Vilnius University Open Series <p>Established in 2019, this journal contains various selected articles in series.</p> en-US (Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press) (Vigintas Stancelis) Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Introductory remarks <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> Gintarė Judžentytė-Šinkūnienė, Vilma Zubaitienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Parallels in translating Old Baltic Enchiridions: forms of the rage (Germ . ʒu f luchen bewegt ) <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to investigate how the expression <em>ʒu fluchen&nbsp;bewegt</em> (in the context: <em>[Ich...] habe ſie erʒrnet und ʒu f luchen bewegt)</em>,&nbsp;found in the chapter on Confession in the Small Catechism by M. Luther,&nbsp;was rendered in the Old Prussian, Old Lithuanian and Old Latvian&nbsp;translations.<br>The usage and semantics of this expression, as well as the different&nbsp;strategies employed by translators in each language for its respective&nbsp;translation, are studied in a contrastive way and by means of the hermeneutic&nbsp;method.<br>Abel Will’s work was probably exposed to different impulses, among&nbsp;them literality and iconism. His translation process could be influenced&nbsp;both by the phonetic and semantic vicinity between the German <em>Woge,&nbsp;bewegen</em> and <em>bewegt ~ bewogen</em>. Contrastive examples in other languages&nbsp;are also given. According to the author, in the case of the OPr. word&nbsp;<em>pobanginnos</em>, A. Will created a <em>Lehnschöpfung</em>, a fact that reveals a subtle&nbsp;interference with the German language.</p> Pietro Umberto Dini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 On the Balto- Slavic term for “hand ” <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper focuses on the common Balto-Slavic term for “hand.” This somatonym is quite peculiar; despite the importance of its referent, it is not possible to reconstruct a common IE. root for “hand.” Here, the main extant etymological hypotheses on the Balto-Slavic forms are discussed.</p> <p>Special attention is paid to a less-known hypothesis, accounting for these forms as a direct reflex of IE. *<em>penkwe</em>. Horowitz (1992) believes that the original meaning of this lexeme was “hand,” and that it had only later shifted to “5.” This reconstruction would provide a direct etymological/semantical connection between the somatonym and the numeral, which parallels similar cases in many of the world’s languages. I will point out the reasons why such an etymology would be tempting and, at the same time, a number of crucial difficulties that should lead to its rejection. The traditional connection with the activity of collecting (Lith. <em>riñkti</em>) still remains the more plausible hypothesis; however, other explanations are also theoretically valid. Some final remarks are proposed that suggest regarding these forms as a Baltic innovation. Innovative aspects are found (i) in the semantic scope of these words (from the shoulder to the fingertips) and (ii) in the absence of a gender opposition between the hand and the foot (gender opposition being an archaic feature). The action of collecting may be regarded as a case of global etymology, i.e., a root shared by several macro-families. Conversely, the root <em>*(w)renk</em>- is attested only in Baltic languages (Lithuanian). So, it is reasonable to believe that the somatonym originated in the Baltic and was later borrowed by the Slavic during the period of maximum proximity between these people.</p> Adriano Cerri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Etymologies of Perkūnas and aitivaras <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The present paper consists of two parts. The first one is dedicated to the etymology of the Lithuanian noun <em>perkūnas</em> (“thunder, thunderbolt”). According to the author, perkūnas is a derivative with a possessive suffix -Hon- / -Hn from the IDE *<em>perkwu-s</em> (“oak”). The second part concerns the origin of the Lithuanian <em>aitvaras</em> (“supernatural being,” OLith. aitvaras). The analyzed noun is an instance of the so-called Caland system in the Baltic languages, and it traces back to the older compound word with the meaning *“being bestowed with flaming power.”