Sociology. Thought and Action 2019-04-11T19:27:29+03:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1997. Publishes articles on the critical study of contemporary social and cultural change – including the shifting status of sociology itself – from a variety of perspectives.</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-04-11T19:27:20+03:00 Sociologija T. 42 <div>[text in Lithuanian]</div> 2018-11-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Culture of Memory and the Genesis of the Political In Delphic Theology 2019-04-11T19:27:18+03:00 Raimondas Kazlauskas <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <div> <p>This article discusses the genesis of the political by treating this phenomena as a distinctive interaction between political and religious factors. The chirographic culture of memory, which is more characteristic of the Eastern nations, is being compared with the alternative culture of Ancient Greece, the so-called oroacoustic culture of memory. This article also examines the peculiarities of the political consciousness and religious mentality of Ancient Greece. The assumptions of legitimacy are considered as well, which are related to an identity crisis and a war between generations reflected, in theology, by the traditional world of the Fathers (Olympic) and the marginal world of the Sons (Delphic).</p> </div> 2018-11-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Structure and Agency in Discourse Analysis 2019-04-11T19:27:17+03:00 Agnė Girkontaitė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <div> <p>Discourse analysis in Lithuania, despite being a popular research strategy, lacks clarity and precision in methodological choices. It is quite common to use Foucault’s approach while discussing discourse, but it leads to an overemphasis on structure and ignores agency. However, there is no issue if this position is reflected. That is why it is important to understand the variety of the possible positions in the dialectics of structure-agency within discourse analysis. They are summarized here within a continuum that rests between an emphasis on structure and an emphasis on agency, and which is divided as follows: (1) being concerned exclusively with the structure of discourse without any attention to the agent; (2) being concerned with discourse structure as something that lies “beyond,” where agents are more or less seen as the passive carriers of a discursive order with almost no possibility of agency; (3) the discourse and agent being seen as taking part in a balanced dialectical relationship, influencing each other; (4) the agent being seen as dependent on structure to some extent, but also as the one with the power or the one who should be empowered; (5) the center of an analysis being the practices of the actors, not the discourse in particular. This classification explains the specific epistemological and methodological strategies based in specific areas of the social sciences and the humanities. When reflected, these strategies help to understand what position on the role of agency is taken in a particular discourse analysis.</p> </div> 2018-11-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Female Habitus in the Field Of Bodybuilding and Body Fitness: Gender and Symbolic Domination 2019-04-11T19:27:16+03:00 Mažvydas Karalius <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <div> <p>Based on P. Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field and masculine domination, the main objective of this article is to reconstruct the social boundaries of women’s weightlifting and the operating principles of the woman’s habitus within the field of bodybuilding. It is argued that women’s body fitness and women’s bodybuilding are inevitably related to power and gender. An analysis of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with four female athletes (of whom two are female fitness athletes and two others are former female bodybuilders) provides answers to the main research question: what embodied social regulations enable (or restrict) the access of women to an athletic discipline if it is traditionally defined in terms of masculinity? It is further argued that two main criteria arise and take effect in the field of weightlifting: besides the necessity to follow a strict regime and maintain the body in proper shape, a no less important social rule is to embody a socially acceptable form of femininity. The concept of a “synchronized body” is suggested in order to explain the everyday effort to keep the athletic body in between the ever insufficient femininity and the excessive masculinity. Finally, in terms of their bodies, women athletes practice specific strategies in order to suppress the identity conflict between their athletic and “normal,” mundane lives.</p> </div> 2018-11-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nonmonogamy: Changing Intimacy and Sociological Research 2019-04-11T19:27:15+03:00 Darja Lyzenko <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <div> <p>This article discusses the concepts of monogamy, nonmonogamy and consensual nonmonogamy (swinging, polyamory and open relationships). The cultural forces questioning the perspectives of the normativity of monogamy are similarly being argued. In addition, issues regarding the mono-normative position of monogamy, its legitimacy and relationship with the concepts of monogamy and nonmonogamy are also explored.</p> </div> 2018-11-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Unmasking Aggression in the Works of Oskaras Koršunovas and Lars Von Trier 2019-04-11T19:27:14+03:00 Salomėja Zaksaitė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <div> <p>This article explores issues related to how social roles, when imposed, become oppressive to on an individual, and how consciously chosen roles become “more true” than the reality itself and advance the investigation of human nature. The text consists of three parts. In the first part, we discuss dramaturgical theory as well as the psychosocial and artistic experiments about the social power of enacted social roles. The second part is an analysis of a trilogy directed by Lithuanian theatre director Oskaras Koršunovas – Hamlet, The Lower Depths and The Seagull. It is followed by an examination of the trilogy of Danish cinema director Lars von Trier – Antichrist, Melancholia and Nymphomaniac. Both trilogies embrace certain common dichotomies: truth vs. lie; individual responsibility vs. collective conformism; freedom vs. oppression; life vs. death; openness vs. hypocrisy; reality vs. fiction; deep play vs. superficial theatricality. The analyzed works of art, combined with the psychosocial experiments, reveal that realistic play (experimentation) can help to grasp shocking data about human behavior that would be extremely difficult to obtain without dramaturgical acting.</p> </div> 2018-11-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Let the Lights Burn Forever: Sociological View on Energy Security in Lithuania 2019-04-11T19:27:12+03:00 Zenonas Norkus <div> <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> </div> 2018-11-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2019-04-11T19:27:11+03:00 Sociologija T. 42 <div>[text in Lithuanian]</div> 2018-11-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potestas Quaerens Auctoritatem. Political Theology between Hierateuma and Strateuma 2019-04-11T19:27:29+03:00 Raimondas Kazlauskas <div> <p>[only abstract in English; full article and abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>This article discusses the concept of the quality of being political and the relationship between power and authority. The theories of Carl Schmitt and Eric Voegelin were chosen as the main points of reference. Problems of the interaction of power and authority are discussed in the paper as well as the genesis of the quality of being political. The article attempts to prove that the phenomenon of power occurs in the Iron Age with the disappearance of the Eastern dominances. The prominence of a principle of supremacy of power becomes an issue when the authority, which demands hierarchy and alludes to the traditions of dominance, is sought to be eliminated.</p> </div> 2018-10-15T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On the Attempt to Unlock the Black Boxes of Science (1) 2019-04-11T19:27:28+03:00 Arūnas Poviliūnas <div> <p>[only abstract in English; full article and abstract in Lithuanian]</p> <p>This study is an analysis of a sociological research about the scientific activities performed by natural scientists. It is composed of three parts: a critical overview of Bruno Latour’s theoretical writings on the Actor-Network Theory, the description of the research and reflections on the findings. The research discussed in this study was a didactical experiment consisting of focus group discussions. The aim of the experiment was to facilitate an epistemological rupture, which, in the science studies, might be interpreted as a shift from the sociology of the social to the sociology of translation or the Actor-Network Theory treating non-social objects of nature, nonhumans or things as social entities within associations and networks. The sociology students who participated in the didactical experiment were very positive about their experience regarding the epistemological rupture and its role in shaping their knowledge about sociology itself. In this issue, we publish the first part of the study and discuss the ideas of B. Latour on the sociology of transduction and science studies.</p> </div> 2018-10-15T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##