Information & Media <p style="text-align: left;">Founded in 1994 and dedicated to analysing the issues in the information and knowledge society, knowledge management, organisational communication management, culture studies, media and new media, international and intercultural communication, and science research. Indexed in the <em>Scopus</em> (Q3) database since 2018.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Information & Media 2783-6207 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Women’s Initiatives and the Reform Movement of Lithuania (1988–1989) <p>Over 30 years have passed since the beginning of the Reform Movement; however, women’s initiatives in the Reform Movement of Lithuania have not been analysed. Commemorating the anniversary of the Reform Movement, Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania declared 2018 as the year of the Reform Movement and highlighted the period of 1988-1990 as a period of great importance in the Lithuania history when Seimas of the Reform Movement acted as a partial yet legal democratic representative of the nation in the Soviet occupation system.</p> <p>The article analyses women’s engagement into the initiative groups of the Sąjūdis, their participation in the initiative group and congress. The aim of this article is to shed light on the role of women in the building of the Soviet Union and the specific nature of the activities of the women's Sąjūdis, the degree of involvement, the problems raised and the solutions proposed.</p> <p>In order to achieve this goal, the archival material contained in the fund of the Lithuanian Perestroika Sąjūdis of the New Archive of the Lithuanian State, the fund of the Kaunas Movement of the Kaunas Regional State Archive, the periodical press of the time were analysed, and the following scientific research was made available.</p> Virginija Jurėnienė Giedrė Purvaneckienė Copyright (c) 2022 Virginija Jurėnienė | Giedrė Purvaneckienė 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 93 151 175 10.15388/Im.2022.93.68 Film Policy and the Role of Lithuanian Film Studio, Riga Film Studio and Tallinnfilm in Developing National Film Production <p>National film production in newly developing film industries in Europe, such as in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian, did not receive much attention. This article analyzes the concept of national cinema, its connection with film policy in European film industries and the Baltic film industries as well as the role of the biggest film studios in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in producing and developing national film production.</p> Audrius Dabrovolskas Copyright (c) 2022 Audrius Dabrovolskas 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 93 136 150 10.15388/Im.2022.93.67 Online Business Media of Ukraine: Typology and Specific Features <p>This article offers a new look at the specific characteristics and key typological factors of online business media in Ukraine. Knowledge of the typological structure and features of business media segmentation can be used in marketing plans and media planning. The empirical part of the article presents a comprehensive definition of the term “business journalism” in the social communication discourse of Ukraine, as well as the typology of online business media based on selected structural and functional and type-forming factors: economic and organizational, structural and functional, professional and technological. As a result of practical analysis and theoretical thinking, the article also proposes the definition of social functions of business media, which was previously overlooked by scientists.</p> Viktoriia Nikytenko Copyright (c) 2022 Viktoriia Nikytenko 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 93 116 135 10.15388/Im.2022.93.66 Digitization of Urban Heritage Preservation Practices for Vilnius City <p>For UNESCO Heritage site Vilnius City, urban heritage preservation (UHP) is an important task aimed at monitoring various risks associated with preservation of heritage valuables in urban heritage areas. Those valuables can be small and large, tangible and intangible: building façade, building doors, windows, roof elements, gates, panorama view on a heritage site, heights of the building, volumes of the building, etc. Risks to heritage valuables may vary from gradual and cumulative processes (such as age-related degradation) to sudden and catastrophic events (such as floods, fires, or armed conflict). There are also risks connected to the intentional or unintentional destruction of cultural heritage. Those usually are the cases of city infrastructure development and purposeful rebuilding of the heritage objects.