Verbum <p>Founded in 2010. Publishes articles&nbsp;on the studies of Germanic, Roman and Slavic languages as well as on the issues of education.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press lt-LT Verbum 2029-6223 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> The Coda Voicing Contrast in Lithuanian Learners’ English <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p><span lang="lt">Vowel duration, though not belonging to the three main factors in the decription of vowels, plays an important role in the English language. Alongside qualitative differences, it helps to distinguish between the meaning of such words as&nbsp;</span><span lang="en-GB">‘ship’ and ‘sheep’.&nbsp;</span><span lang="lt">Vowel duration has been recognised to be a complex phenomenon, which depends on a combination of factors: internal and external (Delattre 1962). The present pilot study focuses on one of the factors belonging to the latter group, i.e. the influence of the postvocalic voicing on vowel duration in minimal pairs of one sylable CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) words, a phenomenon reffered to as&nbsp;</span>‘pre-fortis clipping’ (Wells 1990), ‘voicing effect’ (Yoneyama and Kitahara 2014), ‘consonantal voicing effect’ (Beller-Marino 2014), ‘vowel-length effect’ (Ko 2007), ‘shortening’ (Cruttenden 2014), ‘post-vocalic consonant voicing effect’ (Taubeber and Evanini 2009), etc. The scope of this research was limited to four checked unrounded English monophthongs: the front-central, close-mid /ɪ/, the front, mid /e/, the front, open /æ/, and the central, open-mid /ʌ/. The durational differences were analysed from a perceptive and productive perspectives. The obtained results indicated that the Lithuanian learners showed an effect of voicing on vowel-duration, manifested in a number of languages:<span lang="en-GB">&nbsp;the mean duration of the examined vowels was shorter before a fortis than before a lenis coda. The analysis of individual students’ production data proved the importance of the individual variable.</span></p> Lina Bikelienė Milda Vaitkevičiūtė ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 9 11 20 10.15388/Verb.2018.2 Fossiles lexicaux dans des expressions figées <p>[full article and abstract in French, summary in English]</p> <p>Un certain nombre d’unités lexicales du français qui ont disparu de l’usage se conservent, cependant, dans des expressions figées de différents types (locutions ou collocations surtout). Nous les appellerons «&nbsp;fossiles lexicaux&nbsp;». C’est le cas, par exemple, de fur (dans au fur et à mesure), noise (dans chercher noise) ou coi (dans se tenir coi). Dans certains cas, c’est une acception particulière d’une unité lexicale donnée qui est conservée au sein d’une expression figée (par exemple soupe ‘tranche de pain arrossée de bouillon chaud’ dans trempé comme une soupe), donnant lieu parfois à des remotivations. Dans d’autres cas encore, c’est une forme morphologique (flexionnelle ou dérivationnelle) qui est préservée, par exemple vif dans plus mort que vif ou insu dans l’expression à l’insu de. Nous passerons en revue un certain nombre de ces expressions et nous donnerons des exemples du fonctionnement de ces formes dans des états de langue anciens.</p> <h3>Lexical Fossils in Frozen Expressions</h3> <p>A certain amount of French lexical units that have disappeared survive, nevertheless, in different kinds of frozen expressions (such as idioms or collocations). We call them «&nbsp;lexical fossils&nbsp;». Some examples could be&nbsp;: fur (in au fur et à mesure), noise (in chercher noise) or coi (in se tenir coi). Sometimes it is a particular sense of a given lexical unit that persists inside a frozen expression (for example, soupe ‘slide of bread soaked in warm broth’ in trempé comme une soupe), giving rise occasionally to remotivations. In some other cases a morphological form (inflectional or derivational) is preserved, for instance vif in plus mort que vif or insu in à l’insu de. We will comment some of these expressions and we will give examples from different periods of French.</p> Xavier Blanco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 9 31 40 10.15388/Verb.2018.4 Begegnungsschule und Fremdsprache: Der pädagogisch-institutionelle Diskurs in Bezug auf die mehrsprachige und plurikulturelle Kompetenzförderung in einer deutschen Auslandsschule <p>[full article, abstract in German; abstract in English]</p> <p>Im Kapitel 8 des&nbsp;Gemeinsamen europäischen Referenzrahmens für Sprachen (GER) wird die sogenannte mehrsprachige und plurikulturelle Kompetenz als weiteres Ziel des Sprachenlernens erläutert. Dementsprechend wird die allgemeine Sprachkompetenz „nicht als Schichtung oder als ein Nebeneinander von getrennten Kompetenzen verstanden, sondern vielmehr als eine komplexe oder sogar gemischte Kompetenz“ (Trim et al. 2001, p. 163) betrachtet. Insgesamt werden 140 Auslandsschulen mit Ressourcen des deutschen Auswärtigen Amtes in 71 Ländern gefördert. Von 80.000 Schülern besitzen ca. 73% weder die deutsche Staatsbürgerschaft noch sprechen sie Deutsch als Erstsprache. Meistens handelt es sich um private Bildungsanstalten, welche als bikulturelle Begegnungsschulen bezeichnet und von Kindern und Jugendlichen aus ökonomisch privilegierten Elternhäusern besucht werden. In diesem Zusammenhang stellt sich die Kernfrage: Inwiefern entspricht der dabei erwartete interkulturelle Dialog den Austauschdynamiken und Identitätsprozessen, wie sie im Schulalltag festgestellt werden können, und auch den Prämissen des GER in Bezug auf interkulturelle und mehrsprachige Kompetenz? An welcher sprachlichen Ideologie orientiert sich der Diskurs und die pädagogische Praxis in solchen binationalen Schuleinrichtungen? Die Analyse des institutionellen Diskurses der untersuchten Einrichtung zeigt ihren ideologischen Unterbau und die soziopolitische Zielgruppe auf, die sie in den Blick nimmt, sowie ihre Einstellung zu Interkulturalität und Mehrsprachigkeit. Die überwiegende Spracheinstellung verweist noch auf den „Nativitätsmythos“ (Rajagopalan 1997, p. 226 f.), indem die Sprachkompetenz des zweisprachigen Individuums hinsichtlich eines anachronistischen, imaginären ‚Muttersprachlers‘ bewertet wird.</p> <h3>Encounter Schools and Foreign Language: The Pedagogical-Institutional Discourse about Multilingual and Pluricultural Competence Promotion in a German School Abroad</h3> <p lang="en-US">Among the 80,000 students attending the 140 German schools abroad, about 73% are not German or ‘native’ German speakers. These are usually private schools, called “bicultural schools of encounter” frequented by children and young people from the economically privileged classes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the permeability of the space of this encounter and between the internal structures of the same. We seek to elucidate the extent to which the model of intercultural dialogue envisaged by this political project corresponds to the dynamics of exchanges and identity re-elaborations that occur organically and to the assumptions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in relation to the development of intercultural and plurilingual competences. Analyzing the presentation of the institutional profile and pedagogical plan in the homepage of one of these schools, we hope to counter the vestiges of this proposal of literacy in the school environment to the social and linguistic representations shared by these institutions and their target audience. In this context, the key question arises: To what extent does the expected intercultural dialogue correspond to the exchange dynamics and identity processes that can be identified in everyday school life, and to the premises of the CEFR in relation to intercultural and multilingual competence? At which linguistic ideology is the discourse and pedagogical practice in such binational institutions oriented?</p> <p lang="en-US">The analysis of the institutional discourse of a bilingual German school located in Brazil aims to reveal its ideological substructure and the socio-political target group that it looks at, as well as its attitude to interculturality and multilingualism. According to the results, the predominant language attitude still refers to the "myth of nativity" (Rajagopalan 1997: 226 f.), in which the linguistic competence of the bilingual individual is evaluated in terms of an anachronistic, imaginary 'native speaker'.</p> <p lang="en-US">The theoretical basis for this study is presented in the first two chapters, followed by a brief discussion of the methodology applied on this research. Afterwards, chapter 5 deals in depth with the institutional discourse on the examined school concept. Chapter 6 deals with language attitudes and transcultural processes in reports on multidisciplinary activities and the following concluding chapter tries to reconstruct the challenges of a partly organic, partly planned development towards a multilingual (school) identity.