Criminological Studies <p>Founded in 2014. Dedicated to publishing articles in criminology.</p> lt-LT <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> (Laima Žilinskienė) (Vigintas Stancelis) Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Political Violence: A Typology <p>[full article, abstract in English; only abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <div> <p>This paper offers a typology of different forms of political violence, linking them in a continuum and in an interdependent field of forces. The forms identified are systemic violence, institutional violence, group violence, armed struggle, terrorism and war. In the final section, after discussing how these types of violence influence one another, a strategy is suggested for their simultaneous reduction.</p> </div> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vincenzo Ruggiero ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of personality characteristics of Lithuanian inmates using the MMPI-2 <p>[only abstract in English; full article and abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <div> <p>The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) is the most widely used self-report test used for screening of personality and psychopathology in a variety settings including forensic setting. The research in various populations of offenders confirms them possessing characteristics such as antisocial, lacking of impulse control, irresponsible, etc., and these characteristics are captured by the MMPI-2 scales. The goal of this study was to evaluate personality characteristics of incarcerated male and female offenders with the MMPI-2 and to analyse the results in light of results from other offender population studies. The finding of current study shows that the MMPI-2 characteristics of Lithuanian incarcerated offenders generally appear to be similar to those obtained in other cultural environments. Incarcerated offenders were best defined by higher Psychopathic Deviate (Pd), Paranoia (Pa), Antisocial Behavior (RC4), Ideas of Persecution (RC6), Discontraint (DISC), Overcontrolled Hostility (O-H), MacAndrew Alcoholism Revised (MAC-R) scales scores and lower scores of Ego Strength (Es) and Sociala Responsibility (Re) scales. This study has confirmed the results of earlier research and justified the MMPI-2 application for psychological assessment in Lithuanian offenders’ sample.</p> </div> Alfredas Laurinavičius, Ilona Laurinaitytė, Laura Ustinavičiūtė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Mediation in Lithuanian Criminal Jurisprudence <p>[only abstract in English; full article and abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The article discusses mediation in Lithuanian criminal and administrative infringement cases. The challenges of mediation are discussed from the perspective of both the first instance judge and leading scholar in the field of mediation in Lithuania. The article analyzes the practical issues of mediation, questions the legal status of mediation in Lithuanian criminal jurisprudence and shows a good practice of mediation in criminal and administrative infringement cases.<br>Mediation is not the court and does not substitute the court; the final decision is made by the court. Mediation could allow both parties to reach an agreement. However, the victim and the culprit do not always reach for an agreement. It is a beneficial practice in both ways. With the help of a mediator, parties learn how to discuss and hear the other side. It aids in coexisting in non-conflict ways in the future.&nbsp;<br>Foreign experience reveals the most important doubts in the process of mediation that both the victim and the culprit face. The society lacks information on mediation. A high priority should be given for increasing the awareness of the benefits of mediation. Judges represent an authoritative power of the state and should use it in the reconciliation of conflicting parties.<br>Lithuanian criminal justice lacks legislation in the field of mediation; however, mediation is de facto possible if the judge is active. Also, mediators who work at the institutions of probation help to legitimize the institute of mediation.</p> Mantas Liesis, Ilona Michailovič ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Changes of Juveniles’ Cognitive Distortions, Social Skills and Problem Behavior Due to the Implementation of EQUIP Program at Lithuanian Children Socialization Centers <div> <p>[only abstract in English; full article and abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>There has been some great public concern regarding the provision of effective services for delinquent juveniles in order to decrease their untoward behavior and enable them to build further lives without any harm to either themselves or the others. The first results of the effectiveness research of cognitive-behavioral correctional program EQUIP, conducted in United States, where the program was first devised, have shown a great impact of the EQUIP program toward the decrease of delinquent behavior. However, the findings of further investigations in other countries remain controversial.<br>The aim of this study was to measure the impact of the EQUIP program toward the changes of juveniles’ cognitive distortions, social skills and problem behavior at Lithuanian Children Socialization Centers. Quantitative research was conducted to compare the data of the EQUIP and comparison groups before and after the implementation of the EQUIP program. The study involved 124 juveniles (74 males and 50 females) aged 11-17 years. Assuming that the integrity of a correctional program might affect the results of the program’s impact, the following basic components of program integrity (Helmond et al., 2014) where secured while implementing the EQUIP program in Lithuania: 1) Exposure; 2) Adherence; 3) Participant responsiveness; 4) Quality of implementation.