</p> Vladislav Fomin Copyright (c) 2022 Vladislav Fomin 2022-07-05 2022-07-05 93 I V 10.15388/Im.2022.93.65 Threats to the Process of Receiving Political News from Echo Chambers and Filter Bubbles on Social Media <p>The intensified selective exposure of political news on social media, personalization of the news receiving process, and emerging new information phenomena, such as filter bubbles and echo chambers, call for a rethink of the role of new digital media in a democratic society. This article analyzes the possible influence of new information phenomena on social media - information wells and filter bubbles - in receiving political news. The mechanisms and conditions of the formation of echo chambers and filter bubbles in social media are discussed in detail, and results of research conducted to date proving these phenomena are briefly presented. The article examines the possibilities of disseminating political news on social media and the restrictions on accessing comprehensive political information due to new information phenomena. The problems of political partisans' perception of the news related to these restrictions, their possible extreme actions, and their influence on democratic processes are discussed.</p> Justina Januškevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2022 Justina Januškevičiūtė 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 93 39 52 10.15388/Im.2022.94.64 Novel Technologies as Potential Catalyst for Democratizing Urban Heritage Preservation Practices: The Case of 3D Scanning and AI <p class="ISSN-abst-virsus"><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The conflict between heritage protection and urban infrastructure development rationales creates a context for inclusion, participation and dialogue of different heritage-related communities. However, developed in the pre-computer age of administrative practice, are often incapable, partially or completely, to accommodate the ‘new-era’ community oriented participatory practices.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">In this article, authors discuss the mutual effects of IT in the process of democratization of urban heritage preservation. The authors create and argue the conceptual model of distributed ledger technologies (DLT) in participatory UHP. The model demonstrates how technologies can become catalysts for democratization in situations when the regulatory and administrative change (on its own) is too inert. The article hypothesizes that novel technological developments which aim at or have the potential for increasing community involvement and democratization of administrative practice, exert their effects directly through technology-based participatory practices.</p> Rimvydas Laužikas Tadas Žižiūnas Vladislav Fomin Copyright (c) 2022 Rimvydas Laužikas | Tadas Žižiūnas | Vladislav Fomin 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 93 93 115 10.15388/Im.2022.93.64 The Searching Peace through War: The Presentation of Pakistan Govt Talks with Therik Taliban Pakistan in National Press <p>After over two decades of violence, loss of thousands of civilians, displacement of tens of thousands of people, and damages to key infrastructure in Pakistan by Tehrik e Taliban Pakistan (TTP), the central government decided to talk with them in 2014. These peace talks were as vital as their failure could lead inevitably to a longer war. This study is about the coverage given by the Pakistani national press on these peace talks and the military operation followed by it. It is evaluated that how far print media played their role either in initiating peace or instigating war. With this intention, Johan Galtung's theory of Peace Journalism was applied. Analyzing the contents of four elite national English and Urdu dailies the study concluded that the mainstream press portrayed the peace talks with a considerable difference throughout peace talks, which had undermined the government approach of bringing peace. War-oriented coverage of the operation tells that whatever would be the situation media would sensationalize it. Within the news stories, mixed expressions were seen towards both peace and war but the overall coverage remained war-oriented.