Information & Media 2022-01-19T14:45:59+00:00 Prof. Vladislav Fomin Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: left;">Founded in 1994 and dedicated to analysing the issues in the information and knowledge society, knowledge management, organisational communication management, culture studies, media and new media, international and intercultural communication, and science research. Indexed in the <em>Scopus</em> (Q3) database since 2018.</p> Activities Online and Compulsive Internet Use in Primary School-Aged Children: Whether and How it Has Changed during the COVID-19 Pandemic? 2022-01-19T13:51:58+00:00 Roma Jusienė Rima Breidokienė Ilona Laurinaitytė Vilmantė Pakalniškienė <p>There has been a growing concern among researchers about&nbsp;the use of various information technologies with screens and the Internet&nbsp;by children and adolescents over the past&nbsp;decade. Researchers are concerned that&nbsp;such type of activities can have negative consequences for mental health. Recent&nbsp;studies reveal that&nbsp;Internet&nbsp;use and screen time increased due to the quarantine restrictions, lockdowns and therefore distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims: 1) based on parental reports, to find out&nbsp;the changes in screen time, the online activities and the compulsive Internet&nbsp;use (CIU) of 10-11 years old children during the quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic; 2) to determine the links between children’s CIU and the screen time, online activities, children’s gender and their parents’ education. The results of this study showed that&nbsp;screen time was longer and children’s CIU scores were significantly higher in Spring 2020 if to compare to Autumn 2019. Boys were reported to have higher CIU scores than girls. Children’s CIU was significantly predicted by overall screen time and online activities for entertainment, especially when during quarantine.</p> 2021-12-27T05:55:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Roma Jusienė | Rima Breidokienė | Ilona Laurinaitytė Corporate Communications in Contribution to Addressing Environmental Problems: Case Study of an Indonesian State Oil Company 2022-01-19T13:51:59+00:00 Yasir Yasir Nurjanah Nurjanah Nova Yohana Samsir Samsir <p>This study aims to explain the corporate communication of state oil companies through CSR in contributing to overcoming the problems of peatland fires and coastal abrasion. This research uses a qualitative approach with case studies. Research findings indicate that Pertamina’s CSR communication targets farmer groups in dealing with peatland fires, namely establishing good relations, strengthening farmer group institutions, and connecting with other stakeholders or groups. Meanwhile, to overcome coastal abrasion, Pertamina empowers fishing groups in meetings, provides training and develops innovations to conserve mangroves. CSR communication to overcome the problem of forest fires and abrasion is carried out by developing ecotourism through community-based tourism (CBT). CSR activities are carried out with a limited area scale, so that it seems only for publication and corporate imagery. However, the company’s communication with CBT can be an effective communication model in making people aware of protecting the environment. The Peat Arboretum and Mangrove Education Center are not only tourist destinations, but also a medium of communication for environmental education for the community. Environmental communication is not only directed to the local community, school students, and youth, but also to visitors, for media coverage and discussions on social media. Corporate environmental communications must be integrated with communication channels and stakeholders to support sustainable environmental development.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Yasir Yasir | Nurjanah Nurjanah | Nova Yohana | Samsir Samsir Audience and Revenue Concentration in Lithuanian Media Markets (2008–2019) 2022-01-19T13:52:00+00:00 Deimantas Jastramskis Giedrė Plepytė-Davidavičienė <p>The article examines the change in audience and revenue concentration in the Lithuanian television, radio, internet, and newspaper markets in 2008–2019, as well as discusses the factors that determined the changes in media concentration and market structure. The study revealed that without any special measures to regulate media concentration in Lithuania, all four media revenue markets (television, radio, internet, and newspapers) have become highly concentrated. In terms of audience (circulation) concentration, the concentration of newspaper and television markets was divided between un concentrated and moderately concentrated areas, the radio audience was moderately concentrated, and the audience of internet news websites was highly concentrated. The results of the analysis show a tendency for audience concentration in media markets to be generally lower than income market concentration. Therefore, when legally defining a dominant position in media markets, it is recommended to set a lower value for audience share than for revenue market share.