Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia <p>Founded in 1991 and dedicated to analysing theoretical and methodical issues in education and education policy and cultural analysis.&nbsp;Indexed in the <em>Scopus</em> (Q4) database since 2019.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia 1392-5016 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/journalpolicy">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26628 Irena Stonkuvienė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 47 1 7 Preface https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26338 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Irena Stonkuvienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 8 9 Education in the Anthropocene: From Theorists towards Young Climate Activists https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26339 <p>This paper continues the scientific discussion on education in the Anthropocene and focuses on the complexity of future education from the learner’s perspective. The first part of the paper explores proposals for education in the Anthropocene from the posthumanist perspective, based on the critical remarks and ideas of different theorists, such as Annette Gough, Nathan Snaza, and Brad Petitfils. The second part focuses on the children of the Anthropocene as the reality of today’s education. The third part looks at the case of young climate activists, who can be considered to be children of the Anthropocene, and how their relationship with education is changing. Young climate activists experience doubts, distrust, and disappointment over formal education, its practice, and its future. Therefore, climate activism movements can be treated as a unique learning environment for young people that also compensates what children of the Anthropocene are missing in formal education.</p> Sandra Kairė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 10 24 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.1 Language Learning Attitudes of Young Learners: Differences between Syrian Refugee Learners and Turkish Learners https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26340 <p>Welcoming more than 1.7 million refugee and asylum-seeker children, Turkey has put a considerable effort in turning this tragedy into an advantage for these children in terms of their education. Language teaching has played a remarkable role in this effort. Turkey has offered both Turkish and English language courses to these people. Considering the significance of English as a global language for social integration and future studies, this study attempted to investigate young Syrian refugee students’ attitudes toward English language and their reasons to learn English. Moreover, their perspectives were compared with Turkish young learners. Thirty-eight Turkish and 26 Syrian 5<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;graders (aged 10–11) voluntarily participated in this study. The findings indicated that learning English makes Syrian students happy, whereas Turkish students enjoy the fun activities in English classes. Learning English is considered both relatively easy and important by both groups. Turkish and Syrian young learners’ reasons to learn English differed slightly. Suggestions were provided for refugee young learners to overcome the potential problems regarding language learning.</p> Mehmet Asmali Sanem Dilbaz Sayın Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 25 38 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.2 The Face of Digital Inequality: Attitudes to Distance Learning in Formal Education during the COVID Pandemic https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26341 <p>&nbsp;With formal education moving online during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lithuania, issues related to digital literacy and digital exclusion have become more visible. Especially concerning is the growing digital exclusion of those social groups in the society which before the pandemic were already affected by social and economic problems, or other special needs. Further, the shift of formal education online created new challenges around digital exclusion. Recent literature dealing with the subject of digital exclusion, such as the study by Beaunoyer et. al. (2020), suggests that digital exclusion can be caused by a lack of digital literacy skills. Thus, even people with good technological equipment might experience difficulties to fully partake in online education, correctly understand information, or make full use of technologies involved in the online learning process because of a lack of knowledge, missing competencies, or motivation. Other scholars involved in researching digital exclusion argue that this binary approach in understanding the phenomenon is not sufficient (i.e., when the causes for it are seen only in insufficient technical equipment or missing skills). A third aspect of the social, cultural and economic context has to be added. In this article, digital exclusion will be analysed according to the three levels classification as suggested by Scheerder et al. (2017, 2019): (1) lack of technical equipment, (2) missing digital literacy skills, and (3) differences caused by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors.<br>During the months of June to December 2020, qualitative research was conducted in which pupils from 5th–8th grades, their parents, the teachers of the primary and secondary schools, and the school administration have been interviewed. The research consisted of two stages: the first one in relation to the first COVID-19 wave in Lithuania in June–July 2020, the second one&nbsp;– in relation to the second COVID-19 wave in October–December 2020. The data was collected via focus groups, both during face-to-face meetings and online. Research has shown that at the beginning of the online education process, the main focus of the schools was to tackle the first level difficulties (technical equipment), but the main challenges were related to the third level (sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences). In solving problems related to technical equipment, both school communities and parents have been mobilized. This depended on parents being able to ensure that their children had a proper enough computer and sufficient internet connection to ensure appropriate online learning at home. The teachers sometimes also felt individually responsible for tackling technical equipment and internet connection problems related to single pupils or their own classes. Many more difficulties were caused by the challenges related to the second level of problems involving digital literacy for all participants in online learning. Since there was not a sufficient level of open and coordinated communication during the period of distance learning, some groups within the school communities (including teachers) felt “left out” or accused of not having the necessary digital skills.<br>The accumulated experience led to a realisation that the emerging problems here should not be seen and dealt with individually (i.e., only as the issues and responsibilities of separate pupils or teachers) but could be much more effectively tackled with the involvement of the whole school community (including the school administration and parents). During the first COVID-19 wave, school communities struggled most with the third-level difficulties of digital exclusion: it was very challenging to appropriately integrate pupils with special needs or at-risk children into the distance learning process. This was already the case before the pandemic, but distant learning created an additional edge to the existing problem of social exclusion for those groups. The lack of special needs professionals in formal school education, missing expertise and skills for working online with special needs pupils, insufficient collaboration between educational specialists and social work professionals&nbsp;– these problems became significant factors in the social exclusion of certain pupils during the periods of distance learning.<br>Therefore, an understanding of digital exclusion as a complex, multi-layered phenomenon is significant in creating effective systemic strategies for tackling it, in which all participants of the school community are included and collaborate with each other.</p> Jovita Žėkaitė Vaiva Schoroškienė Ieva Adomaitytė-Subačienė Erika Speičytė-Ruschhoff Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 39 51 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.3 Digital Education: Lithuania among Other European Union States https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26342 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Digital learning has become an everyday experience for a significant part of the population during a pandemic, regardless of their technical and psychological readiness. Both the more and less technologically advanced countries have faced the inevitable need for large-scale deployment of digital learning. This paper presents an assessment of the development of digital learning in Lithuania and the EU countries in 2019, i.e., before the pandemic began. The evaluation is carried out using the Index of Readiness for Digital Lifelong Learning, developed by the Center for European Policy Studies (CEPS) using official indicators and expert evaluation.<br>Despite the growing number of studies aimed at assessing the digital divide in modern society and in education in particular, there is still a lack of empirical material to shed light on the link between the extent of digitalization, its determinants (such as national governance in promoting digitalization), and changes in learning outcomes caused by digitalization. The findings from the CEPS study presented in the paper are the first attempt to move beyond the assessment of the prevalence of learning digitalization in different European countries, taking a holistic view of digitalisation-induced changes in learning outcomes and participation with a special focus on digital learning policy as an important component of digitalisation development.<br>The aim of this article is to assess the digital learning situation in Lithuania using the Index of Readiness for Digital Lifelong Learning, which was developed before the pandemic in 2019. The progress of European Union countries in developing digital learning is reviewed in the paper, based on the results of CEPS (2019) research. The Index of Readiness for Digital Lifelong Learning and the results of Lithuania’s assessment using the methodology developed by CEPS are presented here. The description of the situation in Lithuania is based on the second component of the Index titled “Institutions and policies for digital learning”.<br>In order to qualitatively assess the country’s strategic provisions for digital learning, the method of analysis of the country’s strategic documents was applied. Public expert opinions were included into the analysis of the situation in Lithuania. An interpretation of the comparative analysis of the obtained index values is presented.<br>Standard indicators from the Eurostat, Eurobarometer, OECD, Bertelsmann Stiftung, World Bank, and expert surveys were used to create the combined Index of Readiness for Digital Lifelong Learning. The index is constructed as a weighted average of indicators divided into three categories: learning participation and outcomes, institutions and policies for digital learning, and availability of digital learning. The assessment of the situation in the EU countries, carried out according to the developed methodology, allowed to calculate the value of the Index for each country. Lithuania ranks 11th in the overall EU-27 ranking with an Index value of 0.623.<br>A more detailed analysis allowed us to see that the countries’ ratings can differ significantly according to the different categories of the Index. The Scandinavian countries lead in terms of learning participation and outcomes and, together with the Netherlands and Austria, in terms of availability of digital learning. Southern European countries received relatively high ratings in the Index category “institutions and policies for digital learning”, which reflects their determination to strengthen their position in the digital world. Estonia and the Netherlands also found themselves among the leaders in this category. Lithuania’s relatively high position in the list is also based on positive evaluations of the indicators of the second component of the Index (i.e., policies and institutions), while participation and learning outcomes were assessed modestly. Using the example of Lithuania, the article provides arguments in favor of why the second component of the Index should not be given.</p> Julija Moskvina Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 52 68 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.4 Lithuanian Education: Effective, Efficient, High Quality and Equitable? https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26343 <p>This paper discusses the problem of educational quality. The definition of quality is very broad; therefore, it is more convenient to use the term “educational effectiveness”. Effectiveness can be measured by choosing quantitative indicators that should reflect the level of student achievement as well as equity. It is also important to measure educational efficiency&nbsp;– the output in relation to the input. The current review presents key findings of research conducted in the domain of educational effectiveness and efficiency. The main conclusion of the research paper is that the currently existing mythology of educational quality should be replaced by evidence-based education policy.</p> Rimantas Želvys Rita Dukynaitė Dovilė Stumbrienė Audronė Jakaitienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 69 79 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.5 Pupils’ Literacy Problems in the Essays of Lithuanian Language and Literature State Matura Examinations: Gaps in the Knowledge of Syntax https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26344 <p>Based on the syntactic analysis of the essays composed in the course of the matura examination in 2019, the article seeks to answer the following major questions: How well are 12<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;grade pupils capable of observing the syntactic norms while writing a fluent text? Which syntactic phenomena do pupils find the most troublesome?<br>A quantitative study revealed that the pupils have an insufficient knowledge of syntactic norms. Pupils find case government, the combinability of words, the choice of word forms in a phrase and in a sentence the most troublesome. The greatest syntactic problem is the incorrect use of cases. What is most obvious and problematic concerning case-related mistakes is the use of the instrumental case to express a state instead of the second component of double cases. The expression of the indefinite amount of things and the whole is also rather troublesome (the use of the accusative case instead of the genitive case expressing an indefinite amount or a part). In their essays, pupils often make mistakes in the use of the gerund. The mistakes related to the composition of the complex sentence are also rather numerous.<br>It should be noted that the teaching of language system-related topics should pay adequate attention to the practical issues of language teaching as well as to tasks focusing on the correct usage of the spoken and written language.<br>The errors made by 12th grade pupils show that it is essential to improve the skills of the correct usage of syntactic constructions in the final grades with due regard to the individual needs of pupils and the class.</p> Laimutė Bučienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 80 92 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.6 Transdisciplinary Learning: From Transversal Skills to Sustainable Development https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26345 <p>The concept of transdisciplinarity has been extensively researched since the 1970s and still does not have one comprehensive definition, as it is considered highly context-dependent. Merging the knowledge synthesized by the scholars of transdisciplinary research, practice, and learning, transdisciplinary learning features have been identified and briefly elaborated on in this article, pointing out the functional and instructional nature of transdisciplinarity in modern education systems. Simultaneously, the article reflects on the connection of transdisciplinarity with the Education for Sustainable Development and transversal skills design, stating the significance of transdisciplinarity in tackling complex and uncertain social and environmental problems. As an approach, it promotes mutual and transformational learning, transcendence, problem-solving and transgression and is reflected in the values of active participation of learners and their orientation towards real-world problem-solving, blending disciplinary knowledge and constructing new knowledge, skills, competencies, and values collaboratively with peers, teachers, and the wider society.</p> Beata Lavrinoviča Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 93 107 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.7 Teachers’ Attitudes on the Development of Critical Thinking by Experiential Learning https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26346 <p>The content that is taught in school, but also outside it, needs to be connected with real (everyday) life. Teachers need to turn content into experience for their students, which is no easy task. The aim of this research is to determine the extent to which primary school teachers, secondary school teachers, and higher education teachers use this method in their work in order to develop critical thinking in their students and how much importance they attach to it during their work in teaching. A questionnaire on critical thinking and experiential learning (N = 168) was conducted, the results of which were analyzed with regard to gender, level of education, work experience, diluted to teach the work environment. The results show that the method of experiential learning with the aim of developing critical thinking is used to a greater extent in teaching (mean = 4.17, SD = 0.55). Differences were observed only with respect to work experience, where teachers with more work experience work statistically significantly more (F = 0.027; t = 3.31; p &lt; 0.01) on developing critical thinking. On the other hand, the need for further awareness, especially of younger teachers, on how to apply experiential learning and what it is important for has been proven. This research has shown the already recognized importance and aspiration to develop critical thinking in students at all levels of education, which will ultimately result in both developed and self-aware individuals and society. It is worrying that about 40% of teachers still do not conduct interactive learning on a regular basis, but it is encouraging that most teachers still recognize how important it is and apply it on a daily basis.</p> Luka Pongračić Ana Maria Marinac Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 108 121 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.8 Implementing the Personalised Learning Framework in University Studies: What Is It That Works? https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26347 <p>Personalised learning embraces the elements of mutual ownership by learners and teachers, flexible content, tools and learning environments, targeted support, and data-driven reflection and decision making. The current study utilises a mix of instrumental case study (Stake, 1995) and deductive thematic analysis (Braun, Clarke &amp; Terry, 2015; Terry et al., 2017) methods to explore the accounts of students of two teacher education study programmes at Vilnius University. The programmes were innovated to include practices of personalised learning in line with the framework developed by partners of the Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership Project INTERPEARL (<em xml:lang="en-GB">Innovative Teacher Education through Personalised Learning</em>). The results yielded three major themes which capture the successes and setbacks the students face, namely, personalisation in vivo: facilitation of growth as a would-be teacher; personalisation not manifest: what does not work; and personalisation in the making: the dos and don’ts.