Respectus Philologicus <p>Founded in 1999. The journal provides a platform for different theoretical and thematic approaches to the following humanitarian research fields: linguistic researches, issues of literary narratives and contexts, influence of advertising discourse, theory and practice of translation, audiovisual research.</p> lt-LT <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> (Gabija Bankauskaitė) (Vigintas Stancelis) Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Editorial Board and Table of Contents ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Image of LANGUAGE in Lexicographical Sources. Analysis of Systematic Data <p>[full article, abstract in Lithuanian; only abstract in English]</p> <p>Language is one of the essential values of the nation, which encodes not only the culture and the identity of the nation, but also what is called national psychology. The article aims at revealing the image of the concept LANGUAGE in modern lexicographical sources. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the Dictionary of Lithuanian Language only 4 out of 10 meanings of ‘kalba’ (language) are witnessed in present-day spoken language, however, namely they show how the concept is understood by the users of the language. The Dictionary of Synonyms provides quite a few synonyms of the language but not all of them are equivalent. Synonyms ‘šneka’ (speech) and ‘žosmė’ are used in the same sense as the language. Another synonym ‘byla’ is quite close to the meanings of the language. However, it has more meanings and some of them are unrelated to the language. The study reveals that there are more contextual synonyms in the speech, such as ‘žodis’ (word), ‘liežuvis’ (tongue). The new meanings can also be highlighted by the antonyms but in the case of language, the Dictionary of Antonyms presents only one − ‘tyla’ (silence). There are more antonyms in the spoken language.</p> Irena Smetonienė, Anželika Smetonienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Akanie as a Means of Linguistic Stylization in Lithuanian Novels by Józef Weyssenhoff <p>[only abstract in English; full article and abstract in Polish]</p> <p>Józef Weyssenhoff (1860–1932) was a Polish writer who dedicated to Kaunas, Lithuania two of the most significant novels in his literary output – “Unia” (1910) and “Soból i panna” (1912), often called “Lithuanian novels”. He was deeply emotionally connected with this region since he was a child. Both these texts constitute a valuable source of knowledge concerning the status of regional variant of Polish language and its formal characteristics that were used in the ground-breaking decades of the 19th and 20<sup>th</sup> century. These characteristics were used by the writer as a means of masterly conducted linguistic stylization. Among the presented by Weyssenhoff’s linguistic facts characteristic for Northern Borderlands there can be found a process called ‘akanie’ what basically means the pattern of pronouncing unstressed vowels /e/ and /o/ as /a/. Which of the peculiar indicators concerning the specific vowel pronunciation is evidenced in the studied texts (phonetic parameter or a phenomenon that has experienced morphological processes)? How do they serve as a means of linguistic stylization? The following article presents a brief description of the peculiar process called ‘akanie’ which was known to Józef Weyssenhoff from Kaunas, Lithuania and which he then deliberately introduced in his two novels as a function of a literary manifestation.</p> Magdalena Płusa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Network of Conceptual Metaphors of GOD and JESUS in the Fourth Gospel <p>[only abstract in English; full article and abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>This article analyses the metaphoric language pertaining to the concepts of GOD and JESUS in the modern translation of the Fourth Gospel into the Lithuanian language (Kavaliauskas 2009). The aim of the research is to reveal the system of conceptual metaphors defining these concepts in the text. The investigation was conducted following MIP(VU) as a method of identifying metaphoric language in discourse following the framework of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory.</p> <p>The study reveals that the concepts of GOD and JESUS are defined by a complex system of closely related conceptual metaphors related to each other through various conceptual mappings. The system is based on the oppositions of UP and DOWN, LIGHT and DARK, GOOD and BAD, and is constituted of the source domains of FAMILY, POWER RELATIONSHIPS, LAW, AGRICULTURE, and PHYSICAL REALITY. The most common conceptual metaphors are the GOD – FATHER and JESUS – SON metaphors. They are the basis of other cases of personification of GOD and JESUS identified, namely: KING, SHEPHERD, JUDGE, SENDER, SOWER, WINE-MAKER, etc. All these conceptual metaphors may be related through the conceptual mappings of AUTHORITY and POWER. The authority and power of the Father are passed to the Son, who comes to this world to continue the works of his Father and inherits his Father’s place in the hierarchy of the family.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eglė Vaivadaitė-Kaidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Lexical Peculiarities of Belarusian Russian Independent from the Influence of the Belarusian Language <p>[full article, abstract in Russian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The article focuses on the interaction of external and internal factors in language change. The paper deals with lexical units that have emerged in the Belarusian variety of Russian without the direct influence of the Belarusian language. The author analyses lexemes derived from Russian morphemes, new meanings of Russian words, and multi-word nominative units, including periphrasis. These items represent how the potential of the Russian language system is realized.</p> <p>The study shows that regionally specific lexical units denote both culture-bound and universal phenomena. The emergence of the units from the latter category is caused by the lexical modernization that may take different forms in different regions. In addition, there is an intermediate group of lexical units: they are not culture-bound but their formation is related to the facts relevant to Belarus. Some lexical units are allusive and refer to political speeches and other famous texts.</p> Olga Goritskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Bad News Discourse in the Lithuanian Soviet Press <p>[abstract in English; full article and abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>The rhetoric and the stylistics – the choice of text style, genre, and rhetorical devices – of Soviet bad&nbsp;news discourse is analysed in this paper. This discourse is represented by 193 reports regarding disasters,&nbsp;crimes, and violation of socialistic moral which were published in the daily paper Komjaunimo tiesa (eng.