Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika 2019-09-16T19:41:11+03:00 Eugenijus Dunajevas Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 2001. Publishes articles on social work and social policy.</p> Social and Academic Segregation in the Education Systems of the New EU Member States 2019-09-16T19:41:11+03:00 Dovilė Stumbrienė Audronė Jakaitienė Rimantas Želvys <p>This article presents a comparative analysis of the educational systems of EU countries, exploring them from a socioeconomic perspective with a special focus on new EU member states. The research question was whether post-socialist countries, in terms of social and academic segregation, are moving toward a separate educational “regime,” or whether they are currently approaching either the Scandinavian, Continental, Anglo-Saxon, or Mediterranean model. Segregation was analyzed according to performance scores in science and economics, social and cultural status, and hierarchical regression was employed in analyzing PISA 2015 data. Results indicate that post-socialist EU member states, in terms of academic and social segregation, do not form a separate “educational regime.”</p> 2019-09-16T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Tax Morale and Public Sector Revenues in Baltic Countries 2019-09-16T19:41:10+03:00 Virgilijus Rutkauskas <p>This article investigates issues behind households’ tax payment morale, theoretical and practical aspects of the tax payment gap, and its impact on public sector revenue in Baltic countries. The attitude of households on tax payment is assessed quantitatively by employing a dichotomous logit-probit regression analysis. The tax payment gap among Baltic households has been investigated by applying a “macro approach,” the main components of which are the shadow economy and the total tax rate. The effect of any hypothetical changes in tax morale is assessed by applying social accounting matrixes, which are based on national account data and allow to keep the economy balanced at all time. The results presented in this research suggest that taxes uncollected from households constitute nearly one fifth of total general government revenues and count nearly one tenth of the nominal GDP. Measures applied to strengthening tax morale positively contribute to public sector revenue and in general to the economy, though they should be applied gradually.</p> 2019-09-16T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Factors Determining the Provision of Psychosocial Services for Oncological Patients and Their Loved Ones in Lithuania 2019-09-16T19:41:09+03:00 Emilija Gaidytė Eugenijus Dunajevas <p>It is acknowledged by various organizations, experts, and researchers around the world that meeting psychological and social needs is an important factor in cancer treatment. However, there is a shortage of psychosocial care supply for cancer patients and their family members in Lithuania. The aim of this study is to discern the causes of this insufficient supply. In order to find out the possible causes, Jon Elster’s action explanation framework was used. According to the framework, it is possible to deduce these factors: institutional constraints, economical (resources and labor supply) constraints, social preferences, and political preferences. Qualitative research (expert interviews) and secondary data analysis research methods were employed to gather the required data. A data analysis shows that the there are no institutional constraints for the provision of psychosocial care. However, there is a lack of public resources dedicated for the provision of psychosocial care. As a consequence, the main providers of psychosocial care for cancer patients and their family members are NGOs, which heavily depend on volunteer labor force. There is a contradiction in the point of view toward the professionalization of psychosocial care provision. It is the natural position of medical professionals that the provision of psychosocial care should be in the hands of professionals. On the other side, NGOs disagree with such a perspective. The need for psychosocial care is verbalized by experts and professionals; however, the general public prefers medical treatment. Thus, it is understandable why the public resources allocated to the provision of psychosocial care are so scarce. It is also evident that the political parties are not interested in psychosocial care, as it was shown by our analysis of their political programs.</p> 2019-09-16T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Welfare Chauvinism 2019-09-16T19:41:09+03:00 Giedrė Svirbutaitė-Krutkienė Arvydas Guogis <p>The authors in the article reveal the positioning of extreme right political parties in the Western world and Central and Eastern Europe by following such ideological basis as nationalism and welfare chauvinism, practically rejecting immigrants and their willingness to use the benefits and services of the mentioned welfare systems in the presented Western as well as Central and Eastern European countries. The authors maintain their position, applying the secondary data from European Social Survey, International Monetary Fund and OECD data as well as interpretations of the authors from different foreign countries. In the end of the article the authors pose the one of the most interesting scientific and practical questions – why the place of the electorate of the „socially excluded“ and having low income voters is moving from the left political parties to the side of the extreme right political parties? The further research is necessary in the following direction. This article is the first article of the theme on social chauvinism in Lithuania.</p> 2019-09-16T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Factors for strengthening the organizational resilience by the case of organizations providing social services 2019-09-16T19:41:08+03:00 Jolita Gečienė Agota Giedrė Raišienė <p>The article analyses the factors that influence the organizational resilience of public welfare organizations providing social services. Organizational resilience determines the ability of organizations to adapt and overcome unforeseen changes caused by the external environment. The article distinguishes the theoretical principles of organizational resilience and presents the results of the research, on the basis of which the preconditions for strengthening the resistance of organizations are based, and an empirical model of organizational resilience key factors is proposed.