https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/issue/feed Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika 2022-06-15T09:38:46+00:00 Eugenijus Dunajevas eugenijus.dunajevas@fsf.vu.lt Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 2001 and dedicated to publishing articles on the issues of social work and social policy.&nbsp;Indexed in the <em>Web of Science</em> since 2021.</p> https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/25172 Social Work with Individuals Having Alcohol Usage Problems: Overview of the Situation in Lithuania 2022-06-15T09:38:46+00:00 Justina Kievišienė justina.kievisiene@gmail.com <p>This article analyzes social work with individuals having alcohol usage problems in Lithuania. In this survey-based quantitative research, frequency data was gathered to examine the usage of methods, services, practices and challenges in this specific area. The results revealed a strong orientation towards individual intervention in social work with individuals having alcohol usage problems. Uncommon usage of group, community or network methods was observed in research data. Low usage of social action or social welfare methods might represent a weak policy-making function. Among services, providing information, consultation and representation are the most often applied. Lithuanian social workers also favor social skills development and family consultation in terms of specific practices, as those are the most often used. Finally, professionals acknowledge that low the motivation among clients to change is among the biggest challenges in this field. Improvements in social work with individuals having alcohol usage problems could be made through the enhancement of skills and practices that are the most effective in the substance abuse area, although relatively rarely used in social work in Lithuania.</p> 2022-06-15T05:55:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Justina Kievišienė https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/25109 Intergenerational Social Mobility in Lithuania: Different Perspectives of Measurement 2022-05-13T09:37:44+00:00 Tautvydas Vencius tautvydas.vencius@lstc.lt <p>Both scholarly analyses and main political documents have not focused enough on research into social mobility in Lithuania. Such a case is partly understandable as the issue of ensuring social mobility has never been a prevailing one on the political agenda. This article seeks to describe different perspectives on measuring social mobility between generations in Lithuania and to present their empirical expressions. Intergenerational mobility is understood as the difference between the socio-economic situation of parents and adult children, i. y. a comparison of the person’s current circumstances with those from which the person originated. Social positions that can be compared are usually based on occupational, income, education or other social class or socio-economic situation schemes. This article is based on European Social Survey data from wave 9 and reviews the intergenerational social mobility of 1970-1984 generation in terms of education, occupations, income and health dimensions.. The results show that occupational and educational mobility increases between generations. There has been a significant decline in the number of people with only a basic education and at the lowest levels of the occupational scale. However, there is a lack of data on intergenerational social mobility in health and income. Therefore, conclusions about this mobility can only be drawn from the work of previous researchers. Intergenerational mobility can also be a tool to achieve greater economic efficiency. Low intergenerational mobility may mean that some individuals are unable to realize their talents due to their low socio-economic status. Therefore, in the light of the findings of the study, it would make sense to consider developing a social mobility strategy.</p> 2022-05-13T05:06:15+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tautvydas Vencius https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/25157 Older People: A Counterweight to Consumer Hedonism in Society? Analysis of Consumption Preferences 2022-05-07T09:37:30+00:00 Gražina Rapolienė g.rapoliene@gmail.com Sarmitė Mikulionienė mikulioniene@lstc.lt <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The Lithuanian consumer society is evolving, but we know little about it. On the one hand, previous research shows that it is a survival society that prioritizes functional needs, on the other hand, there are indications that a segment of consumers oriented towards self-expression is forming in Lithuania. Since consumption is both a consequence and a factor of class stratification, it is important to know whether (and how) it contributes to the strengthening of the social otherness of the group. The aim of this article is to find out whether (and how) consumption attitudes of older people differ from those of other age groups in Lithuania and what they are in the context of consumption values. In this study we analyzed the data of the representative Lithuanian population survey TNS Atlas (2012, N = 1847), divided into age groups (15–29, 30–44, 45–59, and 60–75 years). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for the comparison of consumption preferences, post hoc criteria and Spearman coefficient were applied, and the typology of values was used for the analysis of the content of statements. The results of this research showed that consumption attitudes of the Lithuanian population are not highly differentiated according to age, the attitudes of the oldest respondents (60–75 years old) differ little from others. The entire population aged 45–75 is more characterized by a combination of conservative and altruistic-ecological attitudes than the younger ones (18–44 years old), less characterized by openness to innovation and the pursuit of social self-enhancement. Although the differences in attitudes according to age are not bright in quantitative terms, in terms of content, there is a noticeable detachment of the older population from the refined consumer community.