now, and not even then. Each of the respondents have authored a poem dedicated to Rhesa. Budrius wrote his poem in Lithuanian. Four Beerbohm’s letters and three written by Budrius are extant. Judging by the circumstances referred to in the letters, it is possible to state that Rhesa wrote at least four or five letters to these individuals.</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lithuanian and Lithuanistic Publications Released in Europe that Appear in the Press of USA Lithuanians (until 1904) 2019-09-17T19:50:41+03:00 Remigijus Misiūnas <p>The Lithuanian national movement of the 19th c. had mostly manifested itself in the literature, which, under the Lithuanian press ban, was being published both in East Prussia and in Lithuanian communities in the United States, and which was being distributed likewise in Lithuania, East Prussia, and the United States. That same time period saw the forming of a new system designed to inform readers of new releases, which was utilized to help any members of&nbsp;the Lithuanian diaspora to keep updated on the newest literature affairs. This system had encompassed the press of both East Prussia and the United States, and it would inform the readers of the newest publications both from the location of where the newspaper was being released and about the new books and periodicals that were being published in foreign countries; thus, it had created a reflection of Lithuanian literature as a whole. The aim of this article is to analyze the circumstances surrounding the informing of readers about the newest publications as it had occurred in the American Lithuanian press up to 1904; main focus is paid here to the information regarding Lithuanian and Lithuanistic publications released in East Prussia and elsewhere in Europe. The basis of this study is a list of 322 Lithuanian and Lithuanistic publications released in Europe; the list itself took shape after overviewing 11 Lithuanian newspapers published in the United States. The 322 publications had been distributed in Lithuanian communities in the United States and were announced by the local Lithuanian press.<br>This study has showed that the first announcements about the new books appeared in the US Lithuanian press in the late 1890s, and in the early 20th c., designated columns for publishing news became an ordinary practice. Unfortunately, a lack of authors capable of writing critical reviews of the new publications forced the émigré press to be content with mostly annotations and very laconic commentaries about the pros and cons of new publications. The fact that announcements were made about books (mostly publications released in Europe) that were not part of the American salespeople’s repertoire allows us to believe that the editorial boards of the newspapers behaved thus acting upon the informational mission of their newspapers, their societal role, and in seeking to support the national movement and the dissemination of its ideas as well as the mission of its consolidation. <br>In evaluating the repertoire of the introduced publications, we may speak not only of the dissemination of information on these works but also of a particular perspective that the editorial boards of these periodicals had and which was based on a particular set of values. Attention is paid to Lithuanian literature, its growth and place in the society of that time, and how it matches the needs of the readers. The introduced literature repertoire was dominated by secular works that had reflected the growth of Lithuanian literature and answered the demands of education. The books were oftentimes evaluated first and foremost based on the aspect of how much practical information could they provide – this had to do with the restricted possibilities of Lithuanian education; for example, the amount of information these works could give on the topics of farming, medicine, craftsmanship, and the natural sciences was an important aspect. With time, more attention began to be paid to societal-political literature, which was associated to the dissemination of the ideologies of those times, and Lithuanistic works written by foreign (not Lithuanian) authors. The works were also increasingly evaluated based on the political views of the editorial boards, which had also determined the fact that the readers were urged to buy some books while others were introduced as no good.&nbsp;<br>Yet at the same time it may be observed that attention was being paid to publishing culture, the linguistic aspects especially, prompted by the changes that were happening in written Lithuanian. Attempts were made to limit the distribution of books that had not met the standards of the written languages; however, owing to the poorness of literature, the practical value of the book was of the most importance. The perspective regarding the importance of some books can also be seen based on how many newspapers had referenced those books in their news and how well were these works met. <br>In understanding that the system designed to inform the readership of the books did not meet the standards of even its contemporaries, it must still be said that during those times, a tradition had taken shape to introduce publishing news in the periodicals. This tradition was developed and perfected during later times, but its proper evaluation would require the continuation of its study.