<br>The results of the study revealed significant differences of thinking errors, social skills and problem behavior before and after the participation in the EQUIP program, while differences in the abovementioned variables within the comparison group were either absent or insignificant. Based on the results of the study, the intensity of the EQUIP program implementation (5 times per week vs. 4 or less times per week) is an important provision for the increase of the effectiveness of the EQUIP program. Moreover, the age of participants (above 14 years old) is a very important factor to safeguard the changes in cognitive and behavioral variables.<br>It is recommended that further studies on the impact of the EQUIP program are focused on the evaluation of changes of criminal recidivism rates in a long-term perspective as well as criminal attitudes. Moreover, the participation in the EQUIP program should be related to the level of criminal risk, whenever the measure of it is available in Lithuania.</p> </div> Virginija Klimukienė, Vaida Kalpokienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Some Considerations of Restorative Justice Before and Outside of Contemporary Western States <p>[full article, abstract in English; only abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>This article provides an overview of the main themes and controversies in&nbsp;the restorative justice discussions in Europe and the US with special attention to the&nbsp;role of victims and mediators. This discussion is contextualized through a short description&nbsp;of the history of both state-centered and community-oriented restorative&nbsp;systems in response to law violation. Indigenous and pre-state formation responses&nbsp;to crime have predominantly been of a restorative nature with an interest in healing&nbsp;the harm experienced by all participants, aimed at addressing social problems and&nbsp;strengthening the community as a whole.</p> Annette Kuhlmann, Helmut Kury ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Mediation in Germany and Other Western Countries <p>Empirical studies over the past decades have repeatedly shown the limited usefulness of harsh punishment in reducing crime. In response to these research results, historical approaches to crime reduction, such as mediation and restorative justice, have regained prominence, especially in Germany and other western European countries. The women’s movement and the growing role of victimology have contributed to the increased use of these methods as alternatives to incarceration. The debates across these countries vary depending on the historical background of the penal climate in these states, which particularly explains the differences between Eastern and Western European countries in this regard. Empirical studies show the positive impact of mediation on offenders as well as victims. Yet in spite of these results, in most countries, including Germany, the use of mediation remains limited, especially in regard to adult offenders. At the same time, the uses of mediation in non-criminal conflict settings, such as schools, family or work disputes have increased significantly with positive results.</p> HELMUT KURY, ANNETTE KUHLMANN ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 How to Improve the Productivity of Crime Statistics <p><strong>Problem.</strong> Police statistics are the most comprehensive continuous database on crime in most industrialized countries. They also form an important source for quantitative criminological research. They are produced primarily for administrative use and their definitions are closely connected with national legal systems. Because of this, they comprise only a selected and biased part of crime and their comparability across jurisdictions is usually poor. This also applies to their comparability with other information sources of crime, including victimization surveys.<br /><strong>Aim.</strong> In this article, we demonstrate that by including a few basic descriptive variables (referring to the main characteristics of each criminal case) in the existing police data collecting systems, we can hugely improve their information value and their comparability.<br /><strong>Method.</strong> We have used empirical data from Finland as an example. We have coded a randomized data sample of the assault offences reported to the police in 2005 by using two descriptive variables, proposed by the Expert Group on Violence, appointed by the Finnish National Council for Crime Prevention. After that, we have compared the results with those of the 2006 National Victimization Survey that referred to the same period and used similar descriptive variables.<br /><strong>Results.</strong> Even using just the fe additional variables, the comparison of the two data sources gave amply new information of the measured characteristics, and in the process of both data sources. Some of the results were expected; for example, the comparison showed that violence recorded in police statistics was in terms of the injuries for men and women on average clearly more serious than the violence captured by the victimization survey. Similarly, partner violence by men had clearly been recorded in the police data more completely than partner violence by women. Some were, however, unexpected: according to our findings, for example, partner violence in private locations had the highest recording rate of the types of violence against women.<br /><strong>Conclusions.