Psychology 2019-04-10T19:46:46+03:00 Gintautas Valickas Open Journal Systems <p>A peer-reviewed journal founded in 1962 (<em>Psychology</em> – from 1980) and dedicated to publishing articles analyzing all fields of psychology and interdisciplinary research.</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-04-10T19:46:29+03:00 Psichologija T. 85 <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2019-04-10T19:46:27+03:00 Psichologija T. 58 <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## News 2019-04-10T19:46:25+03:00 Psichologija T. 58 <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Manuscript Reviewers 2019-04-10T19:46:23+03:00 Psichologija T. 58 <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Institutionalization of Psychology in Lithuania: View from the Prospect of the State’s 100-year Anniversary 2019-04-10T19:46:46+03:00 Albinas Bagdonas <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>Different sides of the development of psychology as a science, a teaching subject and a professional activity in Lithuania during the 100-year period are analyzed and discussed. This analysis is performed in the context of the institutionalization of the modern Lithuanian State. The three main premises of the development of psychology in Lithuania are revealed: the sociopolitical and economical context of state, the influence of the global field of psychology and the activities of the enthusiasts of profession. The extent of development of psychology in Lituania during the different periods of Lithuanian history of last 100 years of its existance is evaluated according to 10 criteria of recognizing the profession: 1) Social need; 2) State regulation of the profession; 3) Legislative basis of the profession; 4) Trust by society and authority; 5) Control of professional competence; 6) Being included in a classification of scienes and a scientific studies system; 7) Education (teaching and training) of the profession; 8) Professional and scientiffic communication (journals, conferences); 9) Values and professional ethics; 10) Professional self-regulation (professional NGO). The development of psychology in Lithuania can be divided in stages according to the context of the modern state’s development events: 1) Before the year 1918 (the period of arousal and enlightenment in psychological culture); 2) The years 1918–1940 (start of the institutionalization of psychology in the First Republic of Lithuania); 3) The years 1940–1944 (an empty, topsyturvy-esque or confused of social and economical life stage during the Second World War); 4) The years 1945–1988 (an unsettled stage of training and researches in psychology with stabilization after when psychologists were begun to be educated at Vilnius University in 1969); 5) The years 1989–2018 (a dissociation from the Russian academic field of psychology and an independent development with the rising ifluence of Western academic psychological influences). The names of the main enthusiasts of the institutionalization of psychology in Lithuania during the five listed stages are presented. The main persons from this list were Alfonsas Gučas (1907–1988), Jonas Vabalas-Gudaitis (1881–1955), Vladas Lazersonas (1889–1945) and Juvencijus Lapė (1925–1911). The main conclusion of paper is that psychology in Lithuania, during the 100-year period, was developed according to all 10 criteria; it was reasonably adapted to the national state culture and infrastructure. In other words, at the present time, we can speak and write not only about the development of psychology in Lithuania but about a Lithuanian psychology – a nationally indigenized profession. Eleven features of indeginized psychology are also listed.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Psychometric Properties of the Test for Creative Thinking (TCT-DP) in a Sample of 8–10-year-old Lithuanian Children 2019-04-10T19:46:44+03:00 Sigita Girdzijauskienė Dalia Nasvytienė Dovilė Butkienė Gražina Gintilienė Kęstutis Dragūnevičius <p>[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba]</p> <p>Straipsnyje analizuojama, ar Piešimo testas kūrybiškam mąstymui (TCT-DP) tiksliai, stabiliai ir pagrįstai įvertina 8–10 metų lietuvių vaikų kūrybinį potencialą. Šiuo metu Lietuvoje nėra tokio amžiaus vaikų kūrybiškumą vertinančio testo. Moksliniai tyrimai rodo, kad pradinio mokyklinio amžiaus vaikams gali būti būdinga specifiška kūrybinio potencialo raida. Tyrime dalyvavo 497 pradinių, 2–4, klasių mokiniai; imtis sudaryta taikant kvotinę atranką, atsižvelgiant į vaiko amžių, lytį ir mokyklos vietą. Visi vaikai įvertinti TCT-DP A ir B formomis; 63 atsitiktinai atrinkti vaikai įvertinti Wechslerio intelekto skale vaikams (WISC-IIILT) turint tikslą patikrinti diskriminantinį validumą. Rezultatai atskleidė, kad reikšmingai skiriasi 8 ir 10 metų vaikų kūrybinis potencialas, mergaičių ir berniukų rezultatai panašūs. Keliais būdais įvertinus testo patikimumą, išryškėjo, kad abiejų testo formų vertintojų suderintumas yra labai geras, kategorijų vertinimo sistema tiksli, minimaliai pakankamas bendro A ir B formų suminio įverčio stabilumas, nepakankamas A ir B formų vidinis suderintumas. Abi testo formos vienodai diferencijuoja vaikų kūrybiškumo lygį. Gauti rezultatai patvirtina TCT-DP konstrukto validumą. Tiriamoji faktorių analizė išryškino, kad 8–10 metų lietuvių vaikų kūrybiškumo potencialą geriausiai apibūdina trys faktoriai – originalumo, adaptyvumo bei pasirengimo rizikuoti.