</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Publishing of International Multilingual Lithuanian Periodicals (1904–1940) 2019-09-17T19:50:36+03:00 Tomas Petreikis <p>During 1904–1940, a total of 26 periodicals were published in Lithuania and in foreign countries in which the Lithuanian language was used alongside others. The demand for multilingual periodicals had emerged during the first part of the 20th c. as new cultural, economic, and political conditions took shape in Eastern and Central Europe. For the governments and businesses of Lithuania, Germany, Latvia, and Poland, the development of economic relations was of the biggest importance, and this process was to be stimulated using the multilingual publications that were being released in these countries. Also, particular importance was granted to the political cooperation of the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). Cultural relations, on the other hand, were less expressed in the multilingual periodicals and not characterized by commercial success. For propaganda purposes, a considerable number of multilingual publications were released by Germany during the First World War. Apart from Lithuanian, these multilingual publications were marked by the use of German, English, Polish, French, Latvian, and Russian languages; among the rarer instances were Belarusian, Yiddish, and Estonian texts. The emergence of multilingual periodicals and the presence of the Lithuanian language in these publications reflected the international recognition of the Lithuanian nation and its state. It represented an understanding of multiculturalism and peculiar needs within the society and resembled the dialogue occurring across the political, economic, and cultural dimensions.</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Authorship Guestion of The Yotvingian Book 2019-09-17T19:50:31+03:00 Rolandas Kregždys <p>In this article, one of the most important sources of Baltic mythology of the 16th century – The Yotvingian Book – is analyzed: the possible circumstances of its creation, purpose, dating, and the problems of authorship are described.<br>The written source, also called by its original title Der vnglaubigen // Sudauen ihrer bockheiligung mit sambt andern Ceremonien, so sie tzu brauchen gepflegeth, is a conventional, probably the most exhaustive, and the most important description of the ethnocultural tradition of the tribe that spoke Yotvingian, one of the two languages of Western Balts, recorded during the Reformation period. It is based on the source of information disseminated in several variants of manuscripts, and later in small printed books (reprints).<br>The Yotvingian Book has been repeatedly discussed by many art workers of different epochs and branches of science. The dating and its possible authorship were differently interpreted. The most valuable analysis was carried out by W. Mannhardt. It was very essentially supplemented by the Lithuanian scientist I. Lukšaitė. Based on the hypotheses advanced by her, it is possible, and necessary, to once again reconsider the known facts, the actual material, and the structural typology of the source. Therefore, the purpose of this article was a study of the above issues.<br>In this article, the question of the meaning of the latent acrostics is addressed anew. They are found in the Bible, in extrabiblical sources, and in ancient Eastern literature. There are various explanations for the phenomenon, and in each case, the function of the acrostic should be determined through a comprehensive analysis of the composition itself.<br>It is highly believable that the author of The Yotvingian Book concealed the latent message. It is to be assumed that his personal name of Semitic origin is encoded in the catalogue of theonyms of The Yotvingian Book. The name is composed using the numerological system of Gematria in accordance with the alphanumeric code of M.-Hebr. mispār heḵǝraẖi combining it with the AvGag alphabetic sequences (i.e., partly replacing each letter with the next one): Ishmǝrai Sābā bēn Āḏām, i.e., Ishmerai Saba, Adam’s son. The surname M.-Hebr. Sābā (“an old man; a man with grey hair”) is a synonym to the G. Graumann “ditto” and Gr. Πολιανδρος “ditto.” These surnames indicate the author of The Yotvingian Book – Johannes Poliander, or Johann Graumann. He was a German pastor, theologian, teacher, humanist, reformer, and Lutheran leader.<br>Based on the results of the analysis (cf. the list of theonyms of The Yotvingian Book which presupposes a reconstruction of the demonological order of the mythonyms), it is possible to make the statement that The Yotvingian Book should not be regarded as a material of the Episcopal inspection (therefore, it should not be related with Agenda Ecclesiastica or its authors) or an odd fragment of a more extensive source written adhering to the stylistics of the Renaissance, but as an example of a juristic document. Therefore, it cannot be characterized as an authentic source of the religious practices and beliefs of Western Balts.</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Books and Society in Latvia up to 1945 2019-09-17T19:50:27+03:00 Marija Prokopčik <p>Grāmata un sabiedrība Latvijā līdz 1945. gadam: rakstu krājums. Latvijas Nacionālā bibliotēka; Galvenais redaktors Andris Vilks; atbildīgā redaktore Sanita Briežkalne. Rīga: Latvijas Nacionālā bibliotēka, 2019. 367&nbsp;p.: diagramma, faksimili, ilustrācijas, portreti, shēmas.&nbsp;ISSN 1691-5941. (Zinātniskie raksti, 4 (XXIV)</p> 2019-07-09T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##