Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP <p>Founded in 2007 and dedicated to publishing articles on accounting, audit, and analysis.</p> en-US <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/journalpolicy">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> rasa.subaciene@evaf.vu.lt (Rasa Subačienė) vigintas.stancelis@kf.vu.lt (Vigintas Stancelis) Thu, 26 Mar 2020 11:42:46 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Methodology of applying standard costing and normative methods in manufacturing enterprises https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/17751 <p>Appropriate choice of the production cost calculation methods helps not only to estimate the production cost correctly, but also to correctly determine prices of products as well as their profit and profitability, draw up budgets, control expenses, make operational and prospective management decisions. The article analyses effective standard costing and normative methods that are still seldom applied in Lithuanian enterprises. A brief history of how the methods were created is provided. The advantages and aims as well as their similarities and differences are analysed. A methodology of applying standard costing and normative methods in manufacturing enterprises was prepared. Application of these methodologies is going to help managers and accountants to introduce the methods easier and at a lower cost.</p> Daiva Tamulevičienė | Jonas Mackevičius | Lionius Gaižauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Daiva Tamulevičienė | Jonas Mackevičius | Lionius Gaižauskas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/17751 Thu, 25 Jun 2020 08:53:06 +0000 Identification of Accounting Errors and Fraud: Case Study https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/17048 <p>Fraud from errors can only be distinguished by using the rejection method, when the found inaccuracy is checked using methodology for fraud detection. Therefore, the three most popular methodologies are examined: the fraud triangle, ratio analysis, and forensic accounting. The fraud triangle and the ratio analysis makes it easier to identify fraud than forensic accounting, but these methods require additional evidence to confirm the fraud. Forensic accounting uses document verification, so this method does not require additional evidence, whereas the forensic expert decides within his competence on error and fraud. The purpose of the article is to conduct a case study, which aims to determine the progress of investigating errors and fraud and the applicable illegal actions after examining a case of document forgery. In the case analysis fraud was found in the company's accounting by using document verification and comparison as well as interviewing employees. The following research methods were used for the research: comparative analysis and synthesis of scientific literature, interpretation, deduction, systematization, generalization, case analysis.</p> Daiva Raziūnienė | Gintarė Juškaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Daiva Raziūnienė | Gintarė Juškaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/17048 Wed, 29 Apr 2020 11:27:02 +0000 The Effect of the Intensity of Telework Use on Employees’ Work-Life Balance https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16768 <p><span lang="en-US">The intensive penetration of information and communication technologies into the labour market has also determined the modernisation of work organization processes. The digitization of information and telecommunications enabled to perform most of intellectual activities not only in the work premises but also in other spaces distant from the main workplace. Thus, as the technology revolution gradually releases modern intellectual work from the constraints of the physical location, telework is becoming an increasingly accelerating trend in the world.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Together with technological changes allowing to reach the employee 24 hours a day and 7 days a week create challenges for teleworkers seeking to successfully reconcile two areas of life – work and personal life. Employees from different fields, among them accounting, audit, finances, analysis and others that carry out tasks via telework face this challenge.<br></span>Relevance of the scientific research problem formulated in this paper was determined by the lack of studies in the scientific research to date, which would evaluate the intensity of telework use as an important factor that has a different effect on work-life balance.<br>The research aim is to reveal the effect of the intensity of telework use on employee work-life balance. A quantitative study – the survey of telework employees was conducted and 320 respondents were surveyed. The results of the empirical study revealed that the intensity of telework use had equally positive effect only on two dimensions of work-life balance: time intended for the family and friends and time intended for oneself.</p> Neringa Grincevičienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16768 Thu, 26 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 First time adoption of IFRS 15 “Revenue from contracts with customers“: the case of Lithuanian listed companies https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16769 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Revenue accounting is one of the most important areas of financial accounting. Revenue is one of the key absolute financial ratios that reflects the economic benefits generated by entities that result in increased shareholders‘ equity. This article investigates the first time adoption of new IFRS 15 “Revenue from contracts with customers“ which in International financial reporting standards (hereinafter – IFRS) system is mandatory to apply starting from 1 January 2018. The new IFRS 15 supersedes the previous international accounting standards regulating revenue recognition and introduces a conceptual 5-step revenue recognition model. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of the first-time adoption of IFRS 15 “Revenue from contracts with customers“ on the financial statements of Lithuanian listed companies. This purpose is achieved while using the following research methods: analysis of International financial reporting standards (IFRS) and scientific literature, as well as analysis of the content of financial statements. An empirical study revealed that the first-time adoption of IFRS 15 had no material impact on the financial statements of Lithuanian listed companies. Most of the companies surveyed applied the standard using a simplified retrospective modified method and did not pay much attention to the disclosure of first-time adoption. For those affected by the standard, the effect was mostly notable in the following areas: reclassifications of commissions and brokerage fees, changes in revenue recognition principles from the revenue recognition over a time to revenue recognition at specific point in time and vice versa.