Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP <p>Founded in 2007 and dedicated to publishing articles on accounting, audit, and analysis.</p> Vilnius University Press en-US Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika 1822-8682 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/journalpolicy">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Problematics of Creative Accounting and Earnings Management in the Context of the Development of Accounting Theories https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/22420 <p>The beginnings of accounting can be found even in the 14st century, when trade transactions began to be recorded in the books of account. To this day, accounting has evolved at certain stages, depending on goals were set for the accounting for that period. In the article after concluding the analysis of scientific sources the following are presented: the stages of accounting development, which were influenced not only by different Anglo-Saxon, Germanic and Latin accounting systems, but also by economic and political factors; the influence of accounting on the development of accounting theories is revealed. The concept of positive accounting theory, assumptions for manipulating accounting and the concept and application methods of earnings management and creative accounting are presented. Based on the research, a model of multi-paradigm approach is presented, in which the methodologies of normative and positive accounting theory can be fully applied. The proposed complexity of methodologies can help to solve not only the problems of creative accounting and earnings management, but also other problems of the 21st century. accounting issues.</p> Diana Bachtijeva Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 22 6 6 10.15388/batp.2020.28 Determinants of Tax Planning: Theoretical Analysis https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/22133 <p><strong>Annotation. </strong>Tax planning is a topic of interest for taxpayers, practitioners, public authorities and academics. Analyzing scientific literature on tax planning shows that some authors are looking at the tax planning process, while others are looking at the factors that determine tax planning. Although there are a number of scientific literature analysing these factors, it is noted that there is a need to systematize this literature. The purpose of the article is to identify the determinants of tax planning activities in companies and households. Methods used in the article: systematic analysis of scientific literature, systematization of information, comparison, generalization. After analyzing the scientific literature, authors provide a concept of tax planning and selected determinants that encourage and inhibit the involvement of both types of taxpayers in tax planning activities. After a theoretical analysis, it was found that corporate tax planning is influenced by the company's profitability, profit begor taxes, internationalisation, the scale of foreign operations, listing, capital receptivity and growth, development, size and leverage of the company, optimism of the company CEO, experience of his military service, lobbying, reputation and financial accounting issues. Household tax planning is influenced by taxpayers' age, income, intra-household income inequality, experience, a compendium tax system, its complexity, fines, the likelihood ofecassionisation. Religiousity is a factor that hampers the involvement of both businesses and households in tax planning activities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>tax planning, determinants, tax avoidance, households, company.</p> <p><strong>JEL Code: </strong>H26</p> Lina Matusevičienė Kristina Rudžionienė Copyright (c) 2020 Kristina Rudžionienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 22 5 5 10.15388/batp.2020.27 Evaluation of alternatives of cryptocurrency accounting https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/21003 <p>The emergence and popularity of the cryptocurrency has caused a great deal of controversy in the scientific community over market development opportunities, further use of virtual money, and its integration into traditional accounting systems. The global financial market creates many opportunities to use electronic and virtual money for various types of transactions, and the question of how to record cryptocurrency and related transactions in accounting remains relevant. The aim of the research is to evaluate the alternatives of cryptocurrency accounting. For the research methods of scientific literature analysis, comparison, interpretation, information systematization, generalization were used. Although various authors, national and international accounting standards regulators provide their insights and recommendations on cryptocurrency accounting, a unified system has not been formed yet. Currently are analysed such alternatives of cryptocurrency accounting as financial asset, intangible asset or inventory.</p> Rasa Subačienė Natalija Kurauskienė Copyright (c) 2020 Rasa Subačienė | Natalija Kurauskienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 4 4 10.15388/batp.2020.26 Expectations for competencies of top managers: changes and good practice https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/19163 <p>As the economic situation develops, the competencies of top managers are subject to extremely high requirements. This starts with functional and formal leadership as well as clearly defined status and job functions. It ends with the image of a modern leader who possesses a myriad of competencies and character traits, the criteria of which change constantly. It is observed that the importance of competencies, cooperation between top managers, personal development and leadership are most often studied. There are no questions raised in the research that would analyse the change of competencies of top managers over time and expectations for competencies in a constantly changing environment. The aim of this article is to examine expectations of top managers' competencies in context of good practices. To achieve this goal an analysis of the scientific literature was performed, systematisation and generalisation methods were used, good practice was observed and a survey was conducted. The results of the analysis of the scientific literature revealed which competence groups are most valued in today's business environment, as well as what opportunities opened up and what challenges the quarantine regime posed for today's leaders. The study identified key competencies, such as high ethical and moral standards and openness to new ideas and perspectives. The motivation behind the scientific problem formulated in this article was the lack of research and information, especially in view of the quarantine period, which significantly impacted the normal rhythm of work and life.