Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP <p>Founded in 2007 and dedicated to publishing articles on accounting, audit, and analysis.</p> Vilnius University Press en-US Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika 1822-8682 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/journalpolicy">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> The Concept and Functions of Performance Audit: Theoretical Study https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/18440 <p><span lang="en-GB">Performance audit is a type of audit that evaluates and inspects an organizations’ activity based on the so-called 3E approach: economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and plays the most important role in institutions of public sector.</span><span lang="en-US">&nbsp;During the implementation of the public sector reforms in recent decades, the concept of audit has been changing. Therefore, a need to re-evaluate the current definition of the audit and supplement it arose. It is also important to review the functions attributed to performance audit in order to define its ever-changing identity. The aim of the article: to evaluate the concepts of performance audit and the conceptual development of functions from a theoretical point of view. The article presents the analysis of performance audit concepts as well as a performance audit definition. The functions of performance audit have been distinguished, grouped, and evaluated based on how often they are mentioned in the literature. Two problems that make the implementation of the functions more challenging have been distinguished: contradictions among functions arise due to a diverse range of functions; due to versatility of the activity, the functions are difficult to evaluate, and measure and evaluation criteria are hard to establish.</span></p> Asta Salienė Daiva Tamulevičienė Lionius Gaižauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Asta Salienė | Daiva Tamulevičienė | Lionius Gaižauskas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 21 7 7 10.15388/batp.2020.22 Time series interpolation and application of its methods in financial analysis https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/18475 <p>In the modern market economy conditions, financial information is very significant when evaluating the results of enterprises’ financial status and activity results. General economic, mathematical, heuristic methods are used for this type of analysis. The article analyses application opportunities for one of the mathematical research methods–time series–as well as its research instruments, discusses the place and role of interpolation methods in a financial analysis. The article reveals that interpolation methods which may be used to determined former values of an enterprise’s financial indicators or identify reasons which determined the enterprise’s financial status and activity results are the following: 1) graphic and arithmetic interpolation in a linear equation; 2) geometric interpolation based on the compound percentage formula and 3) interpolation by averaging.</p> Jonas Mackevičius Romualdas Valkauskas Diana Bachtijeva Copyright (c) 2020 Jonas Mackevicius | Romualdas Valkauskas | Diana Bachtijeva https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 21 6 6 10.15388/batp.2020.21 Strategic management accounting: information application areas and instruments https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/18632 <p>he application of strategic management accounting instruments in corporate governance is a significant tool for gaining a competitive advantage, increasing the existing market share, and improving the company’s performance. The article examines the development, concept, and significance of strategic management accounting. There are five areas of strategic management accounting: 1) costing; 2) planning, control, and performance measurement; 3) strategic decision-making; 4) competitor accounting; 5) customer accounting. The main instruments of each area, their advantages, challenges of implementation in enterprise management, and benefits for the efficiency of the organization have been identified.</p> Kamilė Medeckytė Daiva Tamulevičienė Copyright (c) 2020 Kamilė Medeckytė | Daiva Tamulevičienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 21 5 5 10.15388/batp.2020.20 Methodology of applying standard costing and normative methods in manufacturing enterprises https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/17751 <p>Appropriate choice of the production cost calculation methods helps not only to estimate the production cost correctly, but also to correctly determine prices of products as well as their profit and profitability, draw up budgets, control expenses, make operational and prospective management decisions. The article analyses effective standard costing and normative methods that are still seldom applied in Lithuanian enterprises. A brief history of how the methods were created is provided. The advantages and aims as well as their similarities and differences are analysed. A methodology of applying standard costing and normative methods in manufacturing enterprises was prepared. Application of these methodologies is going to help managers and accountants to introduce the methods easier and at a lower cost.</p> Daiva Tamulevičienė Jonas Mackevičius Lionius Gaižauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Daiva Tamulevičienė | Jonas Mackevičius | Lionius Gaižauskas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-25 2020-06-25 21 4 4 10.15388/batp.2020.19 Identification of Accounting Errors and Fraud: Case Study https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/17048 <p>Fraud from errors can only be distinguished by using the rejection method, when the found inaccuracy is checked using methodology for fraud detection. Therefore, the three most popular methodologies are examined: the fraud triangle, ratio analysis, and forensic accounting. The fraud triangle and the ratio analysis makes it easier to identify fraud than forensic accounting, but these methods require additional evidence to confirm the fraud. Forensic accounting uses document verification, so this method does not require additional evidence, whereas the forensic expert decides within his competence on error and fraud. The purpose of the article is to conduct a case study, which aims to determine the progress of investigating errors and fraud and the applicable illegal actions after examining a case of document forgery. In the case analysis fraud was found in the company's accounting by using document verification and comparison as well as interviewing employees. The following research methods were used for the research: comparative analysis and synthesis of scientific literature, interpretation, deduction, systematization, generalization, case analysis.</p> Daiva Raziūnienė Gintarė Juškaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Daiva Raziūnienė | Gintarė Juškaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-04-29 2020-04-29 21 3 3 10.15388/batp.2020.18 The Effect of the Intensity of Telework Use on Employees’ Work-Life Balance https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16768 <p><span lang="en-US">The intensive penetration of information and communication technologies into the labour market has also determined the modernisation of work organization processes. The digitization of information and telecommunications enabled to perform most of intellectual activities not only in the work premises but also in other spaces distant from the main workplace. Thus, as the technology revolution gradually releases modern intellectual work from the constraints of the physical location, telework is becoming an increasingly accelerating trend in the world.