</p> Norbert Ostrowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Can the 17th century Latvian dictionaries be trusted in the search for old meanings? <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper analyzes two of the 17th century Latvian dictionaries – the Lettus by Georgius Mancelius and the dictionary manuscripts of Christopher Fürecker from the end of the 17th century. The task of the paper: based on the experience gained working with the <em>Historical Dictionary of the Latvian Language</em>, to try and determine how reliable the translations of the meanings found in the 17th century dictionaries are and to what extent can they be used for determining the meanings in the historical dictionary.</p> <p>Examples included in the <em>Historical Dictionary of the Latvian Language</em> are divided into several groups depending on the following aspects: 1) Whether a word of the Latvian language or its German translation is or is not commonly used nowadays; 2) Whether the meaning of these words have or have not changed to the present day. Within each group, one or more examples are considered, including a possible explanation of the meaning of the word in the <em>Historical Dictionary of the Latvian Language</em>.</p> <p>Based on the examples given, it was concluded that, despite some unequivocal mistakes of explanation of the meaning, in most cases, the explanations of the meanings of the words in the dictionary of G. Mancelius and the manuscripts of the dictionary of K. Fürecker are given correctly, as evidenced by the use of the corresponding words in the related texts. It is more difficult to judge in cases when one must rely solely on dictionaries, the German translations of words, because the German language has also changed significantly since the 17th century; the old Latvian dictionaries contain obsolete words specific to the Baltic German language. In such cases, the historical dictionaries of the German language, dialect dictionaries, as well as the dictionary of the Baltic-German language, are helpful in understanding the word meanings. Consequently, many translations that originally seem like mistakes of the authors of the 17th century dictionaries, however, turn out to be correct after a more in-depth study and a careful analysis of the linguistic circumstances of that respective period.</p> Anta Trumpa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Equivalence Problem in the Parallel Dictionaries of the 17th Century <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper deals with the parallel dictionaries of the 17th century Minor Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Latvia: the anonymous manuscript <em>Lexicon Lithuanicum</em> (late 17th century) and Georg Mancelis’s Lettus (1638) as well as Konstantinas Sirvydas’s <em>Dictionarium trium lingvarum</em> (1642) and Georg Elger’s <em>Dictionarium Polono-Latino-Lottauicum</em> (1683). Two bilingual German-Lithuanian resp. Latvian language and two trilingual Polish-Latin-Lithuanian resp. Latvian language dictionaries were chosen for the research.</p> <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the equivalence of Lithuanian and Latvian correspondences in the parallel dictionaries of the 17th century, i.e., to reveal how the meaning of the headword (compound word) is reflected in each different language. In order to achieve this aim, the paper identifies what kinds of equivalents (derivatives, adapted loanwords, periphery) are chosen – in other words, the attention is drawn to the formal expression of equivalence. If the number of equivalents is increased, the systematic relations among them are investigated (loanword – native word, neologism – descriptive compound, several synonyms etc.).</p> <p>Next, the types of equivalents are defined according to their revealed semantic content: the equivalents corresponding or partially corresponding to the meaning as well as the equivalents that only explain the concept expressed by the word of the main language. The semantic content of the equivalents is analyzed based on thematic groups: (a) the names of persons; (b) the names of things; (c) the names of animals and plants; (d) place names; (e) names for a specific period of time; (f) food names; (g) the names of diseases. Later on, the influence of the headwords (German, Polish) on the correspondences of Lithuanian and Latvian is studied. The following step is to analyze the similarities and differences between the Lithuanian and Latvian equivalents in the parallel dictionaries when the same headwords or phrases are translated from German and Polish. It is quite clear that both the established loanwords and neologisms are chosen as equivalents in the researched dictionaries. Once the loanword has become established, it is taken as an equivalent and is regarded as the most relevant indicator of meaning. When a new reality and its translation are not known, a neologism is being created, the synonyms of the wider meaning are given or the meaning is described in a descriptive way. Foreign realities are often translated in a descriptive way by distinguishing an important semantic attribute. Lexicographers perceived the multiplicity of word meaning but did not always provide formal indicators.