Psichologija 2019-07-18T19:36:56+03:00 Gintautas Valickas Open Journal Systems <p>A peer-reviewed journal founded in 1962 (<em>Psychology</em> – from 1980) and dedicated to publishing articles analyzing all fields of psychology and interdisciplinary research.</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-07-18T19:36:56+03:00 Gintautas Valickas 2019-07-17T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2019-07-17T19:36:37+03:00 Gintautas Valickas 2019-07-17T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Job Requirements, Resources and Proactive Behavior at Work: The Role of Work Engagement and Stress 2019-07-17T19:36:36+03:00 Marija Miselytė Dalia Bagdžiūnienė Violeta Jakutė <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus" xml:lang="lt-LT"><span class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">Proactive employees are an important part of social capital in modern organizations that operate in a competitive and ever-changing business environment. Proactive behavior (</span><em class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">PB</em><span class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">) is defined as self-directed and future-oriented actions that are aimed to change the situation, work environment, or oneself (Bindl &amp; Parker, 2010). Proactive workers initiate individual and organizational changes, and they not only respond to work requirements or adapt to environmental conditions (Fritz &amp; Sonnentag, 2009). Therefore, it is important to analyze the work and personal characteristics that may be significant in order to enhance the employees’ PB. The paper presents an empirical study that integrates the theoretical approaches of Proactive Behavior (Parker &amp; Collins, 2010) and Job Demands – Resources (Schaufeli &amp; Bakker, 2004). It is aimed, first, to examine the links between job demands (p</span>ace and amount of work, emotional and mental workload<span class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">), resources (autonomy and feedback), and work engagement and stress with employee&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="en-US">strategic proactive behaviors as well as work and person-environment fit proactive behaviors.</span><span class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;Second, to determine the role that work engagement and stress have in the relationships between job characteristics and PB types.</span></p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus" xml:lang="lt-LT"><span class="char-style-override-4" xml:lang="en-US">A total of 386 employees from&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="en-US">various Lithuanian organizations&nbsp;</span><span class="char-style-override-4" xml:lang="en-US">were surveyed online. Sixty one percent of the respondents were female; the average age of the respondents was&nbsp;</span>34.8&nbsp;<span class="char-style-override-4" xml:lang="en-US">(</span><em class="char-style-override-4" xml:lang="en-US">SD</em><span class="char-style-override-4" xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;=&nbsp;</span>11.32<span class="char-style-override-4" xml:lang="en-US">) years, with an average of&nbsp;</span>7.3 (<em xml:lang="en-US">SD</em>&nbsp;= 8.22)<span class="char-style-override-4" xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;years of working experience in their organizations. Twenty one percent of the respondents were first-level managers.&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="en-US">Most of the respondents (93.6%) had acquired higher education.</span></p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus" xml:lang="lt-LT">Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that strategic PB, through engagement as a mediator, was predicted by autonomy, mental workload, and feedback; proactive work behavior was predicted by emotional workload, while mental workload, autonomy, and feedback were related to proactive work behavior through work engagement as a mediator; proactive person-environment fit behavior was predicted only by feedback via work engagement as a mediator. The study has shown that employee PB can be reinforced not only with job resources (autonomy and feedback) but job demands as well (the mental and emotional workload) via the mediative effect of work engagement. Work stress was not related with PB. The practical applications of research findings are discussed.</p> 2019-07-17T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of a Hypothetical Leader’s Dark Triad Traits in the Assessment of Transformational Leadership 2019-07-17T19:36:36+03:00 Aurelija Stelmokienė Tadas Vadvilavičius <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">For quite a long period of time, transformational leadership was related only to positive antecedents and outcomes (van Knippenberg&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">&amp;&nbsp;</span>Sitkin, 2013). However, nowadays researchers are more invited to study the&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">“</span>dark side<span xml:lang="en-US">”&nbsp;</span>of transformational leadership (Eisenbeiß&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">&amp;&nbsp;</span>Boerner, 2013; Vreja, Balan, &amp; Bosca, 2016). The model of dark triad traits (Paulhus&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">&amp;&nbsp;</span>Williams, 2002) could be an interesting topic in this contemporary discussion. Therefore, a quasi experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the impact of a hypothetical leader<span xml:lang="en-US">’</span>s dark triad traits in assessing transformational leadership.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus para-style-override-2">A total of 157 respondents (31 male and 126 females) participated in the quasi experiment. The average age of respondents was 24.87 (SD&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">= 5.4</span>) years, with the average of 4.5 (SD = 5.03) years of working experience. Most of the respondents (62.4%) had higher education. Respondents were asked to fill in the questionnaire about their dark triad traits (SD3, Jones&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">&amp;&nbsp;</span>Paulhus, 2014), to read one of four scenarios (2 x 2 experiment design: male or female leader; a high or low expression of a leader<span xml:lang="en-US">’</span>s dark triad traits) and to evaluate the transformational leadership of a hypothetical leader in the scenario (GTL scale, Carless, Wearing,&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">&amp;&nbsp;</span>Mann, 2000).