</p> Robson Carapeto-Conceição ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 9 41 50 10.15388/Verb.2018.5 Le dictionnaire: d'un ouvrage de partage à un objet personnel et personnalisé <p>[full article, abstract in French; abstract in English]</p> <section> <p>Au début des années 2000, avec l’informatisation, seuls les modes de recherche dans les dictionnaires avaient évolué. A cette période, on se réjouissait de pouvoir faire facilement des recherches thématiques dans les dictionnaires, grâce notamment à des outils de recherche «&nbsp;plein texte&nbsp;». Parallèlement, on s’inquiétait de la fiabilité des dictionnaires «&nbsp;collaboratifs&nbsp;», conçus grâce aux technologies du wiki et dans lesquels les utilisateurs pouvaient faire des modifications. Aujourd’hui, de nouveaux dictionnaires apparaissent&nbsp;: des dictionnaires que l’on peut fabriquer soi-même, à l’aide d’outils simples d’utilisation, et qui permettent à chacun de personnaliser son dictionnaire. L’article montrera que la personnalisation des dictionnaires change de façon radicale notre rapport au savoir (nous construisons nous-même notre ouvrage de référence), notre rapport à l’expert (serions-nous tous des lexicographes&nbsp;?) et notre rapport même à l’utilisation du dictionnaire, puisqu’il devient un outil personnel et non plus un outil de partage.</p> <p><strong>Mots-clés:</strong>&nbsp;lexicographie, dictionnaires, wiki, nouvelles technologies.</p> </section> <section> <h3>Dictionaries: from information-sharing tools to highly customized objects</h3> <p>In the early 2000s, only search modes in dictionaries had evolved. In this period, it was challenging to be able to make easily thematic researches in dictionaries, due to “full text” research tools. At the same time, we were questioning about the reliability of the "collaborative" dictionaries, designed thanks to the technologies of the wiki and in which the users could make modifications.</p> <p>Today, new dictionaries appear: dictionaries made by the user himself, for himself, by means of easy to use tools, and which allow every user to make his dictionary. The article will show that the customization of dictionaries changes in a radical way our relation to the knowledge (we build ourselves our reference book), our relation to the expert (would we be all lexicographers?) and our way of using the dictionary, because it becomes a personal tool and it is no more a way of sharing a language.</p> </section> Hélène Manuelian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 9 1 10 10.15388/Verb.2018.1 Stance Taking in Social Media: the Analysis of the Comments About Us Presidential Candidates on Facebook and Twitter <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>The subject of the paper is the analysis of the expression of stance taking in an online environment, mainly in the comments of users of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter about the presidential candidates of the American Presidential Election in 2016. The empirical data analysis was carried out following the ideas of J. W. Du Bois (2007), D. Barton &amp; C. Lee (2013) and R. Englebretson (2007) on stance taking and J. W. Du Bois’ (2007) model of stance triangle, i.e. grouping instances of stance-taking into one of these groups: evaluation, affect or epistemicity, which served as the main framework of this study. The work of linguists D. Barton &amp; C. Lee (2013) on the expression of stance-taking in an online environment were also taken into consideration.</p> <p>Having in mind the fact that stance identification is a challenging task , i.e. it could be implicitly as well as explicitly expressed and that it should be inferred from different modes of its expression and interpreted with reference to many contextual and intertextual factors, in the current analysis the authors focused on interpretation of linguistic as well as other multimodal means of the expression of stance that were used by users of social networks in their writing spaces on the topic of the Presidential Election in the United States in 2016. It should also be mentioned that the analysis presented in this article offers only one of the many possible interpretations of the data. Moreover, the current paper concentrates mainly on the presentation of the empirical data of the expression of affective stance. However, it should be indicated that in some cases stance types overlap, i.e. one instance could be treated as both taking an affective and an evaluative stance, as judgements and evaluation (i.e. evaluative stance) are often based on feelings (i.e. affective stance).