</p> Gintarė Judžentytė-Šinkūnienė, Vilma Zubaitienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Confusion Surrounding the Meanings of Words in the 1st and 3rd Parts of Jokūbas Morkūnas’s Postilla <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The <em>Postilla</em> of Jokūbas Morkūnas (hereinafter – the MP) has been translated from Polish. It is because of the impact of the Polish language words were often granted extraordinary meanings.&nbsp;</p> <p>This article attempts to determine the typical or atypical values of the nouns, verbs and their derivatives, adverbs, as well as prefixes, used in the MP, as their values influenced the literal translation from Polish.</p> <p>If appropriate word meaning was used several times in text, it was easy to identity word meaning inhevency. The same is much harder to achieve if one takes a word from the MP that was used just once or twice. Then, the appropriate meaning of the word, audited in the LKŽe, and the inherency of its values are determined based on the dictionary material. In the MP, normally used verbs were of typical values, and less often used were adjectives and adverbs. In some cases, attempts are being made to convey the Polish vocabulary of the language in the linguistic units, creating a calque. However, it cannot be said that the majority of the word meanings were calques taken over from the Polish language. We found a number of cases when the usage of verb prefixes denotes meanings originally not possessed by the words: the prefix <em>at</em>­ indicates the direction away; the prefix <em>pri</em>­ – a short or long operation; damage and the degree of damage is marked with the prefix <em>per</em>­. The greatest influence on the literal tracing of the original word was made with the&nbsp;prefixes <em>nu</em>­ and <em>pa</em>­.</p> <p>It is true that words with typical definitions were commonly used in the MP for foreign language exposure.</p> Kęstutis Dambrauskas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Words not Attested in Lexicographical Sources in Samuel Boguslav Chyliński’s Translation of the New Testament and Their Meaning <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article collects all words in Chyliński’s translation of the New&nbsp;Testament that are not attested in the lexicographical sources (contemporary,&nbsp;historical and holistic dictionaries) of the Lithuanian language&nbsp;and analyzes their meaning based on context and etymology.</p> Felix Thies ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Ethnonyms in Latvian Texts of the 16–17th Centuries: Latvians, Lithuanians, Russians <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article discusses the usage of ethnonyms denoting Latvians, Lithuanians and Russians in 16–17th century Latvian texts that are included in the Corpus of Early Latvian Texts. The objective of this article is to analyze the details of how these ethnonyms are used in these texts, the meanings attributed to them (especially in the case of ethnonyms denoting Lithuanians and Russians) and the differences from their usage in folklore.</p> <p>It is concluded that <em>latvietis</em> and <em>latvis</em> – two ethnonyms denoting Latvians – can be found in texts (including unpublished manuscripts) dating back as early as the 17th century. The majority of them are practical texts, such as dictionaries, but there are original religious texts addressed to Latvians themselves, too – e.g., Eernst Glück’s preface to his New Testament translation of 1685, or the sermon books by Georg Mancelius.</p> <p>The ethnonyms denoting Lithuanians – such as <em>leitis</em>, <em>lietaviets</em> and <em>lietavnieks</em> – also appear in 17th century dictionaries, occasionally also in the sermons by Mancelius. However, it is not always possible to tell whether these terms are used to denote an ethnicity or the inhabitants of the respective country. Unlike Latvian folksongs, the 17th century texts never use the ethnonym <em>leiši</em> to refer to Latvians.