Literatūra <p>Founded in 1958. Dedicated to publishing articles on Lithuanian and World literature as well as studies concerned with the Classics and cultural studies.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press lt-LT Literatūra 0258-0802 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> Vigintas Stancelis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-06 2019-02-06 60 4 1 5 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data <p>[text in English and Lithuanian]</p> Vigintas Stancelis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-06 2019-02-06 60 4 47 56 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> Vigintas Stancelis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 60 4 1 5 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data <p>[tekstas lietuvių kalba]</p> Vigintas Stancelis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 60 4 92 100 Bella Plus Quam Ciuilia: The Dismantlement of Traditions and the Destruction of Romanitas in Lucan’s Pharsalia <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article analyzes Lucan’s epic poem Pharsalia, which acquired the title of an “anti-epic” because of its very open rebellion against the genre traditions. This rebellion here is interpreted as an intentional means of expression, consciously chosen in service of the ideological message of the poem. The construction of the message relies largely on the distortion of the traditional motives of the epic genre – mostly in reference to the Vergilian model, which had become a default framework for all Roman epics written after it. Vergil’s Aeneid was employed by the Augustan imperial propaganda as a means of emphasizing the connection of the current government to the Roman past and the idea of rehabilitating the mores maiorum after the failure of the late Republic and the unrest of the civil wars. The Pharsalia, on the other hand, being written under (and, as this article argues, in opposition to) the Neronian government, is a reflection of attitudes shared by the Roman upper classes regarding the failure of the newly established empire. Thus, the author, by employing the tropes of the Vergilian model (but distorting them) and giving his audience the inverted version of these traditional elements (while still staying within the traditional framework), is able to underline the ideological conflict he has with the Augustan pro-imperial propaganda. This article examines two traditional epic tropes: one of the virtuous war and one of the individual virtus on the battlefield. The Vergilian virtuous war turns into a suicidal gesture of the main protagonist – the Roman people. This shows a certain distortion of the Republican understanding of romanitas (the Roman people and the Roman state as a unified organism), later undermined by the individualism of the imperial regime. We also see how the individual virtus (which was a large component of romanitas, too) becomes a grotesque and distorted version of itself. The concept of military loyalty and sacrifice for the collective good turns into a tragic furor and blind allegiance to a power-hungry individual. Thus, the state and the collective good are being sacrificed for the individual good in both cases. This is, for Lucan, the root of the sociopolitical issues of his time – the moral degradation and the erasure of traditional Roman values not just in the government, but also in the Roman society as a whole. This sentiment, it is argued, could reflect the overall rejection of the imperial romanitas and a tendency of returning to the traditional Republican concepts in the Roman society of the time, which is to be understood as a reaction to the political and sociocultural state of Rome under Nero.</p> Ana Marija Mackevič ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 60 4 7 19 10.15388/10.15388/Literatura.2018.1 Xenophon’s political philosophy: a project for the whole of Greece <p>[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>This paper discusses Xenophon’s political philosophy and its Greek context. One of the major themes running through Xenophon’s works is leadership, which he tackles implicitly or explicitly in virtually all of his writings (be it his philosophical, historical or literary writings). For Xenophon, the leader was important not only as an individual leading the armed forces, but as a leader of a city or a community as well. Bearing in mind the importance of leadership and the role of leaders for Xenophon, the author of this paper tries to show that Xenophon’s political philosophy can be seen as part of his Panhellenic program. The aim of this program is to politically unite the Greeks by making them enter into an alliance in the name of a common Panhellenic crusade against Persia.</p> Alius Jaskelevičius ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 60 4 20 26 10.15388/Literatura.2018.2 Paradoxical Characters in Plato’s Symposium <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article discusses the identity of Glaucon as portrayed in Plato’s Symposium and the portrayal of Apollodorus in the dialogue. The author argues that Glaucon is to be considered in the Symposium the same person as the Glaucon portrayed in The Republic (Plato’s brother). This argument is based on the intertexutal link to Rep.V 474d–476d. Apollodorus, the main narrator of the Symposium, is depicted as a follower of the proto-cynic Antisthenes. It is suggested that Apolodorus’s character is written as a literary substitute for Antisthenes.</p> Vytautas Ališauskas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 60 4 27 34 10.15388/Literatura.2018.3 Apuleius’s De Deo Socratis: A Translation and Commentary <p>[text in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This publication consists of the first published Lithuanian translation of Apuleius’s De deo Socratis, accompanied with a comprehensive commentary. Apuleius’s De deo Socratis examines the subject of daemons, which was very popular in the thought of Middle Platonism. In his treatise, Apuleius not only presents a general theory of daemons but gives authorial insights into the theme as well. Apuleius emphasizes the cosmological and theological aspects of the theory of daemons and their importance for practical behavior.</p> Alius Jaskelevičius ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 60 4 35 71 10.15388/Literatura.2018.4 Ieškant tobulos malonumo ir protingumo mišinio formulės: apie lietuviškąjį Platono „filebo“ vertimą <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> Naglis Kardelis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 60 4 72 77 10.15388/Literatura.2018.5 „Ikisokratikai“ XXI amžiaus skaitytojui <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> Mantas Adomėnas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 60 4 78 91 10.15388/Literatura.2018.6