</p> 2019-09-16T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Family Laws in the European Union 2019-09-16T19:41:07+03:00 Pablo José Abascal Monedero <p>EU social policies should be complemented by contributing to a harmonious development of society, by reducing structural and regional imbalances, developing a balance between the a localized community and the national society, and improving the living standards of citizens and families of member states (Garrido 2002). Such important social policy principles as freedom and justice are addressed and represented in family laws in the EU regulations introduced during the period of 2000–2016. In this article, we studied the EU’s legal solutions in reference to national (Spain) laws on these matters: children and parental responsibility (adoption, child abduction, family benefits) and couples (matrimonial, regimes, prenuptial agreements, provisional measures). This legislation is necessary in the face of the proliferation of families whose members have different nationalities, and even in the mobilization of residences. Cooperation has intensified between national judicial authorities to ensure that legal decisions taken in one EU country are recognized and implemented in any other. This is highly important in civil cases, such as divorce, child custody, maintenance claims, or even bankruptcy and unpaid bills, when the individuals involved live in different countries. The development of family laws is one of the most important factors of family welfare in European countries.</p> 2019-09-16T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Service Users as Collaborators in Social Work Practice, Research, and Education 2019-09-16T19:41:06+03:00 Elena Cabiati Chiara Panciroli <p>The idea that social work needs to be concerned with thinking and acting in a more collaborative way with the people in need is common around the world. At the international level, codes of ethics and social work principles inspire practitioners, researchers, and educators in bridging the gap between themselves and people in trouble, commonly known as&nbsp;<em>service users</em>. Beyond a common agreement around such principle, to realize collaborative relationships in practice is a challenge that requires prudence, coherence, and methodology. The Relational social work method supports the practical development of participation, collaboration, and reciprocity. Through concepts and examples, this article aims to describe how service users can assume the role of collaborators in social practice, research, and education.</p> 2019-09-16T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-04-03T20:48:40+03:00 Žurnalas STEPP <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2019-03-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press Legal Presumptions of Reconciling Family Life and Work in the Baltic Countries 2019-04-03T20:48:37+03:00 Snieguolė Grigužauskaitė Daiva Skučienė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>One of the main institutions for the welfare of citizens is the family, which acts as a social unit under certain informal and formal rules. In a society, the functioning of a family is best described using institutional theory, which is defined by such terms as organization, behaviour, order, rules. The rules and order are based on the laws that help family members make decisions and function in society while maintaining the integrity of their institution. During the recent decades, the family, as a social unit, has undergone a relatively strong process of deinstitutionalization, which leads to new, major challenges across the European Union. One of the key challenges is the reconciliation of family life and work, which is crucial. In order to manage setbacks, a legal framework is being improved, the content of which varies according to many different aspects in each EU country, while the EU’s objectives and recommendations are the same for all countries. Therefore, there is a need to assess whether different legal instruments create equal or at least similar conditions for family life and work harmonisation. On this basis, the purpose of the study is to compare the favorable work conditions for parents of children under the age of 3 that are provided in the legislation of the Baltic States. To achieve the purpose of the research, the study focuses on these objectives: the analysis of scientific literature based on institutional theory, the analysis of legal acts regulating employment relationship in the Baltic countries,&nbsp;and the laws and data taken from the 2017 MISSOC (Mutual Information System on Social Protection) database. A&nbsp;thematic analysis of the legislation of working conditions, relevant from September to October 2018, was chosen&nbsp;for the purposes of this study. The topics of the legal acts analysis have been formulated on the basis of law groups.&nbsp;The results of the study show that the Baltic countries mainly focus on business trips, breastfeeding breaks, guaranteed&nbsp;paid, free and extra annual leave, protection against harmful working conditions and the termination of contracts for&nbsp;legal regulation. Topics that regulate the least exceptional conditions in the Baltic countries are recruitment, work&nbsp;during weekends and public holidays, work schedule flexibility, remote working.</p> 2019-03-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press The impact of cash social benefits for reducing poverty in the European Union 2019-04-03T20:48:34+03:00 Rasa Balvočiūtė <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article presents an analysis of the impact of cash social benefits on poverty reduction in two groups of EU countries (The “Old,” Western Europe and the “New,” Eastern Europe ). Models of a regression analysis of panel data were compiled to assess the changes in the most deprived part of the population, which included factors such as population income, social assistance payments, labor market activity, population indebtedness, long-term unemployment and education levels of the population. The results of the survey revealed the essential differences in the impact of social assistance on poverty: in the old EU countries, means-tested social benefits reduce the growth of poverty and material deprivation; in the Eastern European countries, which are characterized by a more liberal or “residual” welfare model, the poorest part of the population changes due to cyclical fluctuations in economic deve­lopment and changes in long-term unemployment. Therefore, the key for reducing poverty is to reduce long-term unemployment. Means-tested social benefits in them are as effective as in the old EU countries.</p> 2019-03-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press