</p> <p>Regarding the ethnonym denoting Russians in the early Latvian texts, there are several differences from the usage of denotations of Latvians and Lithuanians: 1) The word <em>krievs</em> (“Russian”) appears already in the 16th century; 2) It is included not only in the first Latvian lexicographical sources and in original religious texts (for instance the sermon books), but also in translated religious texts, where it has been employed as an equivalent of the ethnonyms used in the original texts; 3) In the 17<sup>th</sup> century, the word <em>krievs</em> has sometimes been included in compound botanic terms denoting plants introduced from other countries.</p> Anta Trumpa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The European Cultural Tradition in the Wolfenbüttel Postil (1573/1574) <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstracts in English and German]</p> <p>The so-called <em>Wolfenbüttel Postil</em> (1573/1574) – an anonymously handwritten Lithuanian Lutheran work, which originated in the period between 1565 and 1573 – is a compilation based on at least ten Latin postils. This codex, consisting of sermons dedicated to an entire liturgic year, is the oldest Lithuanian coherent text which is not restricted only to the translations of a canonical text. Furthermore, it is one of the most extensive texts in the early modern history of Lithuanian. The <em>Postil</em> testifies the dissemination of Reformation writings and ideas in the Lithuanian language area and represents a florilegium of European homiletic tradition. It includes considerable parts of an originally written text and of hardly verifiable compilations. Methodologically, the translation is typical for the 16th century. Literally translated excerpts are followed by originally written parts, or translations from other sources are included. The Lithuanian translation is selective and paradigmatic. The text is supplemented with <em>exempla fidei</em>, quotations, allusions and paraphrases. The <em>Wolfenbüttel Postil</em> thus offers an anthological reception of numerous classics, church fathers, medieval theologians and various medieval and early modern historians: Strabo, Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Pliny the Younger, the <em>Disticha Catonis</em>; Athanasius, (pseudo-)Augustine, (pseudo-) Jerome, Gregory of Nazianzus, John Chrysostom, Josephus Flavius, Eusebius of Caesarea, (pseudo-)Hegesippus, (pseudo-)Basil the Great, Rufinus of Aquileia, Sulpicius Severus, Cassiodorus, Vigilius of Thapsus, Leo the Great, Fulgentius of Ruspe, Gregory the Great, Isidore of Seville, (pseudo-)Bernard of Clairvaux; Paulus Diaconus, Dietrich of Apolda and Pomponius Laetus (Giulio Sanseverino). A large part of the European cultural tradition could have reached the Lithuanian-speaking audience through this <em>Postil</em> for the very first time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Die europäische Kulturtradition in der Wolfenbütteler Postille (1573/1574)</strong></p> <p>Die sogenannte <em>Wolfenbütteler Postille</em> von 1573/1574 ist das erste ausführliche handschriftliche Textzeugnis der litauischen Schriftsprache und einer der umfangreichsten litauischen Texte des gesamten 16. Jahrhunderts. Diese im Herzogtum Preußen entstandene lutherische Predigtsammlung gilt damit als eine der wichtigsten Quellen zur litauischen Sprach-, Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte. Der litauische Text ist ein aussagekräftiges Dokument im Hinblick auf die Verbreitung der Reformationsschriften und des reformatorischen Gedankengutes im litauischsprachigen Milieu. Die Postille bildet ein Florileg europäischer homiletischer Tradition, die dem litauischen Kulturkreis durch das Predigen in litauischer Sprache zum ersten Mal zugänglich gemacht wurde. In dieser Hinsicht ist sie eine unikale Zusammenstellung reformatorischer Lehre. Die WP ist eine vielschichtige Übersetzung und Bearbeitung. Die vergleichende Analyse des litauischen Textes mit den Vorlagentexten weist auf eine eindeutige Übersetzungsrichtung Latein– Litauisch hin. Die Übersetzungstrategien sind typisch für die Frühe Neuzeit. Die Textübertragung ist nicht immer adäquat, der Vorlagentext wird bisweilen zielorientiert bearbeitet, kommentiert, ergänzt, verkürzt und paraphrasiert. Die Übersetzung ist oft um <em>exempla fidei</em>, Zitate und Anspielungen ergänzt. Die Postille bietet somit eine anthologische Rezeption von