</p> Gintarė Markauskienė Copyright (c) 2020 Gintarė Markauskienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 22 3 3 10.15388/batp.2020.25 Origins of a performance audit and development in the world and in Lithuania https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/19186 <p>As the need for rational use of resources, environmental protection and social welfare increases, so does the importance of performance auditing. Historical knowledge of its origins and evolution makes it possible to understand what a performance audit is, for whom it is intended and what the purpose of its performance is. The aim of the article - to present the development stages, regulation and peculiarities of performance audit in the theoretical aspect in foreign and Lithuanian literature. Research methods of scientific literature analysis, historical, comparative, information grouping, systematization and generalization were applied to achieve the goal. The article reveals the transformation of performance auditing from social auditing to private equity entities to the current performance auditing, which is regulated and applied in the assessment of the performance of public entities. The article examines the development of performance auditing in four stages: 1940-1950, the first attempts to evaluate performance by social parameters; 2) 1950-1970 develops two approaches distinguishing social and economic parameters; 3) 1970-1990 regulation of the field of performance audit, the first research; 4) 1990-2020 adjusts and approves performance audit standards and guidelines, extensive research. During the relevant period, there were different scientific discussions on performance evaluation and performance auditing. The article reveals the problem of the versatility of performance auditing, which creates preconditions for further research.</p> Jonas Mackevičius Asta Šalienė Copyright (c) 2020 Jonas Mackevičius | Asta Šalienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 22 2 2 10.15388/batp.2020.24 Industry influence on materiality level determination in the process of financial statements audit https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/19273 <p>Materiality levels are being used by auditors in different financial statement audit planning, procedure performance and results measurement stages. Thus, ensuring that financial statements are not significantly distorted. International standards on auditing contain extensive levels in materiality interpretation however, when determining materiality, it is underlined that auditor must be versed about audited company‘s sector and industry. The aim of the research is to analyze the industry factors which influence materiality determination levels in financial statement audit process and to establish the scheme of industry influence on materiality level determination. An article applies information collection, systematization and interpretation methods, analysis of Lithuanian and foreign scientific literature, audit regulatory legal acts. The analysis enabled to determine that industry significantly influence both planning and performance materiality also the allocation of the latter for accounting articles. The influence is determined by qualitative and quantitative industry factors. Theoretical model of industry influence on materiality determination is submitted in the framework below.</p> Gytis Kaziukonis Gerda Jurkonienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-26 2020-08-26 22 1 1 10.15388/batp.2020.23 The Concept and Functions of Performance Audit: Theoretical Study https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/18440 <p><span lang="en-GB">Performance audit is a type of audit that evaluates and inspects an organizations’ activity based on the so-called 3E approach: economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and plays the most important role in institutions of public sector.</span><span lang="en-US">&nbsp;During the implementation of the public sector reforms in recent decades, the concept of audit has been changing. Therefore, a need to re-evaluate the current definition of the audit and supplement it arose. It is also important to review the functions attributed to performance audit in order to define its ever-changing identity. The aim of the article: to evaluate the concepts of performance audit and the conceptual development of functions from a theoretical point of view. The article presents the analysis of performance audit concepts as well as a performance audit definition. The functions of performance audit have been distinguished, grouped, and evaluated based on how often they are mentioned in the literature. Two problems that make the implementation of the functions more challenging have been distinguished: contradictions among functions arise due to a diverse range of functions; due to versatility of the activity, the functions are difficult to evaluate, and measure and evaluation criteria are hard to establish.</span></p> Asta Salienė Daiva Tamulevičienė Lionius Gaižauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Asta Salienė | Daiva Tamulevičienė | Lionius Gaižauskas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 22 7 7 10.15388/batp.2020.22 Time series interpolation and application of its methods in financial analysis https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/18475 <p>In the modern market economy conditions, financial information is very significant when evaluating the results of enterprises’ financial status and activity results. General economic, mathematical, heuristic methods are used for this type of analysis. The article analyses application opportunities for one of the mathematical research methods–time series–as well as its research instruments, discusses the place and role of interpolation methods in a financial analysis. The article reveals that interpolation methods which may be used to determined former values of an enterprise’s financial indicators or identify reasons which determined the enterprise’s financial status and activity results are the following: 1) graphic and arithmetic interpolation in a linear equation; 2) geometric interpolation based on the compound percentage formula and 3) interpolation by averaging.</p> Jonas Mackevičius Romualdas Valkauskas Diana Bachtijeva Copyright (c) 2020 Jonas Mackevicius | Romualdas Valkauskas | Diana Bachtijeva https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 22 6 6 10.15388/batp.2020.21 Strategic management accounting: information application areas and instruments https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/18632 <p>he application of strategic management accounting instruments in corporate governance is a significant tool for gaining a competitive advantage, increasing the existing market share, and improving the company’s performance. The article examines the development, concept, and significance of strategic management accounting. There are five areas of strategic management accounting: 1) costing; 2) planning, control, and performance measurement; 3) strategic decision-making; 4) competitor accounting; 5) customer accounting. The main instruments of each area, their advantages, challenges of implementation in enterprise management, and benefits for the efficiency of the organization have been identified.</p> Kamilė Medeckytė Daiva Tamulevičienė Copyright (c) 2020 Kamilė Medeckytė | Daiva Tamulevičienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 22 5 5 10.15388/batp.2020.20 Methodology of applying standard costing and normative methods in manufacturing enterprises https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/17751 <p>Appropriate choice of the production cost calculation methods helps not only to estimate the production cost correctly, but also to correctly determine prices of products as well as their profit and profitability, draw up budgets, control expenses, make operational and prospective management decisions. The article analyses effective standard costing and normative methods that are still seldom applied in Lithuanian enterprises. A brief history of how the methods were created is provided. The advantages and aims as well as their similarities and differences are analysed. A methodology of applying standard costing and normative methods in manufacturing enterprises was prepared. Application of these methodologies is going to help managers and accountants to introduce the methods easier and at a lower cost.</p> Daiva Tamulevičienė Jonas Mackevičius Lionius Gaižauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Daiva Tamulevičienė | Jonas Mackevičius | Lionius Gaižauskas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-25 2020-06-25 22 4 4 10.15388/batp.2020.19