</strong> We are proposing that national statistics authorities adopt a simple improvement that increases the usefulness of their police crime data. The only requirements are that the database is electronic and that it records crime as individual events. The improvement is done by adding a small number or descriptive variables to the already existing variables. The descriptive variables should be about the parties involved in the offence, their relationship, and some concrete circumstances of the crime. This proposal does not require a complex reorganization of the existing information systems of police forces. The reform would only mean that a few new standard variables are introduced. Most of the required information is already known to the police, it is just not coded by using standard codes.<br />This reform would greatly improve the usefulness of the police crime data for purposes of crime analysis. It would also allow much better interpretations of crime trends and of regional crime differences. A further advantage of this reform would be that police-recorded crime and victimization survey data become directly comparable if they contain identical variables that describe the crime events. Our approach is not restricted by criminal codes, since we are not suggesting any changes to the recording principles currently applied. We are only suggesting additional variables. We emphasize that our proposal is much simpler and much more easily introduced than the one being currently recommended by the United Nations (International Classification of Crime 2015).</p> KAUKO AROMAA, MARTTI LEHTI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 The Provisions of Crime Prevention Programs in Lithuania: Between Absurdity and Quality <p>The idea of crime prevention is very simple. However, the reality of its effectiveness and the real possibilities of changing something significant within the society are much more complicated. The quality of different crime prevention programs depends on the competence and true purposes of their creators. Criminological knowledge is very important for the development and evaluation of crime prevention measures. There are a lot of crime prevention programs in Lithuania, designed for different fields of criminal behavior. Two latest programs were adopted by the Parliament of Lithuania in 2015 and are very different in their quality: The National Anti-Corruption Program 2015-2025 of the Republic of Lithuania and The National Program of Public Security Development 2015-2025 of the Republic of Lithuania. The article deals with the theoretical backgrounds of crime prevention, the criteria of their effectiveness and the ideological context.</p> GINTAUTAS SAKALAUSKAS ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 The Roots of “Penal Populism”: the Role of Media and Politics <p>Penal populism is often labeled as a process whereby politicians devise punitive penal policies, which are adjudged to be “popular” within the general public, and are designed to mobilize votes rather than improve the crime and justice situation. A “tough on crime” policy stance is usually most manifest during election campaigns. [...]</p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p> MARGARITA DOBRYNINA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Delinquent Behavior and Gender Differences: a Verification of Situational Action Theory (According to the Results of an International Study on Delinquency, Attitudes and Victimization (ISRD-3)) <p>Over the years, many studies were done in order to analyze gender differences in delinquent behavior. Most often delinquent and criminal behavior is understood as a male problem. Therefore, two fundamental questions are raised in the context of studies on gender differences in delinquency and crime: why are women/girls less involved in offending (and, at the same time, why do men/boys are more likely to commit offences) and whether their delinquent and criminal behavior could be explained by the same reasons. This article investigates to what extent a recent perspective in criminology, the Situational Action Theory, is valid for both boys and girls and to what extent do elements from this theory explain gender differences in delinquency in Lithuania. The verification of the Situational Action Theory was based on the results of the Third International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-3).<br />ISRD-3 in Lithuania was carried out in five cities (Vilnius, Šiauliai, Kretinga, Plungė and Telšiai). 2 824 pupils from 7th, 8th and 9th grades were surveyed. They represent the following age groups: 12-13, 13-14 and 14-15. 128 questionnaires were found not suitable for analysis. 49 percent (1 320) of all respondents were girls and 51 percent were boys (1 376). First, correlations between the elements of the Situational Action Theory – morality, self-control, unsupervised peer activity, rule-breaking peers, bonds with parents, parental monitoring, a bond with school – and delinquent behavior were counted. Second, a regression analysis was conducted.<br />The results of the investigation revealed the fact that not all the assumptions of the Situational Action Theory could be confirmed. What is more, gender differences in delinquent behavior could be explained by different elements of the Situational Action Theory. Two elements (rule-breaking peers and morality) are consistent with the Situational Action Theory and could explain the delinquent behavior of both boys and girls. Self-control is more relevant in predicting the delinquent behavior of boys, whereas bonds with parents and parental monitoring are important predictors of delinquency among girls. Unsupervised peer activity and a bond with school could not be related to the delinquent behavior of both boys and girls. Therefore, only separate elements mentioned in the Situational Action Theory were related to delinquency and to the gender gap in delinquency.</p> SVETLANA JUSTICKAJA, RENATA GIEDRYTĖ-MAČIULIENĖ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300