zahlreichen Klassikern, Kirchenvätern, mittelalterlichen Theologen und verschiedenen mittelalterlichen sowie frühneuzeitlichen Historikern. Zitiert werden Strabon, Cicero, Plinius d. Ä ., Plinius d. J. und die vermutlich im 3. Jahrhundert nach Chr. entstandenen <em>Disticha Catonis</em>; Athanasius, (Pseudo-)Augustinus, (Pseudo-)Hieronymus, Gregor von Nazianz, Johannes Chrysostomus, Josephus Flavius, Eusebius von Caesarea, (Pseudo-)Hegesippus, (Pseudo-)Basilius der Große, Rufin von Aquileia, Sulpicius Severus, Cassiodorus, Vigilius von Thapsus, Leo der Große, Fulgentius von Ruspe, Gregor der Große, Isidor von Sevilla und (Pseudo-)Bernhard von Clairvaux; Paulus Diaconus, Dietrich von Apolda und Pomponius Laetus (Giulio Sanseverino). Wie in der Frühneuzeit üblich, sind die Quellen der Zitate nicht immer angegeben und die Zitate selbst oft paraphrasiert. Die in der WP vorkommenden Zitate stellen die ersten schriftlichen Übersetzungen ins Litauische dar.</p> Jolanta Gelumbeckaitė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Concept of Phraseology in the Lituanistic Sources of 18th Century <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article addresses the problem of the concepts <em>phraseologism</em> and phraseology in modern linguistic literature. It analyses the history of the concepts <em>phraseologism</em> and <em>phraseology</em> in the Lituanistic sources of Prussian Lithuania (Lithuania Minor) of 18th century and strives to justify the need to use these terms in their broad rather than narrow sense.</p> <p>The terms <em>phraseology</em> and <em>phraseologism</em> are not used in any Lituanistic sources of the 18th century. The Latin term <em>idiotismus</em>, used in the early 18th century philological polemic sources, such as Michael Mörlin’s, Johann Schultz’s and Jacob Perkuhn’s works, is not clearly defined. It could be understood either as (1) a peculiar saying or a figurative expression (i.e., a stable word combination or sentence) or (2) a case of common usage, a language norm recognized by society. The Latin terms <em>Idiotismus</em>, <em>Phrase</em>, <em>Phraseologie</em>, used in the German linguistic literature of the 17th–18th centuries, are not clearly defined either.</p> <p>Due to the lack of clear definitions of the concepts <em>phraseologism</em> and <em>phraseology</em> in the Lituanistic sources of the 18th century and in the 18<sup>th</sup> century German linguistic literature, it would be appropriate to use the terms <em>phraseologism</em> and <em>phraseology</em> in their broad rather than narrow sense, i.e., to regard the stability of not only a word combination but also of a sentence as a distinctive feature of a <em>phraseologism</em> without emphasizing figurativeness or idiomaticity. The suggested definition would be as follows: a <em>phraseologism</em> is a stable word combination or sentence.</p> <p>The researchers of old Lituanistic sources need the broad definition for two more reasons. First, in the old dictionaries, ethnographic works, and collections of small folklore genres, stable word combinations and sayings were recorded without selection; as they were presented together as specific linguistic facts of some regional variety, they should be analysed as wholes. Second, these combinations and sayings should also be taken as wholes in the analysis of the speech community that used them – phraseologisms, in the broad sense, can be treated as (re)constructive instruments of social and cultural identity, i.e., the analysis of phraseologisms could be used to recognize the mechanism defining the boundaries of identity and to reconstruct the content of social and cultural life.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ona Aleknavičienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 On the Explanations of the Meanings of Lithuanian Proverbs in Constant von Wurzbach ’s collection Sprichwörter der Polen historisch erläutert, mit Hinblick auf die eigenthümlichsten der Lithauer ... (1852) <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstracts in English and German]</p> <p>This article focuses on the collection of proverbs, <em>titled Die Sprichwörter der Polen historisch erläutert, mit Hinblick auf die eigenthümlichsten der Lithauer, Ruthenen, Serben und Slovenen und verglichen mit ähnlichen andrer Nationen</em> (1852), which comprises, among many Polish and other Slavonic proverbs, 93 Lithuanian sayings. The collection was assembled by the Austrian writer and famous biographer Constant