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lithuanian Children on the Internet: A Comparison of the Use of Internet in 2010 and 2018 2019-04-10T19:46:40+03:00 Neringa Grigutytė Saulė Raižienė Vilmantė Pakalniškienė Robertas Povilaitis <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The accessibility of the internet and the availability of online services in Lithuania are steadily increasing; the demand for some services is almost twice the EU average and is growing every year. In the context of Europe, Lithuania is among the countries with high internet use, which increases the risk and threat to children through the internet. In a study conducted by the EU Kids Online II in 2010, it was found that Lithuanian children lack the skills of safe use of internet, while parents lack the knowledge and ability to ensure the safe use of internet by their children. The purpose of this article is to identify how children’s threats and the involvement of parents in ensuring the safe use of internet by their children are changing as the access to information technology and the internet grows. During a survey conducted in 2018, 1 012 children aged 9 to 17 years and one of each of their parents were interviewed. These data were compared to the data from 2010 survey, when 1 004 online users aged 9 to 16 years and one of each of their parents were interviewed. The results revealed that in 2018, children and their parents spend more time on the internet. Children spend 4–5 hours on the internet every day and it is approximately one hour longer than in 2010. Children use a variety of devices to connect to the internet and use the internet to perform various activities, especially the sharing of pictures, watching videos and playing games on the internet, and more often use social networks sites. The most popular social network is Facebook. In the current year, children are less likely to share their personal information, communicate less with strangers, but children experience more abusive behavior from others online and have more access to sexual content in 2018 than in previous years. Parents report less negative experience and technical threats, such as the use of a child’s personal information or device infection with a virus, regarding their children spending their time on the internet. The data suggests that parents nowadays seldom are in the same room with the child while he/she is on the internet, but parents talk with children on safety issues, encourage them and are interested in their activities on the internet more often than in previous years.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Relationship between Creativity and Global/National Identity: Comparative Study of Lithuanian and American Students’ Sample 2019-04-10T19:46:38+03:00 Viktoria Tidikis Dovilė Petkevičiūtė-Barysienė Dana Donohue Lauryna Rakickienė <p>[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The mindset of either a national or global identity was primed in the participants in the United States and Lithuania. The effects of priming on creativity were then examined. Two hundred and eighty-five participants from the United States and 95 Lithuanian participants received one of three possible manipulations: one that primed national identity, one that primed global identity, or no manipulation. They were then asked to complete measures of creativity. The results suggested that participants from Lithuania scored higher than the American participants on measures of national orientation regardless of the condition in which they participated. Lithuanian participants were the most affected by the national prime, and scored particularly low on global orientation when they were in the national identity condition. Lithuanian participants scored higher than participants from the United States on all measures of creativity, regardless of the condition. However, a country-by-condition interaction was also present, showing that participants in the US scored higher on creativity when they were in the global prime condition, while Lithuanians received higher creativity scores when in the national prime condition. Explanations and implications for these results are discussed.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Changing Misconceptions about Sexual Harassment in a Sample of Lithuanian Students 2019-04-10T19:46:35+03:00 Monika Čeponytė Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>Sexual harassment is one of the most common gender-based discrimination forms in Lithuania and is experienced at least once in a lifetime by 35% of women from the age of 15. The recently published results of a survey implemented by the Lithuanian Students’ Union (2018) showed that 5 percent of students from different universities and colleges in Lithuania possess experiences that they identify as sexual harassment; however, the majority of them are afraid to report these incidents because of the negative public reaction or because of the potential impact on their academic achievements. An absence of a clear definition and the prevailing misconceptions about sexual harassment, as well as a lack of information about the procedure of reporting sexual harassment, makes sexual harassment an ambiguous problem that became the topic of public discussion but has not been dealt with properly. Various studies show promising results of different sexual harassment prevention activities and makes it possible to assume that such training might be a way of reducing the prevalence of sexual harassment in the academic environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a brief sexual harassment training course in reducing positive attitudes toward sexual harassment and the acceptance of sexual harassment myths, as well as improving the identification of sexual harassment situations, in a sample of Lithuanian students.