</p> 2021-12-15T07:05:31+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deimantas Jastramskis | Giedrė Plepytė-Davidavičienė Participatory Heritage On Social Networking Sites: The Discussion of Main Theoretical Concepts 2022-01-19T14:45:37+00:00 Ingrida Kelpšienė <p>The field researching cultural heritage communication on social networking sites, is still developing its theoretical foundations, while participatory heritage, as one of the newest concepts born in this field, is still lacking its grounded conceptualization, especially emerging from practice-based research studies. This theoretical study suggests to integrate different theoretical considerations that derives from cultural heritage studies, social networking sites research and theory of participation, and proposes to refine the concept of participatory heritage believing that the primary understanding of the context as “participatory” lies not in the environment itself, but in the activity that takes place in it. Therefore, I offer that participatory heritage could be understood as a new shift in cultural heritage practice that emerge through collaboration and communication of people on social networking sites.</p> 2021-09-15T13:26:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ingrida Kelpšienė The Comparative Analysis of Sexual Violence and Harassment at the piloting Universities of Cyprus and Lithuania 2022-01-19T14:45:40+00:00 Virginija Šidlauskienė Rasa Pocevičienė <p>The sociocultural contexts of higher education institutions form the background for gender-based violence in professional structures and environment of academia. The article presents the comparative analysis of sexual violence and the reasons for its (non-)disclosure at the universities in Lithuania and Cyprus. The findings of focus group interviews conducted within the framework of the <em>Ending Sexual Harassment and Violence in Third</em> <em>Level Education (ESHTE)</em> project, co-funded by the European Union, have been summarized in the present research. The focus group participants from each partner university involved university teachers, administrative staff, counselors and university students. The research was conducted during a 3-month period between 2017 and 2018. The main aim was to investigate university staffs’ and students’ experiences in the disclosures of the cases of sexual violence and harassment (SVH) in university environment and campus, as well as their awareness of &nbsp;existing procedures and policies in handling the cases of SVH. Their personal experiences, attitudes and beliefs of SVH, as well as any suggestions they have towards the improvement of disclosures of SVH are discussed in the article.</p> 2021-07-02T04:05:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Virginija Šidlauskienė | Rasa Pocevičienė For Peculiarities of Representation of Women's Roles and Their Changes in Women's Magazines: Case of the Magazine Moteris 2022-01-19T14:45:43+00:00 Daiva Siudikienė Lijana Stundžė <p>For a long time, the patriarchal tradition of portraying a woman as stereotypical has been established, confining her to traditional roles in the family and society. Media publications often become the main source of constructing attitudes and beliefs in society. The peculiarities of portraying women in the media are an important means of constructing women's self-awareness. The purpose of this article – to introduce the research conducted to investigate the peculiarities of representation of the women‘s roles in the women's magazines and their transformation. For implementation this research it has been chosen the largest monthly magazine for the Lithuanian women „Woman“ and the issues have been chosen published in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018 to fulfill the qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The transition from the Soviet system to the capitalist society is characterized by transformation of values, the search for national identity, the establishmen the new models of relations in the society, the establishmen to the lifestyle characteristic to the capitalist society, etc. The images presented in the media draw the attention of individuals and shape the public's perception of what a woman should be and what responsibilities are assigned to her.</p> 2021-07-02T03:54:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Daiva Siudikienė | Lijana Stundžė Use of Illegally Distributed Books in Lithuania 2022-01-19T14:45:48+00:00 Vincas Grigas Arūnas Gudinavičius Emilija Černevičiūtė <p>This study seeks to reveal the attitudes of the Lithuanian adult population on using digital books and illegally distributed books and seeks to provide possible solutions to Lithuanian publishers and other institutions combating this phenomenon. A quantitative survey of 322 respondents was conducted. The analysis of the results was based on the Technology Acceptance Model, the theory of self-efficacy and the theory of planned behaviour. The results show that the ability to use digital technologies encourages the use of digital books. The perception of digital books as having value reduces the tendency to download them from illegal distribution channels. Legislative regulation does not have a significant impact on the intention not to use digital books from illegal distribution channels. It is likely that a negative assessment of the phenomenon in the immediate environment will have a greater impact on refusing to use illegally distributed books. In order to compete with illegal distribution channels, the channels for legally distributed books need to be more convenient and provide more content.</p> 2021-06-11T09:13:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Vincas Grigas | Arūnas Gudinavičius | Emilija Černevičiūtė The Rhetoric of Lithuanian MeToo Discourse 2022-01-19T14:45:52+00:00 Eglė Gabrėnaitė Monika Triaušytė <p>The great spread of the phenomenon of <em>MeToo</em>, a global movement promoting the publicity of the facts of sexual harassment, has also received a response in Lithuania: anonymous stories in blogs have grown into a provocative discourse that has attracted a great deal of attention. The aim of the research presented in this article is to characterise the discourse of <em>MeToo</em> in terms of rhetorical expression that has not been discussed yet: to identify and elicit the dominant elements of rhetorical argumentation.