Ritter von Wurzbach-Tannenberg, who is mostly known as the sole compiler of the 60-volume reference book <em>Biographisches Lexikon des Kaisertums Österreich</em> (1856–1891) as well as the author of various texts dealing with different aspects of cultural history. The given collection of proverbs represents the first printed publication of Lithuanian proverbs in a German book (apart from the lexicographical sources), through which they have made their way into the eminent proverb collection of Karl Wander, the largest comparative proverb collection of the 19th century in the German language, and thus became accessible to an even larger reading public. The proverbs in Wurzbach’s collection are grouped on the basis of thematic key notions. Most of the proverbs are supplied with a large explanatory part, which makes this collection so unique. The explanations not only provide information about the meaning, origin and use of proverbs, but also convey a rather positive attitude of the author concerning their content, wit and the image of Lithuanians as a whole. The current article analyzes the way Wurzbach presents Lithuanian proverbs, explains their meanings and, following the Romantic idea of the natures of nations being represented in their languages, makes suggestions about the Lithuanian character. Furthermore, in this article, special attention is given to the sources of the Lithuanian proverbs. One of the sources that Wurzbach mentions in the introduction to his book is the collection of Lithuanian proverbs in the Polish language by Adam Jucewicz (1842). The research shows, however, that this source can only account for about one third of all Lithuanian proverbs in Wurzbach’s collection. The historical works of Theodor Narbutt, also mentioned in Wurzbach’s collection, could not have served as a source for more than one or two sayings, either. The question of other sources of Lithuanian proverbs in the Wurzbach collection requires yet some further study.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Litauische Sprichwörter und ihre Bedeutungs interpretationen in der Sprichwörtersammlung Constant von Wurzbachs Sprichwörter der Polen historisch erläutert, mit Hinblick auf die eigenthümlichsten der Lithauer ... (1852)</strong></p> <p>Der vorliegende Beitrag behandelt die Sammlung polnischer und anderer slawischer Sprichwörter Die Sprichwörter der Polen historisch erläutert, mit Hinblick auf die eigenthümlichsten der Lithauer, Ruthenen, Serben und Slovenen und verglichen mit ähnlichen andrer Nationen. In der Sammlung wurden unter anderem 93 litauische Sprichwörter veröffentlicht. Der Verfasser dieser Sammlung ist der berühmte österreichische Biograph Constant Ritter von Wurzbach-Tannenberg, Autor des 60-bändigen Biographischen Lexikons des Kaisertums Österreich (1856–1891) sowie zahlreicher weiterer kulturhistorischer Schriften. Bei dieser Sammlung handelt es sich um die erste Publikation litauischer Sprichwörter in einer deutschsprachigen Sprichwörtersammlung. Zum einen trug die Veröffentlichung litauischer Sprichwörter direkt zur Verbreitung der Kenntnisse vom litauischen Volk, seiner Sprache und Kultur bei. Zum anderen hatte die Publikation indirekt als Vermittler gedient: aus diesem Werk sind litauische Sprichwörter in die große Sprichwörtersammlung Karl Wanders gelangt, von wo aus sie einem noch größeren Leserpublikum zugänglich geworden sind. Die thematisch geordnete Sammlung von Wurzbach zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass den Sprichwörtern Erklärungen beigegeben werden, die nicht nur ihren Ursprung und Gebrauch kommentieren, sondern auch meistens positive Urteile des Verfassers über ihren Inhalt und Witz oder über das litauische Volk insgesamt enthalten. Im Aufsatz wird die Präsentationsweise der Sprichwörter analysiert und auf die Struktur sowie einige inhaltliche Besonderheiten der Bedeutungserklärungen eingegangen. Außerdem wird das Verhältnis der litauischen Sprichwörter zu der im Literaturverzeichnis angegebenen Quelle, der polnischsprachigen Sammlung litauischer Sprichwörter von Adam Jucewicz (1840), besprochen und festgestellt, dass neben dieser Quelle Wurzbach noch mindestens eine weitere Sprichwörtersammlung benutzt haben soll. Ihre genaue Bestimmung steht allerdings noch aus.