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Together with technological changes allowing to reach the employee 24 hours a day and 7 days a week create challenges for teleworkers seeking to successfully reconcile two areas of life – work and personal life. Employees from different fields, among them accounting, audit, finances, analysis and others that carry out tasks via telework face this challenge.<br></span>Relevance of the scientific research problem formulated in this paper was determined by the lack of studies in the scientific research to date, which would evaluate the intensity of telework use as an important factor that has a different effect on work-life balance.<br>The research aim is to reveal the effect of the intensity of telework use on employee work-life balance. A quantitative study – the survey of telework employees was conducted and 320 respondents were surveyed. The results of the empirical study revealed that the intensity of telework use had equally positive effect only on two dimensions of work-life balance: time intended for the family and friends and time intended for oneself.</p> Neringa Grincevičienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-26 2020-03-26 21 1 1 10.15388/batp.2020.16 First time adoption of IFRS 15 “Revenue from contracts with customers“: the case of Lithuanian listed companies https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16769 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Revenue accounting is one of the most important areas of financial accounting. Revenue is one of the key absolute financial ratios that reflects the economic benefits generated by entities that result in increased shareholders‘ equity. This article investigates the first time adoption of new IFRS 15 “Revenue from contracts with customers“ which in International financial reporting standards (hereinafter – IFRS) system is mandatory to apply starting from 1 January 2018. The new IFRS 15 supersedes the previous international accounting standards regulating revenue recognition and introduces a conceptual 5-step revenue recognition model. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of the first-time adoption of IFRS 15 “Revenue from contracts with customers“ on the financial statements of Lithuanian listed companies. This purpose is achieved while using the following research methods: analysis of International financial reporting standards (IFRS) and scientific literature, as well as analysis of the content of financial statements. An empirical study revealed that the first-time adoption of IFRS 15 had no material impact on the financial statements of Lithuanian listed companies. Most of the companies surveyed applied the standard using a simplified retrospective modified method and did not pay much attention to the disclosure of first-time adoption. For those affected by the standard, the effect was mostly notable in the following areas: reclassifications of commissions and brokerage fees, changes in revenue recognition principles from the revenue recognition over a time to revenue recognition at specific point in time and vice versa.</p> Darius Vaicekauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-26 2020-03-26 21 2 2 10.15388/batp.2020.17 Evidence of the Financial Audit https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16697 <p>Evidence is an argument that justifies the truth or falsity of a subjective opinion or assertion. Characteristics of audit evidence directly impact the obtaining process of sufficient audit evidence as well as determine the final audit decision regarding fairness and truthfulness of financial reporting. The purpose of the article is to identify the material aspects of evaluating audit evidence and to define the concept of the financial statement‘s audit evidence. The research methods applied in the article are comparative analysis and synthesis of Lithuanian and foreign scientific literature, interpretation, critical thinking and systematization of financial audit laws and regulations. Furthermore, the article examines the concept of financial audit evidence, its characteristics and criteria of reliability as well as disclosure of material audit evidence.</p> Daiva Raziūnienė Uršula Adaškevič Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-19 2020-03-19 21 7 7 10.15388/batp.2019.15 Issues in selecting profitability indicators for the evaluation of corporate financial performance https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15791 <p>The article analyses the selection of profitability indicators for the evaluation of corporate financial performance. Both theory and practice, address a variety of profitability indicators, therefore, it is essential to understand the possibilities of using the information they provide, as well as to be able to identify potential reasons of indicator value deviations, and to assess the conditions causing the analysis performed based on these indicators to provide incomplete or unreliable information. The aim of the study is to analyse the main profitability indicators, their potential disadvantages, and possible issues in the analysis and interpretation of these indicators. Methods of logical and comparative analysis of the scientific literature, synthesis and generalisation, statistical data analysis and interpretation were used in this article. The results of the analysis show that there is no universal profitability indicator, that would cover all areas of company performance, because profitability indicators’ reliability, as well as objectivity of comparison to other entities, are influenced by national accounting standards, different prime cost calculation methods, long-term assets depreciation methods, reserve assessment, and other methods.</p> Vilius Savickas Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 21 6 6 10.15388/batp.2019.14 The Value of Financial Analysis Information: Theoretical View https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15904 <p>The value of financial information analysis depends on usability, efforts, duration, etc. These dimensions have not been systematically reviewed as well as assessment methods have not been established yet. The purpose of the article is an examination of value dimensions and arrangement of the model for identifying and determining analysis methods. Research methods of this article are literature analysis, classification, specification and generalization of information. In this article, we focus on financial analysis data and the relation between information and its value. We suggest the theoretical model which determines dimensions of the information value and costs related to its transfer. We propose a method of evaluating parameters of value and how these parameters may influence its exposure.</p> Jonas Mackevičius Daiva Raziūnienė Romualdas Valkauskas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 21 5 5 10.15388/batp.2019.13