</p> <p>The main source of the empirical data were the instances of stance taking taken from comments found on Donald Trump’s and Hillary Clinton’s verified Facebook and Twitter pages during their presidential campaigns in 2016. All in all, 147 examples of posts and comments from the social networks Facebook and Twitter were collected: 72 comments incorporating stance taking on Donald Trump‘s posts, and 75 comments including stance taking on Hillary Clinton‘s posts. The results of the empirical data analysis showed that the affective stance was expressed by linguistic as well as multimodal means.</p> Roma Kriaučiūnienė Jefferey La Roux Miglė Lauciūtė ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 9 21 30 10.15388/Verb.2018.3 LES FRANCISMES DANS LES DICTIONNAIRES QUÉBÉCOIS <p>Le but de cet article était d’analyser les francismes, relevés dans cinq dictionnaires du français québécois et d’évaluer leur rôle informatif pour les locuteurs du français standard et ceux du français québécois. Le québécisme est un fait de la langue française, propre à sa variété régionale, parlée par les communautés francophones canadiennes au Québec. Elle se distingue du français standard par ses caractéristiques particulières au niveau phonétique, lexical et syntaxique. Le québécisme existe en opposition avec le francisme et le français de France en général. Le francisme (aussi appelé l’hexagonisme) est un fait de la langue française qui comporte les mots d’usage typique du français standard ou autrement, utilisé sur le territoire du Canada. La recherche effectuée nous a permis de constater que le rôle de francisme dans les dictionnaires québécois est celui d’un connecteur ou d’une clé particuliers. En tant qu’un élément du dictionnaire, il peut fournir l’information sur le dictionnaire lui-même, sur son auteur, mais aussi sur les ressources linguistiques utilisées, reflétant l’état de la langue et de ses variantes régionales. Malheureusement, il n’est pas encore défini d’une manière complètement claire et utilisé à son plein potentiel.</p> Julija Kalvelytė Danguolė Melnikienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-19 2018-01-19 9 7 19 10.15388/Verb.2017.8.11320 PRAGMATIC POTENTIAL OF THE NOMINATION OF THE SUBJECT-SOURCE OF FEAR (A MONSTROSITY) IN TEXTS OF HORROR DISCOURSE <p>The research is aimed at studying the pragmatic potential of nominations of the subject-source of fear (a monstrosity, in particular) in texts of horror discourse in English and Ukrainian. The idea is that the expression of the communicative sense “fear” in a subjectively created world according to an author’s intention is explicated in the nomination of the subject-source of fear (SSF). Generally, any SSF is a monster as far as its attributes and actions are harmful for the recipient of fear (SRF), its essence contradicts the SRF’s world creating norms. Psychologically, a SSF-monstrosity is a metaphor that gives ground to a trend in the horror discourse (J. Hartwell) and preconditions the modus of fear emphasis that lets the reader concentrate his empathy on the SRF, revealing his hidden fears. In psychology this state is called dysmorphophobia, or an obsessive fear of deformities (both own and others). Alogism of SSFs’ reference includes repellent appearance as the feature of external inconsistency with the norms of the SRF’s world: in this sense it borders on the notion of otherness that, revealed to its fullest, may be perceived as horrific. On the other hand, deformities viewed as the features of some other world creation relate to the notion of novelty, and may be understood as not fearful. Both sense variations mentioned above are present in texts of horror discourse and actualize such senses as “fear-disgust”, “fear of the unknown” and “fear of otherness”; their differentiation helps exclude from the analysis tautological notion “fear of fearful”. </p> Yaroslava Sazonova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-19 2018-01-19 9 20 28 10.15388/Verb.2017.8.11323 REDRESSIVE ACTIONS FOLLOWING COMMISERATIONS IN ONLINE DISCUSSIONS <p>In Brown and Levinson’s (1978) seminal classification of positive politeness strategies, commiserating is listed in the subgroup referred to as human-relations wants. The qualitative and quantitative ana­lysis of a corpus