</p> 2022-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gražina Rapolienė | Sarmitė Mikulionienė https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/25050 “It was a Shock to the Whole Family”: Challenges of Ukrainian Families Raising a Child with Autism 2022-04-22T09:37:06+00:00 Tetyana Semigina semigina.tv@gmail.com Olha Stoliaryk olgastolarik4@gmail.com <p class="ISSN-abst-virsus"><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Based on the family-centered approach and a consumer perspective this research examines the overall level of satisfaction with educational and social services of the families raising children with autism or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Lviv (Ukraine) and the challenges in interactions of such families with services. The survey (90 parents who are social work clients) and individual semi-structured interviews (30 parents) were used.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The findings indicate the respondents’ evaluation of the services they receive and inclusive education could not be qualified as favorable. Key challenges identified within the study are: problems of staff preparedness and lack of information about services; personal feelings of emotional burnout; unrealistic expectations from services; social stigma related to autism and social isolation of parents raising a child with ASD.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">It is important for social workers to consider the need to collaboratively create the so-called social routers for families raising children with developmental disabilities during the early stages of family work. Verified information may reduce the parents’ stress and consolidate their efforts, help to avoid dubious treatments that are detrimental to the child’s health and are a significant financial burden to the family.</p> 2022-04-22T03:15:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tetyana Semigina | Olha Stoliaryk https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/24272 Modern Technologies and Transformation of Social Work Profession and Education: Insights of Teachers of the Lithuanian and Japanese Higher Education Institutions 2022-01-10T09:33:00+00:00 Laimutė Žalimienė laima.zalimiene@fsf.vu.lt Juratė Charenkova charenkovaj@gmail.com Eglė Šumskienė egle.sumskiene@fsf.vu.lt Donata Petružytė donatai@gmail.com Miroslavas Seniutis primaveramiro@gmail.com Violeta Gevorgianienė anamaria@charity.lt Mai Yamaguchi myamaguchi@luther.ac.jp <p>This article explores the attitudes of Japanese and Lithuanian social work program teachers towards the challenges posed by modern technologies that may transform social work profession and studies. Study data revealed that scientists from both countries admit that “taming” technologies and optimally “cooperating” with them is the main challenge of social work practice and studies. On the one hand, belief that technological development will provide more opportunities to fulfil the mission of social work was prevalent among the study participants, on the other hand, they had expressed concern that eventually the use of technology will change the essence of social work as a profession of human relations or will create modified forms of social exclusion. Additionally, a niche for the new role of the social worker was identified: to help the world “occupied” by technology remain “social”. Attitudes of research participants from both Lithuania and Japan can be linked to traditional concept of sociality and vision of social work as profession that belongs exclusively to area of human relations. B. Latour’s asocial sociality concept can be applied for broader look into this situation. This concept states that&nbsp;<span class="jlqj4b">efforts to trace the contribution of actors of an inhuman nature to what belongs in the human world may be more successful when one ceases to view the world exclusively through human eyes and tries to reveal the inner perspectives of phenomena of a mixed nature.</span></p> 2022-01-10T09:29:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laimutė Žalimienė | Juratė Charenkova | Eglė Šumskienė | Donata Petružytė | Miroslavas Seniutis | Violeta Gevorgianienė | Mai Yamaguchi https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/25509 Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2022-01-27T09:33:57+00:00 Laimutė Žalimienė laimute.zalimiene@fsf.vu.lt 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/22508 Care Centers and Professional Caregivers: from the Project to a Sustainable Social Child Care Policy 2021-12-21T15:43:24+00:00 Rasa Genienė rasaralyte@gmail.com Jovita Nedvecka jovita.nedvecka@socmin.lt <p>In Lithuania the deinstitutionalisation of children left without parental care is being implemented since 2014. The term of transformation is more recognizable in the political context of the country. Various alternative services to institutional care are being developed during the transformation process, but some have become massive and overly institutional in nature (e.g., community children living homes), while the institute of professional caregivers has not gained popular attention when comparing child care rates across different alternatives. This article presents and discusses the activities of care centers that train permanent guardians (caregivers) and professional guardians. The article presents a research during which the staff of the care center evaluated the effectiveness of the activities of the care center and the guardians on duty. The results of the study revealed that care centers face the risk of projectivity at both micro and macro levels. Cooperation and support between the Ministry of Social security and labout and municipalities and other institutions is also very important for the effectiveness of care centers.</p> 2021-12-14T09:18:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rasa Genienė | Jovita Nedvecka https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/24653 Why People Emigrate to Work in Elder Care? 2021-12-14T09:31:17+00:00 Gražina Rapolienė g.rapoliene@gmail.com Liat Ayalon liat.ayalon@biu.ac.il <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">Emigration is one of the sorest problems in Lithuania. Emigrants from Lithuania most often fill the sector of unskilled labour in the target countries, one of which is elder care. Financial factors are considered the main motivation for emigration; however, migration is a complex phenomenon and requires a more nuanced investigation. The aim of this article is to analyse subjectively identified reasons of emigration from Lithuania to work in the elder care sector and motivation in choosing a particular country. The thematic data analysis of 13 semi-structured interviews revealed that emigration is motivated by an entirety of reasons: beside financial factors other „push“ (family, health) and „pull“ (knowledge