</p> Lina Plaušinaitytė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Lexis Editing of Maironis’s Pavasario Balsai (1895–1927) <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>During period of 1895–1927, Maironis prepared and published five editions of <em>Pavasario balsai</em>: they were published in 1895, 1905, 1913, 1920 and 1927. Over the course of more than thirty years, which yielded the first and the last editions, the concept and the usage of Standard Lithuanian language has changed. In the last decade of the 19th century, the norms of Standard Lithuanian have not yet been set, and still varied much in the beginning of 20th century. Therefore, it is understandable that Maironis revised the language of each edition, taking into account the changing usage and the recommendations of linguists his congenials.</p> <p>The goal of this research is to find out how Maironis edited the lexis of <em>Pavasario balsai</em>. Analyzed are those lexis revision cases that were potentially affected by the process of the development of the standard language. This aspect of Maironis’s poetry has not been analyzed so far. The analysis of the editions of the lexis of Maironis’s Pavasario balsai shows that some words, which, in the course of the development of standard language, began to be treated as ineligible, were refused by Maironis; other words were amended in a not-as-continuous manner, the author perhaps not being sure about their usage. A certain part of the borrowed lexis, which was even not recommended for usage, was still used by Maironis.</p> <p>The editions of the lexis of <em>Pavasario balsai</em> and the way foreign words were changed into Lithuanian equivalents do not only reveal Maironis’s attitude to the emergence of lexis norms but also illustrate the changing concept of a standard language and the emergence of lexis norms.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jurgita Venckienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Time Clauses with kuomet in Old and Modern Lithuanian <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article discusses the usage of subordinate clauses of time with <em>kuomet</em> in Old Lithuanian and Modern Lithuanian. The morphosyntactic structure of time clauses with <em>kuomet</em>, recorded in old Lithuanian writings (both translations and original texts), is rather similar: they are usually employed to emphasize the exceptionality of a certain moment or situation; therefore, they use negatives or other syntactic means that highlight exceptionality rather frequently, whereas time clauses with kuomet become an important part of the argumentative discourse. Situational, semantic and positional models of time clauses containing <em>kuomet</em> show that <em>kuomet</em> used in the time clauses of old Lithuanian writings meets all the necessary parameters of an adverbial subordinator. The usage of time clauses with <em>kuomet</em> in the original works of the authors of the old writings attributed to different dialects – Jonas Bretkūnas, Zacharijus Blothnas and Konstantinas Sirvydas – prevents us from considering <em>kuomet</em> as a dialecticism. The time clauses with <em>kuomet</em> used in Modern Lithuanian are also used to describe the situations of two actions that are related to exceptionality and the importance of a special moment. This enables us to define <em>kuomet</em> as a traditionally inherited adverbial subordinator of time clauses and to stop doubting the grammatical and contextual suitability of this subtype of time clauses for Modern Lithuanian.</p> Jūratė Pajėdienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Complementizers kad and jog ‘that’ in old and Contemporary Lithuanian <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper focuses on the Lithuanian complementizers <em>kad</em> and <em>jog</em> (“that”), which so far have not received any in-depth analysis, except for some observations made by the authors of the <em>Lithuanian Grammar</em> (1976) or Artūras Judžentis (2009) and Axel Holvoet (2010; 2015). Adopting both synchronic and diachronic perspectives and by applying a corpus-driven methodology, the present study aims to investigate the semantic functional potential of <em>kad</em> and <em>jog</em> as well as their usage and the syntactic contexts that they appear in. The analyzed data set includes both written (i.e., fiction) language and some Old Lithuanian texts from the 16th century (namely, the <em>Postilla</em> by Jonas Bretkūnas (1591) and the <em>Postilla</em> by Mikalojus Daukša (1599)).