consisting of five Internet discussion boards has shown that it is also one of the most frequent positive politeness strategies used there. All the threads under examination are dedicated to the so-called women’s topics, such as dieting, pregnancy, infertility or mothering. The members of these close-knit communities formed upon the boards find it necessary to express sympathy in order to enhance each other’s (positive) face and avoid face-threatening acts arising from the sensitive nature of these topics. However, the analysis of the corpus has also revealed that to commiserate merely by saying they are sorry is not enough. The interlocutors find it necessary to add often complex redressi­ve actions to boost the illocutionary force of their statements. Thus the aim of the paper is to explore the formulaic character of commiserations and categorise the numerous redressive actions following them, taking into account their two main functions, i.e. building rapport and facilitating smooth communication within online communities. </p> Petra Trávníková ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-19 2018-01-19 9 29 39 10.15388/Verb.2017.8.11327 REPRESENTING POSTFEMINIST FEMALE CHARACTERS IN THE CONTEMPORARY MEDIASCAPE: THE DISCURSIVE FUNCTION OF IRONY <p>Addressing the interdisciplinary area of language &amp; gender as applied to television and media stu­dies, this article summarises the detailed analysis of some extremely popular contemporary TV series and media. With all their specificities, these significant cultural products share a reinvention of the codes of romance, by representing an up-to-date, somehow fashionable version of the traditional, and traditionally female, genre of romance geared to postfeminist consumer culture. The femininities and sexualities enacted in these cultural narratives may appear to be unsparingly and humorously critical of conventionally female linguistic and cultural stereotypes, and could therefore be regarded as radical feminist embodiments. Nevertheless, by means of an ironic and hyperbolic approach, they are in fact not only romantic and mainstream, but also ideologically biased, preserving a normative heterosexual white middle-class status quo, and restoring a patriarchal value system. A close critical scrutiny thus shows the stylistic and discursive strategies by which feminism has switched to postfemi­nist romance, and has thereby yielded to postfeminist backlash.</p> Daniela Francesca Virdis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-19 2018-01-19 9 40 50 10.15388/Verb.2017.8.11333 TOWARDS AUTONOMY IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS <p>It is the purpose of this paper to examine some aspects of autonomy in language learning with a specific focus on the transition from high school to the first year at university. This transition can be problematic, in that study at a university level requires a degree of independence and initiative which is not generally required in the supportive learning environment of the school system. <br /> Our starting point is identifying those characteristics which make a good language learner (Naiman et al. 1978; Johnson 2001; Maftoon and Seyyedrezaei 2012) and to demonstrate that these characteristics are largely an innate capacity of some and not all learners. <br /> Among these characteristics there is the ability to establish a systematic and autonomous approach to the learning process on the basis of personal inclinations and individual life-skills (Dublin Descriptors 2005). In this sense the good learner is not a passive participant in the process, but, as Schön (1987) claims, acts as a ‘problem-solver’, able to make decisions and put those decisions into practice. That is to say, learning is ‘the creation of knowledge’ (Kolb 1984). <br /> Finally, an approach to developing learner autonomy is illustrated, based on the personal experience of the author within the context of a first year ESP course in Communication Studies at the University of Cagliari (Italy). The course makes extensive use of the new technologies through a Moodle platform. It will be demonstrated that a blend of traditional teaching and e-learning can provide a ‘bridge’ between school and university, allowing the learner to move within a flexible environment and acquire the skills necessary for successful learning.</p> John Christopher Wade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-19 2018-01-19 9 51 71 10.15388/Verb.2017.8.11335