about the country, family formation) factors are important. The move also is facilitated by the chain migration factors. The importance of the economic reasons for migration is revealed in cases of financial insecurity (loss of employment, threat of company bankruptcy, financial difficulties in the parents’ family etc.). Economic considerations become significant again, when comparing the job options and working conditions available to migrants. Work in the care sector for older people is seen as relatively easy, accessible and well paid. Other “push” factors were related to an unsatisfactory life situation, including stressful employment, and unsatisfying family relationships. The desire to get to know a foreign country, the opportunity to start a family or establish oneself there can work as „pull“ factors. The decision to emigrate was supported by the chain migration factors&nbsp;– encouragement, help and support of previously established immigrants. In some cases, it emerged as an independent factor of migration people emigrated, invited by relatives or acquaintances from abroad even though they did not initially plan to migrate.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">With the rapidly growing share of older people in Lithuania and the underdeveloped care services, the opportunity to retain potential emigrants by creating attractive working conditions for them in Lithuania, remains untapped. Policies should aim to improve the working conditions and opportunities in the care sector in Lithuania in order to encourage Lithuanians to stay in the country. In addition, regulations to better absorb (returning) migrants should be in place, given the ongoing movement between countries.</p> 2021-12-14T09:12:15+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gražina Rapolienė | Liat Ayalon https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/23870 Procreational Desires and Their Realization: A Study of Target Groups with Parents 2021-12-21T15:43:41+00:00 Vilma Ražauskienė vilma.razauskiene@gmail.com Lina Šumskaitė lina.sumskaite@fsf.vu.lt <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">Scientific research has shown that the procreational intentions and the actual number of children born may not coincide (Lutz 2020; Stankūnienė et al 2013; Testa 2013). Although the most common ideal number of children in European Union is two, not a single country has the total fertility rate of two (Beaujoun ir Sobotka 2014). The aim of current research is, first, to ascertain what procreational desires people have and, second, to shed some light on possible factors that influence the realization of those procreational desires. Three focus group discussions were conducted with parents 26 – 44 years of age (ten participants in total).</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">It was found out that the procreational desires are not static and early determined: they change depending on the circumstances of the family creation, self-realisation in one‘s occupation and the reconciliation of the procreational desires of the partners. In accordance to other studies on the topic of procreational desires and their fulfillment, the results of this study demonstrate that the common obstacles that arise while trying to realize one‘s procreational desires are of social, financial and medical nature. Also, the results show that state support for families may have an impact on the number of children a family has if the family has been enduring some financial difficulties.</p> 2021-12-14T09:06:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Vilma Ražauskienė | Lina Šumskaitė https://www.journals.vu.lt/STEPP/article/view/23067 Marriage Intentions Among Cohabiters in Lithuania 2021-12-14T09:31:19+00:00 Irma Dirsytė irma.dirsyte@vdu.com <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">Living together in one household without being married in modern society is one of the defining features characterizing the transformations of the modern family, mentioned alongside late-age marriage, late-age childbearing, or frequent divorces. Marriage is still a major life transformation, but the pressure to marry today is lighter than ever before and many young couples in Europe start family life from living together in one household and not being married. However, cohabitation has not a universal meaning and role in family formation process and couples cohabit for different reasons and motives. Existing research proves, that union formation pattern depends on socioeconomical and sociodemographic characteristics, it varies by country and changes by time.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">In the research literature, cohabitation diffusion process is mainly based on the two arguments: cultural value changes which leads to “less marriage” and economic restrains which leads to postponed marriage until economic stability.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The aim of this article is to investigate the intentions of cohabitors to marry and the factors modelling these intentions in Lithuania. The empirical analysis is based on the current Family and Inequality Survey (2019) data set about 1970-1984 birth cohort who lived in an extramarital partnership at the time of the research. The data consists rich information on the partnership and fertility, but also social and economic standing. Analysis of the data shows that, most of the cohabiting individuals in the analyzed cohort in Lithuania still undecided about marriage and could not name their intentions in the future. Descriptive statistics suggests that more man than women plan to marry their partner in the future. In addition, cohabitors with the lowest education level do not intend to marry their partner more than any another education level group.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The multinomial regression results suggest that factors predicting marriage in the future are sex, partnership satisfaction and education. That leads to assume that in Lithuania cohabitation is only a prelude to marriage and individuals satisfied with the quality of their relationship intends to marry rather than continuing cohabitation as an alternative to marriage. Cohabitation can be chosen as a prelude to marriage to check the strength of a relationship and to accumulate economic and social resources. On another hand, having one child has a negative effect on the marriage intentions among cohabitors.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Irma Dirsytė