</p> <p>The empirical research was conducted using the method of rhetorical analysis that allows distinguishing and defining in rhetorical categories the models characteristic to rhetoric appeals. The method of rhetorical analysis combined with directed content analysis, as well as with critical discourse analysis. Following the methodology of provocative narrative research, it was analysed the material published at the time of maximum intensity and involvement in the discourse, such as testimonies, publications, interviews, and comments of women who have been subjected to sexual harassment.</p> <p>The results of rhetorical discourse analysis allow us to discuss the culture of accusation in which the normalization of victim condemnation is prevalent, and logical reasoning gives way to prejudice-based emotional appeals.</p> 2021-05-11T04:18:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Eglė Gabrėnaitė | Monika Triaušytė Sexual Harassment Discourse in News Portal 2017-2018 2022-01-19T14:45:56+00:00 Lijana Stundžė <p>The definition of sexual harassment is mostly based on its legal regulation and is stated to be one of the forms of discrimination based on sex. However, such designation does not reveal social, psychological, economic, etc. sides of this phenomenon. Therefore, this article pays a lot of attention to the analysis of the phenomenon of sexual harassment, based on the insights of Lithuanian and foreign scientists, examines its forms, causes, consequences, and provides statistical information. As there are no scientific insights into the representation of sexual harassment in the media in Lithuania, research insights from foreign researchers are presented. This article presents an exploratory study of the representation of sexual harassment on the news portal, conducted during the analysis of 2017- 2018 publications. The aim of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of the representation of sexual harassment on the news portal. The research found that the topic of sexual harassment appears on the news portal only in the context of certain events, in this case the #metoo movement; there is a lack of analytical publications that would cover a broader context than the statement of facts; the experience of potential victims is presented as an individual problem.</p> 2021-04-14T07:55:15+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lijana Stundžė Sexual Harassment Experience, Gender Harassment and Body Objectification Effect on Disordered Eating Tendencies 2022-01-19T14:45:59+00:00 Monika Aleksė Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė <p>Various research on sexual harassment and gender harassment confirms the adverse effects on a person's physical and emotional health (Shrier, 1990), but so far, little is known about the impact of sexual harassment and gender harassment on one's body objectification and links to disordered eating behavior.&nbsp;Sexual harassment and gender harassment are not only based on gender stereotypes but also play an essential role in supporting gender norms in society by regulating what is seen as acceptable and unacceptable behavior, and appearance for gender. According to the theory of body objectification (Fredrickson, Roberts, 1997), both forms of gender discrimination can induce attention to one's body and appearance, which ultimately can lead to reduced satisfaction of one's body (Szymanski et al. 2011). Since body dissatisfaction is one of the leading causes of eating disorders (Brechan, Kvalem, 2015; Cruz-Sáez et al. 2018), it is important to have a better understanding of sexual harassment and gender harassment relationship with body objectification and disordered eating behavior.&nbsp;The study aims to assess the relationships between sexual harassment and gender harassment experiences, body-objectification, and disordered eating behavior tendencies. 181 (23 males, 158 females) aged 18-38 (M=24.12) participated in this research. Sexual Harassment Experience Questionnaire (Fitzgerald et al. 1998) was used to measure both Unwanted Sexual Attention (Cronbach α&nbsp;–&nbsp;0,893) and Quid Pro Quo sexual harassment (Cronbach α – 0,876), and Gender Harassment experience (Cronbach α – 0,868). Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (McKinley et al. 1996) was used to measure body objectification: Body Shame (Cronbach α – 0,825) and Body Surveillance (Cronbach α – 0,804).&nbsp;&nbsp;The Eating Attitudes Test (Garner et al. 1979) was used to evaluate disordered eating behavior tendencies: Dieting (Cronbach α – 0,924), Bulimia and Food Preoccupation (Cronbach α – 0,725) and&nbsp;Oral Control (Cronbach α – 0,714).&nbsp;The results revealed significant sexual harassment and gender harassment experience differences between genders showing that women report significantly higher results of all forms of sexual harassment and gender harassment than men.&nbsp;Data analysis also revealed a statistically significant relationship between higher results of sexual harassment, gender harassment experience, and more pronounced disordered eating tendencies and higher body objectification.&nbsp;Data analysis has shown that gender harassment experience is a significant prognostic factor for higher body surveillance and body shame results, more frequent dieting.</p> 2021-04-14T07:48:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Aleksė | Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė