Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika <p>Founded in 2001 and dedicated to publishing articles on the issues of social work and social policy.&nbsp;Indexed in the <em>Web of Science</em> since 2021.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika 1648-2425 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Demographic Losses due to Women’s Suicide in Lithuania 2007–2020: Social Disparities and Challenges for Mental Health Policy <p>In many countries of the world, including Lithuania, suicide rates for men are several times higher than for women. Therefore, the phenomenon of men’s suicide is receiving a lot of attention in public, scientific, and political discourses. In contrast, much less attention is paid to tackling women’s suicides and women’s mental health problems. Lithuania has been among the countries with the highest suicide rates for both men and women in the world for several decades, but research on the social and demographic aspects of women’s suicide in Lithuania is lacking. This paper aims to examine the demographic losses that Lithuania suffers from women suicides and assess the socio-demographic differentiation of these losses. The empirical part of the study was based on the calculation of years of life lost methodology. The years of life lost method is acknowledged as an accurate measure for assessing the impact of specific causes of death on premature mortality. Data sources for this study were the World Health Organization, Institute of Hygiene, and Human Mortality Database. The results of our study show that the number of years of lives lost due to women’s suicide decreased statistically significantly from 376 [321; 431] in 2007 to 287 [238; 335] in 2020. In Lithuania, the total number of women suicide was the highest among the 80+ year age group, however, the number of years of life lost due to suicide was the highest among the 30-39 year age group. The change in women’s suicide rates was inconsistent and for women, the decline in demographic loss due to suicide was twice as slow as for men. Nevertheless, the number of years of lives lost due to women’s suicide was about 5 times smaller than that of men in 2020. In Lithuania, high rates of women’s suicide reflect the poor state of women’s mental health, which poses challenges to the country’s mental health policy and sustainable demographic development.</p> Daumantas Stumbrys Dainius Pūras Copyright (c) 2022 Daumantas Stumbrys | Dainius Pūras 2022-07-05 2022-07-05 24 84 100 10.15388/STEPP.2022.39 Links Between Fertility and Gender Revolution: Lithuania from a Comparative Perspective <p>The study analyses trends in egalitarianism in gender role attitudes and changing associations between fertility and gender equity within and across countries and over time. Lithuania is compared to five European countries, employing an index of gender role attitudes that is constructed based on five international surveys. Findings reveal that Lithuania is not only the most traditional and slowest in transition to egalitarianism of all the countries analyzed, but also stagnating in gender revolution. The results support a U-shaped pattern between changes in fertility and gender role attitudes in almost all countries. This relationship can be moderated not only by levels of gender-equitable attitudes, but also by dispersion in attitudes and normativity of dominant gender role attitudes. The results reveal that maturation of the gender revolution can have a moderating effect.</p> Dovilė Galdauskaitė Copyright (c) 2022 Dovilė Galdauskaitė 2022-07-05 2022-07-05 24 69 83 10.15388/STEPP.2022.38 Social Work with Individuals Having Alcohol Usage Problems: Overview of the Situation in Lithuania <p>This article analyzes social work with individuals having alcohol usage problems in Lithuania. In this survey-based quantitative research, frequency data was gathered to examine the usage of methods, services, practices and challenges in this specific area. The results revealed a strong orientation towards individual intervention in social work with individuals having alcohol usage problems. Uncommon usage of group, community or network methods was observed in research data. Low usage of social action or social welfare methods might represent a weak policy-making function. Among services, providing information, consultation and representation are the most often applied. Lithuanian social workers also favor social skills development and family consultation in terms of specific practices, as those are the most often used. Finally, professionals acknowledge that low the motivation among clients to change is among the biggest challenges in this field. Improvements in social work with individuals having alcohol usage problems could be made through the enhancement of skills and practices that are the most effective in the substance abuse area, although relatively rarely used in social work in Lithuania.</p> Justina Kievišienė Copyright (c) 2022 Justina Kievišienė 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 24 54 68 10.15388/STEPP.2022.37 Intergenerational Social Mobility in Lithuania: Different Perspectives of Measurement <p>Both scholarly analyses and main political documents have not focused enough on research into social mobility in Lithuania. Such a case is partly understandable as the issue of ensuring social mobility has never been a prevailing one on the political agenda. This article seeks to describe different perspectives on measuring social mobility between generations in Lithuania and to present their empirical expressions. Intergenerational mobility is understood as the difference between the socio-economic situation of parents and adult children, i. y. a comparison of the person’s current circumstances with those from which the person originated. Social positions that can be compared are usually based on occupational, income, education or other social class or socio-economic situation schemes. This article is based on European Social Survey data from wave 9 and reviews the intergenerational social mobility of 1970-1984 generation in terms of education, occupations, income and health dimensions.. The results show that occupational and educational mobility increases between generations. There has been a significant decline in the number of people with only a basic education and at the lowest levels of the occupational scale. However, there is a lack of data on intergenerational social mobility in health and income. Therefore, conclusions about this mobility can only be drawn from the work of previous researchers. Intergenerational mobility can also be a tool to achieve greater economic efficiency. Low intergenerational mobility may mean that some individuals are unable to realize their talents due to their low socio-economic status. Therefore, in the light of the findings of the study, it would make sense to consider developing a social mobility strategy.</p> Tautvydas Vencius Copyright (c) 2022 Tautvydas Vencius 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 24 40 53 10.15388/STEPP.2022.36 Older People: A Counterweight to Consumer Hedonism in Society? Analysis of Consumption Preferences <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The Lithuanian consumer society is evolving, but we know little about it. On the one hand, previous research shows that it is a survival society that prioritizes functional needs, on the other hand, there are indications that a segment of consumers oriented towards self-expression is forming in Lithuania. Since consumption is both a consequence and a factor of class stratification, it is important to know whether (and how) it contributes to the strengthening of the social otherness of the group. The aim of this article is to find out whether (and how) consumption attitudes of older people differ from those of other age groups in Lithuania and what they are in the context of consumption values. In this study we analyzed the data of the representative Lithuanian population survey TNS Atlas (2012, N = 1847), divided into age groups (15–29, 30–44, 45–59, and 60–75 years). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for the comparison of consumption preferences, post hoc criteria and Spearman coefficient were applied, and the typology of values was used for the analysis of the content of statements. The results of this research showed that consumption attitudes of the Lithuanian population are not highly differentiated according to age, the attitudes of the oldest respondents (60–75 years old) differ little from others. The entire population aged 45–75 is more characterized by a combination of conservative and altruistic-ecological attitudes than the younger ones (18–44 years old), less characterized by openness to innovation and the pursuit of social self-enhancement. Although the differences in attitudes according to age are not bright in quantitative terms, in terms of content, there is a noticeable detachment of the older population from the refined consumer community.</p> Gražina Rapolienė Sarmitė Mikulionienė Copyright (c) 2022 Gražina Rapolienė | Sarmitė Mikulionienė 2022-05-06 2022-05-06 24 24 39 10.15388/STEPP.2022.35 “It was a Shock to the Whole Family”: Challenges of Ukrainian Families Raising a Child with Autism <p class="ISSN-abst-virsus"><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Based on the family-centered approach and a consumer perspective this research examines the overall level of satisfaction with educational and social services of the families raising children with autism or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Lviv (Ukraine) and the challenges in interactions of such families with services. The survey (90 parents who are social work clients) and individual semi-structured interviews (30 parents) were used.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The findings indicate the respondents’ evaluation of the services they receive and inclusive education could not be qualified as favorable. Key challenges identified within the study are: problems of staff preparedness and lack of information about services; personal feelings of emotional burnout; unrealistic expectations from services; social stigma related to autism and social isolation of parents raising a child with ASD.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">It is important for social workers to consider the need to collaboratively create the so-called social routers for families raising children with developmental disabilities during the early stages of family work. Verified information may reduce the parents’ stress and consolidate their efforts, help to avoid dubious treatments that are detrimental to the child’s health and are a significant financial burden to the family.