</p> <p>The analysis shows that the complementizers under consideration are relatively frequent in the old Lithuanian writings, though the complementizer <em>kad</em> is only sporadically used in Jonas Bretkūnas’s <em>Postilla</em>. The conjunction <em>kad</em> in the <em>Postilla</em> by Mikalojus Daukša is most often used in different types of adverbial clauses, including time, purpose and conditional clauses. <em>Jog</em>, in its turn, functions as a complementizer that prototypically appears in propositional complement clauses (in both of the analyzed old texts). When, in the Daukša’s <em>Postilla</em>, the conjunction <em>kad</em> appears in complement clauses, it may take on both types (i.e., propositional as well as state-of-affairs) of complement clauses. In contemporary Lithuanian, <em>kad</em> has changed its functional profile and, like the complementizer jog, is most often associated with complementation strategies; i.e., it is found in propositional and state-of-affairs complement clauses. Besides, <em>kad</em> is more polyfunctional than <em>jog</em>: it can be found in insubordinate clauses and function as a discourse or an optative marker.</p> Erika Jasionytė-Mikučionienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Application of the Old Writings’ Morphology Database to Semantics Research: Verb Semantics <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The Old Writings’ Morphology Database, created by Dalia Jakulytė, is adopted for semantics research by adding a semantics module. This module is created as a table of semantic features of every word form (the main entity of the database). The places for such semantic features are reserved: Meaning, Meaning Explanation, Section / Class / Type / Group, Semantic Field and Semantic Group. To verify the semantics module, the semantics of the infixed and <em>sta</em> stem verbs from <em>Knyga nobažnystės</em> (1653) was analysed on a DB basis. The semantic functions of the verbs were established.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dalia Jakulytė, Dalia Pakalniškienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 The Normalization of Old Lithuanian Orthography for Usage in a Search Engine <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The Lithuanian historical corpus consists of machine-readable texts, transcribed according to the principles of documentary edition; the original spelling and the language features it encodes are preserved. Several orthographic systems were used during the various stages of the history of Lithuanian language, and some of them differ from the modern one to a relatively great extent. The historical orthography does not allow the use of language analysis tools, which were developed on the basis of the modern spelling. A link is therefore needed that would connect the historical orthography to the modern orthography used today.</p> <p>In normalizing spelling, various challenges must be dealt with: the same grapheme must be differently realized without changing the orthography and by rewriting the form in the modern Lithuanian alphabet. At the same time, the normalization of phonetics has to be carried out, which includes the elimination of dialectal phonetic features and the representation of phonemes in the assimilated position. These principles can be used in constructing a universal search engine, in which queries can be processed across different orthographic systems (</p> <p>The size of the corpus and the available limited resources stimulate the search for an automated way of normalizing orthography. A set of rules was developed based on the empirical research on the history of orthography; these rules were then arranged hierarchically in accordance with the length of the sequence of processed characters, their implementation being limited to using the metadata according to the spelling features of a particular source. A 82–97% accuracy level of correct normalization was achieved.</p> <p>The advantage of a rules-based transliteration is the consistency of changes; the disadvantage can be seen in generating not a single but several equivalents of the word, and the ambiguous rules in certain cases generate many tokens that do not exist in the natural language. The number of generated forms being fed to the search engine was reduced based on non-existent letter sequences and by narrowing the query alphabet. A further selection of the correct forms could be done using dictionaries or tools for analyzing the morphology and syntax of modern Lithuanian.</p> Mindaugas Šinkūnas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Bibliographic Data <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0200