</p> <p>Thirty-two students (28 females and 4 males) took part in this research and attended a brief sexual harassment training that lasted for 1 hour 30 minutes. The participants’ age varied from 19 to 28 years, the average age being 22.9 years (SD = 2.19). A self-reported questionnaire consisted of several scales: the Sexual Harassment Attitude Scale (Cronbach α – 0,86) (Mazer &amp; Percival, 1989) measuring the participants’ positive attitudes toward sexual harassment; the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance Scale (Cronbach α – 0,92) (Lonsway, Cortina, &amp; Magley, 2008); 8 self-report scenarios were created based on Bursik (1992) and consultations with the Office of the Equal Opportunities Ombudsperson to measure the participants’ perceptions of sexual harassment. Additional demographic questions were also included.</p> <p>The results revealed significant changes in sexual harassment perception, myth acceptance and attitudes toward sexual harassment before and after the training. Study results showed significantly reduced positive attitudes toward sexual harassment and that the participants were less likely to attribute sexual harassment to being a part of a romantic relationship. Even though the results showed a significantly lower “Normal heterosexuality” subscale in terms of the results on the Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance Scale, participants were, however, more likely to attribute blame to the victim of sexual harassment after the prevention training. The study results also revealed that after the training, the participants evaluated more sexual harassment scenarios as sexual harassment than before the training.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Content Analysis of Comments on Articles Describing Homosexuality Disclosure 2019-04-10T19:46:33+03:00 Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė Viktorija Gaidytė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>Both researchers and society agree that those who decide to disclose their sexual orientation can find acceptance and even support in these experiences, while others are met with negative reactions, such as anger, rejection or bullying etc. There are lots of controversial studies about the differences in reactions to the coming out of homosexual men and women. It is agreed that these attitudes could be defined as multidimensional constructs comprised of cognitive, affective and behavioral components. A content analysis of comments on articles describing coming out of homosexual individuals has not been yet performed in Lithuania.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to analyze the content of comments as reactions to the articles describing homosexuality disclosure in order to reveal the prevailing beliefs, emotions and behavioral reactions toward the disclosure of homosexuality and to compare any differences in responses while taking into account the sex of a disclosed person.</p> <p>A content analysis of 380 comments collected on the websites and was carried out. The validity of the content categories was assessed with a second-rater procedure. The agreement percentage among the raters ranged from 84 to 100 and Cohen’s kappa from 0.42 to 1 throughout the categories. After the first evaluation of the content and after an objective selection of the comments for this research, 156 comments, which were suitable for further analysis, were selected.</p> <p>The analysis has shown that commentators tend to have negative perceptions regarding the disclosure of a homosexual individual’s sexual orientation. In the comments of the articles describing homosexuality disclosure, it was most often expressed that homosexuality is an unnatural thing or a perversion; that homosexual people should not disclose their sexual orientation; that homosexual people should not be allowed to raise children. At the same time, any positive attitude was expressed rarely. The most prevailing positive attitude is the following: homosexual people are just as normal as heterosexual people. Negative emotions, such as anger or disgust, as well as homophobic bullying (offensive remarks, jokes and name-calling), were dominating in the comments. The accepting behavior (not encouraging someone to change), positive emotional reactions, such as support and suggestions to emigrate, were the rarest. The content analysis of the comments revealed the different reactions of the readers to homosexual men and women. The negative attitude toward raising children and the emotion of anger are more often addressed toward homosexual women than to homosexual men.</p> <p>The results of this study indicate the prevailing negative attitude toward the public disclosure of the sexual orientation of homosexual persons.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##