</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus para-style-override-2">The analysis revealed that the index of transformational leadership was higher when hypothetical leaders with a low expression of dark triad traits were assessed in comparison with hypothetical leaders who possessed a high expression of dark triad traits. So, the main hypothesis was confirmed. However, an additional analysis of the factors that could be also important in predicting the assessment of transformational leadership did not support the significant role of the assessor<span xml:lang="en-US">’</span>s or the assessee<span xml:lang="en-US">’</span>s gender or the assess<span xml:lang="en-US">ing</span>&nbsp;individual<span xml:lang="en-US">’s</span>&nbsp;dark triad traits. Nevertheless, contextual factors in the assessment of transformational leadership deserve further attention from researchers and practitioners.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus para-style-override-2">In general, the impact of a hypothetical leader<span xml:lang="en-US">’</span>s dark triad traits in the assessment of transformational leadership is significant: the higher expression of dark triad traits, the less transformational leadership. With reference to scientific literature (Hoch, Bommer, Dulebohn, &amp; Wu, 2018; Brymer &amp; Gray, 2006; Jung, Chow, &amp; Wu, 2003), transformational leadership is set as a criteria of effective leadership. Therefore, if practitioners wish to have an effective leader whom subordinates are ready to follow in their organizations, they should pay attention to how these subordinates evaluate their leaders<span xml:lang="en-US">’</span>&nbsp;dark triad traits. However, these results need confirmation in a field survey.</p> 2019-07-17T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Relationships between Employee Occupational Self-efficacy, Structural Empowerment, and Work Engagement 2019-07-17T19:36:35+03:00 Irena Žukauskaitė Dalia Bagdžiūnienė Rita Rekašiūtė Balsienė <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">Nowadays the competitive advantage of any organization mainly relies not only on technologies or material resources but also on competitive, energetic, engaged employees, who are willing to share their knowledge, skills, and experience. Organizations must not only recruit talents but also inspire them and create the conditions in which they reveal themselves and have the prospect for professional growth. According to Bandura (1982), the personal belief of how well one can execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations may become crucial for work success. The present study integrates Bandura’s (1982; 1989) Social Cognitive, Kanter’s<span class="char-style-override-5">&nbsp;</span>(1977; 1979)<span class="char-style-override-5">&nbsp;</span>Structural Empowerment, and<span class="char-style-override-5">&nbsp;</span>Schaufeli<span class="char-style-override-5">&nbsp;</span>and Bakker’s(2004)<span class="char-style-override-5">&nbsp;</span>Work Engagement theories and is aimed (1) to analyze the relationships between employee occupational self-efficacy, structural empowerment, and work engagement and (2) to determine the role of occupational self-efficacy in the relationships between the elements of structural empowerment and work engagement.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus para-style-override-2"><span xml:lang="en-US">A total of 1636 specialist level employees from one Lithuanian public sector organization were surveyed online. Ninety four percent of the respondents were female, six percent were male. The average age of the respondents was 45.71 (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">SD = 10.34</em><span xml:lang="en-US">) years, with the average of 8.29 (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">SD = 7.23</em><span xml:lang="en-US">) years of working experience. All respondents had higher education. Occupational self-efficacy was measured using the Schyns &amp; von Collani (2002)&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">OCCSEEF</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;scale (short version), structural empowerment elements (access to opportunity, information, support, and resources, informal power and formal power) were measured using the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire – II (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">CWEQ – II</em><span xml:lang="en-US">) (Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian, &amp; Wilk, 2001), and the&nbsp;</span><span class="st" xml:lang="en-US">Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">UWES-9</em><em>)&nbsp;</em><em class="char-style-override-6">(</em><span xml:lang="en-US">Schaufeli, Bakker, &amp; Salanova, 2006) was used to measure work engagement. Structural equation modelling (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">SEM</em><span xml:lang="en-US">) was applied to determine the mediating role of occupational self-efficacy in the relationships between elements of structural empowerment and work engagement.</span></p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus para-style-override-2">The analysis revealed that all dimensions of structural empowerment positively predicted occupational self-efficacy, and that occupational self-efficacy positively predicted work engagement. Formal power directly positively predicted work engagement, occupational self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between informal power and work engagement and partially mediated the relationships between certain predictors (access to opportinity, information, and resources) and work engagement.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus para-style-override-2">Despite some limitations (e.g., this being a cross-sectional study, and that specialist level employees were surveyed from one organization), the results of the study highlighted, first, that employee occupational self-efficacy and work engagement might be strengthened by empowering organizational structures, and, second, that occupational self-efficacy is an important personal characteristic explaining the relationships between empowering organizational structures and employee work engagement. Perspectives for future research and practical implications are discussed.