</p> Simona Kontrimiene Vita Venslovaite Stefanija Alisauskiene Lina Kaminskiene Ausra Rutkiene Catherine O’Mahony Laura Lee Hafdís Guðjónsdóttir Jónína V. Kristinsdóttir Anna K. Wozniczka Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 108 121 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.9 An Encounter between a Teacher and Child with ASD in a Pre-School Environment https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26348 <p>The article focuses on the phenomenon of the first meeting between an educator and a child on the autism spectrum and the an educator’s experiences during the encounter. An analysis of the scientific literature shows that the number of autistic children in Lithuania is increasing. The text describes a meeting between a pre-school and a pre-primary school educator and a child with autism spectrum disorders. The analysis unfolds the experience of particular educators when they meet a child with ASD in an ordinary pre-school group.&nbsp;During a hermeneutical phenomenological analysis, the experience of the educators are based on two existential subjects: experienced relationship and experienced body. During the first meeting with a child with ASD, educators attempted to establish a relationship with the child. Although each participant of the analysis experienced this beginning individually, all of them were confronted with a challenge in communication while establishing these relationships. Autistic children avoided the methods of relation contracting that were usual to educators. When educators contacted with the autistic children, their experience unfolded through the children’s bodily experience (appearance and behaviour).</p> Vaiva Juškienė Viktorija Voidogaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 143 155 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.10 An Architectural Model for the 21st Century School: Synthesis of Research Results https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26349 <p>This paper is intended to identify the most relevant and most frequently discussed research topics in the literature, including pedagogy and the physical learning environment. It can be stated that the goals and objectives of education may even indirectly be related to the physical learning environment; therefore, it is relevant to analyze the ways, means, aspects and methodologies of this interface in the research works of other researchers. To achieve this goal, the article presents a systematic analysis of literature sources. Based on the conclusions of the systematic analysis and the goals and objectives of modern education, the model of a good school in the general case was formed and presented in the article. This is the 21<sup xml:lang="en-GB">st</sup>&nbsp;century school model that reveals those factors and characteristics of the physical learning environment that would help create a physical learning environment corresponding to modern education.</p> Grėtė Vilbikienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 156 172 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.11 Orientation of Teaching, Research, and External Engagement Activities of Academics in Mexico https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26350 <p>Some results of the international survey Academic Profession in the Knowledge based Society (APKIS) applied in Mexico are presented. The orientation of the teaching, research, and external engagement activities, and the differentiating effect of some variables, was analyzed in a sample of 3,757 full-time academics of 116 Higher Education Institutions. Referencing the international surveys of 1992 and 2007, it was found that there are changes and continuities in the activities of Mexican academics. The type of institution variable has a generalized differentiating impact on the orientation of the activities.</p> Etty Haydeé Estévez-Nenniger Edgar Oswaldo González-Bello Angel Alberto Valdés-Cuervo Isabel María García-Meza Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 173 192 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.12 Knowledge Valorisation in Doctoral Studies in Latvia: Entrepreneurship and the Development of Research Competencies in the Study Process https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26351 <p>The purpose of this paper is to analyse the self-assessment data of Latvian doctoral students relating to their entrepreneurship and research competencies and to explore how it correlates and what can be done to promote valorisation during the study process.<br>An online survey using the QuestionPro platform was used to collect the data. The survey was fully completed by 43 doctoral students from various higher education institutions, and it consisted of 123 statements in which doctoral students assessed their competencies on a 7-point Likert scale. Five structured interviews were conducted in order to identify the supporting environment and other aspects that have an impact on the development of entrepreneurship and research competencies.<br>The results of the research demonstrate a relatively low self-assessment of entrepreneurship competencies, which points to why doctoral students are unable to commercialise their knowledge. Unlike entrepreneurship competencies, research competencies can be considered as very high. According to the data, there is no clear correlation between entrepreneurship competence and research competence. The results also point to the fact that it is not sufficient to develop only one of the two competencies to ensure the valorisation of knowledge.<br>For data to be fully representative, a higher number of respondents would have been desirable as well as a greater diversity of study programs represented, assuming that knowledge valorisation approaches and opportunities differ across sectors.<br>Nonetheless, the results can be used for the development and implementation of the valorisation initiatives of higher education institutions.</p> Agnese Slišāne Gatis Lāma Māra Bernande Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 193 210 10.15388/ActPaed.2021.47.13 Apie Jūratę Baranovą: kelionė nuo filosofijos link ugdymo teorijos ir praktikos https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26352 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Lilija Duoblienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 211 213 Multimodal Education: Philosophy and Practice, by Baranova, Jurate and Duobliene, Lilija https://www.journals.vu.lt/acta-paedagogica-vilnensia/article/view/26353 <p>Multimodal Education: Philosophy and Practice, by Baranova, Jurate and Duobliene, Lilija, Washington: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy, 2021, ISBN 1565183495, 9781565183490.</p> Anckaert Luc Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 47 214 215