&nbsp;The Truth of the Komsomol) in 1970–1973. It was found that the bad news in the selection of official texts&nbsp;of this period distinguishes by a much lower register of Newspeak – unlike as in the articles of first pages,&nbsp;there is almost no pathos here, the militaristic metaphors are used in the text of the article only, but they&nbsp;cannot be seen in the headings. One of the main rhetorical devices is an irony, which is created by using&nbsp;phraseology, jargon, famous quotes, dialogues, etc., – everything, which looks like a daily colloquial&nbsp;language. The choice of text form which is more related to fiction than to journalism (essay, satire) may&nbsp;be treated as one of the pretexts which justify in the eyes of the readers an idea of an author to write in&nbsp;a different language than it was ordinary in the context of ideologized press language of that period. By&nbsp;using the corresponding rhetoric, they believed to accomplish the propagandistic aim of these texts more&nbsp;efficiently – to suggest an image of more safe, democratic, successful, and self-critical country than it&nbsp;really was.</p> Dalia Gedzevičienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Finding Home: Paule Marshall’s “The Chosen Place, the Timeless People” <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>The paper deals with the novel “The Chosen Place, the Timeless People” by Paule Marshall, one of the most significant precursors of the modern generation of African American women writers who were instrumental in voicing the concerns and aspirations of millions of black women. It develops some of the themes the writer addressed in her first novel “Brown Girl, Brownstones” and raises topical issues of power and domination, connections between the historical past and present, postcolonial mentality, individual and collective identity, racism, gender inequality, complex relationship between the oppressed and the oppressors, men and women in a male-dominated society, and women’s struggle for self-identification and self-determination. The novel was published in 1969, a critical year in the Civil Rights movement that paved the way for major changes in the social and political life of the United States, and signified the emergence of black feminist writing focusing on the female protagonist of mixed descent who challenges the accepted views and mores and helps to introduce the new awareness of what should be done to break&nbsp;with the miserable past.</p> Yuri Stulov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Cultural Trauma in the Novel “Forest of The Gods” by Balys Sruoga <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>The object of this research is cultural trauma. The signs of the cultural trauma are sought in the novel „Dievų miškas“ ("Forest of The Gods", 1957) by Balys Sruoga (1896–1947). The repressions of Nazis and cultural trauma that they caused is a new subject that did not get enough attention in the field of literature. Importance of this research is based on the idea that it is impossible to overcome the cultural trauma without consideration and discussion. The article defines the relation between text and context on the basis of the ideas of new historicism. The analysis is intended to reveal what traumatic events are represented in the novel and how the identity of the person reveals in the one, and how traumatic experience changes story style and structure.</p> <p>Analysis of the novel reveals that the characters face difficult living conditions, physical and psychological violence, and the constant fear of death; these things cause change of values. The irony&nbsp;was noticed in the novel. An ironic story becomes a language of traumatic experience that helps to avoid a sensitive story, disassociate from personal experience, and tell the tragedy of a nation. One must emphasize that in the story of traumatic experience flashbacks get very important. Finally, analysis reveals that in the novel by B. Sruoga the most important sign of identity is culture</p> Gabija Bankauskaitė, Justina Andriukevičiūtė ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Polish Women in Exile to Siberia in the 19th Century – Autobiographical Reflection in Women’s Narratives <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>The paper discusses the issues related to the biographical research perspective and the role of ego-documents in modern humanities. These considerations focus on autobiographical narratives of women exiled to Siberia in the 19<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century, both those who were sentenced or went there voluntarily. Different forms of women’s narratives were analysed, namely a memoir of Helena Skirmuntowa (1827–1874), written in the years 1863–1867, and a diary of Maria Obuchowska-Morzycka (1841–1911?), who wrote it 40 years after her life in exile. The autobiographical research model adopted in the paper focuses not only on the questions regarding the autobiographical context of ego-documents but also on biographical and autobiographical identity&nbsp;of the authors, connected with the description of their life, experiences, emotions as well as their attitude to the outside world and relations with other people.</p> Lidia Michalska-Bracha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Oktawian Jeleński – a Pole in a Tsar’s Uniform. On Russians and Polish-Russian Relations in the 19th Century <p>[full article in Polish; abstract in English]</p> <p>In his memoirs of a Pole, Oktawian Jeleński presented the life of soldiers, gentry, peasants, merchants, Russian women and Orthodox clergy in provinces. He also focused on Polish-Russian relations during the January Uprising. His observations deserve attention of the historians researching Polish-Russian relations in the 19<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century. Without doubt, Jeleński supported conciliatory approaches, however, at the same time he would severely criticise actions of the Russian administration and police undertaken in order to weaken the Polish spirit, especially in the North-Western Krai. Jelenski believed that good Polish-Russian relations were possible to achieve. In his opinion, however, the Russian „patriotic historiography” and propaganda practiced by Moskowskije wiedomosti, whose editor was Mikhail Katkov, stood in the way. Jeleński’s memoirs are a clear demonstration that a Pole wearing a Tsar’s uniform did not have to deny his Polish identity and the Catholic religion.</p> Wiesław Caban ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0300