</p> 2019-07-17T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Associations between Psychosocial Work Environment Factors with Work Engagement and Burnout in Nursing 2019-07-17T19:36:34+03:00 Arūnas Žiedelis <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The psychosocial work environment (i.e., job demands and resources) is a significant determinant of nurses’ health and motivation; yet, despite the close associations between specific work environment factors, various frameworks suggest different aspects as the most important among the rest. Having in mind the assumption that a more abstract level of analysis might be equally relevant for understanding the work environment and predicting significant outcomes, the aim of this study was to discern the latent factors of nursing work environment and to evaluate their significance in predicting nurses’ work engagement and exhaustion.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus para-style-override-3">Two hundred eleven nurses participated in a two-wave time-lagged survey (ΔT = 8 months). In this survey, 1 Expanded Nursing Stress Scale and several subscales of the Work Design Questionnaire were used to measure main job demands and resources in nursing. At that time, 2 participants were asked to fill out an Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and hierarchical regression analysis were used for analyzing the data.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus para-style-override-3">The EFA results revealed that two factors can be discerned, each related to main job demands and resources accordingly. Based on these results, the aggregated indexes of job demands and resources were calculated. A linear regression analysis showed that these indexes predicted nurses’ work engagement and exhaustion no worse than specific factors, despite the loss of variance due to aggregation. Practical implications of such conclusions are also discussed in the article.</p> 2019-07-17T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinical Neuropsychology: Status in Western Countries and Potential in Lithuania 2019-07-17T19:36:34+03:00 Ramunė Grambaitė Linas Bieliauskas Evelina Grušauskienė Albinas Bagdonas <p>We present an overview of the development of clinical neuropsychology, the current status of the specialty of clinical neuropsychology in Western countries, and the possibilities of developing this specialty in Lithuania. The main duties of a clinical neuropsychologist are to perform neuropsychological assessments and clinical interventions. Clinical neuropsychologists working within health care are professionals who offer services to patients across the lifespan with cognitive and behavioral/emotional symptoms related to neurological, developmental, and psychiatric disorders. Specialists of clinical neuropsychology are needed in neurology and psychiatry clinics, in centers of mental health and rehabilitation, and institutions of psychological assessment and education of children. The specialization models of clinical neuropsychology in Europe and North America are similar in their content and requirements for courses and practice. Nevertheless, specialist education in most of European countries is related to clinical training and not an academic degree, as it is in the USA and Canada. The duration of specialist education in clinical neuropsychology in Europe varies, but this education can only be started after acquiring a Master’s degree in most of the European countries. The regulation of the specialty of clinical neuropsychology in Europe also varies. In some countries, this specialty is fully legally regulated, and in some countries not regulated at all. For specialization in clinical neuropsychology, the license of a psychologist, enabling an individual to work in the health care system of the country, is required in most Western countries. Taking into consideration the Scandinavian experience, it can be expected that the planning of specialization studies in Lithuania would be easier if the licensing of psychologists would be regulated. Today, traditional specializations of psychology in Lithuania may be obtained through Master’s degree studies, i.e., a specialized Master’s diploma compensates a license and any need of further specialization. This Lithuanian tradition is not in accord with the EuroPsy politics of obtaining a diploma: a Master’s diploma is acquired within 6 years of studies, and, after these studies, specialization is continued for a few more years (participation in specialized courses, performance of supervised practice). The model of specialization in clinical neuropsychology in Lithuania should be developed in accordance with international standards of neuropsychology, which are in constant development. In Western countries, the knowledge and skills of clinical and health psychology are considered to be an important part of the specialist education in clinical neuropsychology. Therefore, two years of Master’s studies in clinical neuropsychology would not be sufficient when preparing competent clinical neuropsychologists, unless it is combined with a supervised neuropsychological practice of a defined duration. A doctoral degree is required for neuropsychological practice in the USA, but it is usually not required in Europe. In Lithuania, such a tradition for other specializations of psychology does not exist either, which suggests that a doctoral degree should not be necessary for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology as well. Nevertheless, like in Western countries, supervised clinical neuropsychological practice should be a necessary part of the specialists’ education in clinical neuropsychology.</p> 2019-07-17T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-04-10T19:46:29+03:00 Psichologija T. 85 <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2019-04-10T19:46:27+03:00 Psichologija T. 58 <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## News 2019-04-10T19:46:25+03:00 Psichologija T. 58 <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-01-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##