</p> Darius Vaicekauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16769 Thu, 26 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evidence of the Financial Audit https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16697 <p>Evidence is an argument that justifies the truth or falsity of a subjective opinion or assertion. Characteristics of audit evidence directly impact the obtaining process of sufficient audit evidence as well as determine the final audit decision regarding fairness and truthfulness of financial reporting. The purpose of the article is to identify the material aspects of evaluating audit evidence and to define the concept of the financial statement‘s audit evidence. The research methods applied in the article are comparative analysis and synthesis of Lithuanian and foreign scientific literature, interpretation, critical thinking and systematization of financial audit laws and regulations. Furthermore, the article examines the concept of financial audit evidence, its characteristics and criteria of reliability as well as disclosure of material audit evidence.</p> Daiva Raziūnienė | Uršula Adaškevič Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/16697 Thu, 19 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Issues in selecting profitability indicators for the evaluation of corporate financial performance https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15791 <p>The article analyses the selection of profitability indicators for the evaluation of corporate financial performance. Both theory and practice, address a variety of profitability indicators, therefore, it is essential to understand the possibilities of using the information they provide, as well as to be able to identify potential reasons of indicator value deviations, and to assess the conditions causing the analysis performed based on these indicators to provide incomplete or unreliable information. The aim of the study is to analyse the main profitability indicators, their potential disadvantages, and possible issues in the analysis and interpretation of these indicators. Methods of logical and comparative analysis of the scientific literature, synthesis and generalisation, statistical data analysis and interpretation were used in this article. The results of the analysis show that there is no universal profitability indicator, that would cover all areas of company performance, because profitability indicators’ reliability, as well as objectivity of comparison to other entities, are influenced by national accounting standards, different prime cost calculation methods, long-term assets depreciation methods, reserve assessment, and other methods.</p> Vilius Savickas Copyright (c) 2020 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15791 Fri, 24 Jan 2020 11:20:08 +0000 The Value of Financial Analysis Information: Theoretical View https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15904 <p>The value of financial information analysis depends on usability, efforts, duration, etc. These dimensions have not been systematically reviewed as well as assessment methods have not been established yet. The purpose of the article is an examination of value dimensions and arrangement of the model for identifying and determining analysis methods. Research methods of this article are literature analysis, classification, specification and generalization of information. In this article, we focus on financial analysis data and the relation between information and its value. We suggest the theoretical model which determines dimensions of the information value and costs related to its transfer. We propose a method of evaluating parameters of value and how these parameters may influence its exposure.</p> Jonas Mackevičius | Daiva Raziūnienė | Romualdas Valkauskas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15904 Wed, 22 Jan 2020 10:21:18 +0000 Audit Partner’s Involvement in Audit Process, as an Indicator of Audit Quality https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15903 <p>Audit quality is determined by the criteria of the audit firm and the audit engagement team. One of the most important criteria of the audit engagement team is the involvement of the responsible engagement partner (hereinafter - partner) in the audit. As an executive of an audit firm, the partner is responsible for the quality control system within the audit firm, creating a "tone from the top" and presenting himself and his/her behavior, including involvement in the audit process, as an example for other less experienced audit engagement team members. This article examines the role of the partner in the audit engagement team structure to achieve audit quality, introduces the issue of partner involvement in the audit process, and proposes suggested indicators that can help assess the level of partner involement in the audit process for audit quality reviewers.</p> Darius Vaicekauskas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15903 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The family business in new EU countries: the spread and agency conflicts they face https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15476 <p>Capital financing is vital for the development of the new EU countries. Investors base their economic and financial decisions on the information available in the financial reports that listed EU companies must prepare following International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Studies show that the majority of listed companies worldwide are family owned and face Type II agency problem - the conflict between minority shareholders and large controlling shareholders (family), i.e. controlling family may seek to extract private benefits at the expense of minority shareholders and disclose information in financial reports for self-interested purposes to avoid minority contests. The research of Type II agency conflict effects on mandatory IFRS disclosure levels in the new EU countries is limited, however, with the reference to existing research literature and legal systems in the new EU countries, we find that minority protection is strongest in Malta, and weakest in Latvia. The biggest number of family controlled firms are in Poland and Romania, whilst family business in Poland, Estonia, Croatia, Cyprus, Romania and Bulgaria enjoy the largest market capitalisation. Nationally, the highest market capitalisation of family controlled firms are in Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia and Poland. This paper shows, that due to moderate minority protection in the new EU countries Type II agency conflict is important, and therefore, it is suggested further the research related to mandatory IFRS disclosure levels.</p> Alfreda Sapkauskiene | Liliana Sileikiene Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15476 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Development of product costing in Lithuania (1918–2019) https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15103 <p>Appropriate product costing helps not only to estimate the cost of production correctly but also to evaluate the activity results, forecast product prices, make reasonable economic decisions. The article analyses the development of product costing in Lithuania from 1918 to 2019. The following stages of development of product costing were distinguished: 1) between the world wars when Lithuania was independent and during the Second world war (1918–1944); 2) during the years of Soviet occupation (1944–1990); 3) after reinstating the independence of Lithuania (1990–2019). The most important provisions of normative documents related to product costing of every stage were analysed, opinions, statements and suggestions how to improve product costing by different Lithuanian authors were evaluated.</p> Daiva Tamulevičienė | Jonas Mackevičius Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.journals.vu.lt/BATP/article/view/15103 Tue, 26 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000