</p> Tetyana Semigina Olha Stoliaryk Copyright (c) 2022 Tetyana Semigina | Olha Stoliaryk 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 24 8 23 10.15388/STEPP.2022.34 Modern Technologies and Transformation of Social Work Profession and Education: Insights of Teachers of the Lithuanian and Japanese Higher Education Institutions <p>This article explores the attitudes of Japanese and Lithuanian social work program teachers towards the challenges posed by modern technologies that may transform social work profession and studies. Study data revealed that scientists from both countries admit that “taming” technologies and optimally “cooperating” with them is the main challenge of social work practice and studies. On the one hand, belief that technological development will provide more opportunities to fulfil the mission of social work was prevalent among the study participants, on the other hand, they had expressed concern that eventually the use of technology will change the essence of social work as a profession of human relations or will create modified forms of social exclusion. Additionally, a niche for the new role of the social worker was identified: to help the world “occupied” by technology remain “social”. Attitudes of research participants from both Lithuania and Japan can be linked to traditional concept of sociality and vision of social work as profession that belongs exclusively to area of human relations. B. Latour’s asocial sociality concept can be applied for broader look into this situation. This concept states that&nbsp;<span class="jlqj4b">efforts to trace the contribution of actors of an inhuman nature to what belongs in the human world may be more successful when one ceases to view the world exclusively through human eyes and tries to reveal the inner perspectives of phenomena of a mixed nature.</span></p> Laimutė Žalimienė Juratė Charenkova Eglė Šumskienė Donata Petružytė Miroslavas Seniutis Violeta Gevorgianienė Mai Yamaguchi Copyright (c) 2022 Laimutė Žalimienė | Juratė Charenkova | Eglė Šumskienė | Donata Petružytė | Miroslavas Seniutis | Violeta Gevorgianienė | Mai Yamaguchi 2022-01-10 2022-01-10 24 84 103 10.15388/STEPP.2021.39 Editorial Board and Table of Contents Laimutė Žalimienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 24 1 7 Care Centers and Professional Caregivers: from the Project to a Sustainable Social Child Care Policy <p>In Lithuania the deinstitutionalisation of children left without parental care is being implemented since 2014. The term of transformation is more recognizable in the political context of the country. Various alternative services to institutional care are being developed during the transformation process, but some have become massive and overly institutional in nature (e.g., community children living homes), while the institute of professional caregivers has not gained popular attention when comparing child care rates across different alternatives. This article presents and discusses the activities of care centers that train permanent guardians (caregivers) and professional guardians. The article presents a research during which the staff of the care center evaluated the effectiveness of the activities of the care center and the guardians on duty. The results of the study revealed that care centers face the risk of projectivity at both micro and macro levels. Cooperation and support between the Ministry of Social security and labout and municipalities and other institutions is also very important for the effectiveness of care centers.</p> Rasa Genienė Jovita Nedvecka Copyright (c) 2021 Rasa Genienė | Jovita Nedvecka 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 24 68 83 10.15388/STEPP.2021.38 Why People Emigrate to Work in Elder Care? <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">Emigration is one of the sorest problems in Lithuania. Emigrants from Lithuania most often fill the sector of unskilled labour in the target countries, one of which is elder care. Financial factors are considered the main motivation for emigration; however, migration is a complex phenomenon and requires a more nuanced investigation. The aim of this article is to analyse subjectively identified reasons of emigration from Lithuania to work in the elder care sector and motivation in choosing a particular country. The thematic data analysis of 13 semi-structured interviews revealed that emigration is motivated by an entirety of reasons: beside financial factors other „push“ (family, health) and „pull“ (knowledge about the country, family formation) factors are important. The move also is facilitated by the chain migration factors. The importance of the economic reasons for migration is revealed in cases of financial insecurity (loss of employment, threat of company bankruptcy, financial difficulties in the parents’ family etc.). Economic considerations become significant again, when comparing the job options and working conditions available to migrants. Work in the care sector for older people is seen as relatively easy, accessible and well paid. Other “push” factors were related to an unsatisfactory life situation, including stressful employment, and unsatisfying family relationships. The desire to get to know a foreign country, the opportunity to start a family or establish oneself there can work as „pull“ factors. The decision to emigrate was supported by the chain migration factors&nbsp;– encouragement, help and support of previously established immigrants. In some cases, it emerged as an independent factor of migration people emigrated, invited by relatives or acquaintances from abroad even though they did not initially plan to migrate.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">With the rapidly growing share of older people in Lithuania and the underdeveloped care services, the opportunity to retain potential emigrants by creating attractive working conditions for them in Lithuania, remains untapped. Policies should aim to improve the working conditions and opportunities in the care sector in Lithuania in order to encourage Lithuanians to stay in the country. In addition, regulations to better absorb (returning) migrants should be in place, given the ongoing movement between countries.</p> Gražina Rapolienė Liat Ayalon Copyright (c) 2021 Gražina Rapolienė | Liat Ayalon 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 24 54 67 10.15388/STEPP.2021.37