</p> Lubna Shaheen Muhammad Tarique Copyright (c) 2022 Lubna Shaheen | Muhammad Tarique 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 93 77 92 10.15388/Im.2022.93.63 Functions of Public Libraries in the Context of COVID-19 Pandemic: the Case of Šiauliai Region Libraries <p>Straipsnyje nagrinėjamos viešųjų bibliotekų funkcijos krizinėse situacijose, aktualizuojant COVID-19 pandemijos kontekstą. Mokslinės literatūros analizė atskleidžia, jog COVID-19 pandemijos metu greta viešųjų bibliotekų vykdomų&nbsp;<em>informacijos išteklių ir kultūrinių paslaugų aktualizuotojų</em>&nbsp;(leidinių skolinimas, renginių organizavimas),&nbsp;<em>partnerių</em>&nbsp;(bendradarbiavimas su kitomis organizacijomis) ir<em>&nbsp;vidinių planuotojų</em>&nbsp;(sėkmingas bibliotekų funkcionavimo palaikymas) funkcijų ypač aktualus&nbsp;<em>informacijos skleidėjų&nbsp;</em>(dalijimasis šviečiamąja informacija, kova su infodemija),&nbsp;<em>bendruomenės rėmėjų&nbsp;</em>(bendruomenių, kuriose veikia bibliotekos, narių telkimas ir pagalba jiems) bei&nbsp;<em>edukatorių</em>&nbsp;ir&nbsp;<em>ugdytojų</em>&nbsp;(krizinėje situacijoje reikalingų kompetencijų ugdymas) funkcijų vykdymas. Straipsnyje pateikiami Šiaulių regiono bibliotekose atlikto tyrimo rezultatai, leidžiantys iš empirinės perspektyvos išnagrinėti viešųjų bibliotekų atliktas funkcijas COVID-19 pandemijos kontekste, įvertinti atskirų funkcijų vykdymo situaciją, palyginti šiuos duomenis su užsienio šalių bibliotekose atliktų tyrimų rezultatais bei numatyti galimybes pandemijos metu aktualizuotoms funkcijoms stiprinti. Atliktas tyrimas yra reikšmingas ne tik COVID-19 pandemijos, bet ir kitų krizinių situacijų kontekstuose.</p> Kristina Kulikauskienė Diana Šaparnienė Copyright (c) 2022 Kristina Kulikauskienė | Diana Šaparnienė 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 93 8 38 10.15388/Im.2022.93.62 Cultural Diplomacy of Kosovo after the Declaration of Independence <p><span class="hps">The article analyzes a segment of the cultural diplomacy of non-state actors of Kosovo who have communicated with foreign audiences through the international media in the period after the country’s declaration of independence in 2008.</span>&nbsp;<span class="hps">Analyzing the content of media coverage for non-state actors,</span>&nbsp;<span class="hps">the article examines the given messages of these actors in some powerful international media,</span>&nbsp;<span class="hps">which relate to the possibility of increasing the international image of the new country.</span>&nbsp;<span class="hps">The article finds that Kosovar non-state actors have continuously communicated with the global and regional public because it has been impossible for state actors to convey any positive message to the latter.</span>&nbsp;The article, moreover, shows<span class="hps">&nbsp;that Kosovar famous athletes and artists or world champions represent the soft power of Kosovo, because they have found enough space to be exposed in the international media.</span>&nbsp;<span class="hps">A significant feature of cultural diplomacy in the case of Kosovo is that the presence of hundreds and thousands of foreign peacekeepers in a country with as much security as other Balkan countries is also seen as an opportunity to influence the country’s international image.</span></p> Hasan Saliu Venera Llunji Copyright (c) 2022 Hasan Saliu | Venera Llunji 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 93 62 76 10.15388/Im.2022.93.61 PR-Message Analysis as a New Method for the Quantitative and Qualitative Communication Campaign Study <p class="ISSN-abst-virsus">Communication practitioners often seek fast quantitative and qualitative analysis of the information campaign outcomes in the media space. Such analysis is required by PR departments of commercial brands, by political technologists, and by experts in information wars and ideology.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">A new approach for the analysis of information campaign outcomes is introduced in this paper. Using PR messages as a category for analysis of media coverage of information campaigns provides a framework for credible efficiency evaluation, as well as for the deep analysis of the factors contributing to achievements or failures. This method allows the campaign organizers to understand what message it is better to disseminate in the media. In other words, through the messages of what kind the opinion of the campaign initiator or their opponents is conveyed to the media audience more effectively.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">We consider a message to be a judgment in which an object or predicate relates to the substance of the information campaign. Using it as a category for analysis and several types of the message as subcategories of analysis allows us to combine qualitative and quantitative approaches and, at the same time, avoid many restrictions of content analysis, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">We show how the method works on the example of the failed information campaign that promoted a lobbyist and populist bill in the Ukrainian parliament. We showed that only our method could explain the reasons for its failure and provide the best way to improve the communication.</p> Artem Zakharchenko Copyright (c) 2022 Artem Zakharchenko 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 93 42 61 10.15388/Im.2022.93.60