Archaeologia Lituana <p>Founded in 1999 and dedicated to publishing articles on the history and methodology of archaeology as well as publishing important archaeological research in the Baltic region.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Archaeologia Lituana 2538-8738 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Albinas Kuncevičius Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 1 7 Relief in Aeolian Environment. The Surface of Nida Settlement <p>During archaeological investigations in Nida settlement in 1974–1978, 2011–2013 and 2016 a lot of stratigraphic data from considerably wide area was gathered. Based on stratigraphy Neolithic paleosol of Nida settlement can be distinguished and it can be used as proxy for reconstruction of paleorelief. Paleosol was recorded in former depressions or on eastward slopes of former dunes. Large area in western part of the settlement was affected by aeolian processes where paleosol did not survive and in the eastern part former surface plunge deeply under groundwater level, these limited the territory considerably for paleorelief reconstruction. Analysis of the paleosol and stratigraphy displayed layering of artefacts in some parts of the settlement, which was interpreted as at least two periods of human activity. Also, in some parts of Nida very thick layer (&gt; 1&nbsp;m) with artefacts have been recorded which formed because of combination of anthropogenic activity and natural processes. An important insight is made about ancient topographic location of Nida settlement. Based on geological, botanical and geophysical data from Nida and other parts of Curonian spit we argue that earlier interpretation is not supported by recent data and we suggest that Nida settlement was in eastern part of the spit, on the shore of Curonian lagoon.</p> Mindaugas Pilkauskas Gytis Piličiauskas Rokas Vengalis Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 10 23 10.15388/ArchLit.2019.20.1 Introduction to Economic Archaeology <p>The Economic Archaeology formed in late 20<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century and is defined as an essential subdiscipline of the archaeological research. It is a study of the relationships between past populations and their natural and cultural resources, encompassing production, distribution, consumption, and stratification. Economic relations are one fundamental key for understanding the workings and transitions of past societies and for grappling with how and why those societies varied. The aim is to recreate economic strategies and models of communities in natural and cultural environment by analyzing various communities with sophisticated structure through economical and archaeological theories and methods. This article aims to introduce goals and issues of economic archaeology as well as methodological possibilities to exam and enable to understand the histories and consequences of past economic strategies that have been employed. Moreover, this article describes the main formation stages of economic archaeology, considering the issues addressed by scientists during certain periods, and presents risks for this particular study of archaeological research.&nbsp;</p> Agnė Žilinskaitė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 24 39 10.15388/ArchLit.2019.20.2 AMS 14C Dating of the Cremated Human Bones and Funeral Fuel of the Western Balts. In Theory and in Practice <p>The article is dedicated to the application of AMS&nbsp;<sup xml:lang="en-GB">14</sup>C dating method of cremated bones and samples of related charcoal, which is rather new for the East Baltic region. The data of 3 Western Balts cemeteries from Lithuania are analysed. Results of radiocarbon dating are compared to the estimated typological chronology of the artefacts. The OxCal simulation is applied in order to obtain the most probable dates. The study lays the foundation for further spatial and static analysis of selected data.</p> Roman Shiroukhov Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 40 74 10.15388/ArchLit.2019.20.3 Functional Evolution of the Kernavė Hillforts in the Iron Age: New Intepretations of Old Data <p>This article explores the finds and post-excavation reports of earlier archaeological investigations in the five Kernavė hillforts. The detailed analysis of the assembled finds, discovered features and structures made it possible to revise and improve the prieviously suggested evolution model for the Kernavė hillforts. It reveals the evolution of the hillforts to have been much more complicated and that, over time, their function has changed rather significantly more than once. The finds recovered during earlier excavations were not classified into primary, secondary and&nbsp;<em>de facto</em>&nbsp;refuse. New examination of refuse&nbsp;– in this case, of pottery sherds, allowed for identification of single events, short-term activities and long-term settlement on the hillforts as well as distinct functional areas. The authors discuss whether the term “hillfortˮ is appropriate for use in scientific historiography. The issue of actual contemporaneity of the hilfforts in hilffort complexes is also raised.</p> Rokas Vengalis Gintautas Vėlius Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 75 115 10.15388/ArchLit.2019.20.4 Hidden, Unwanted or Simply Forgotten? A Bioarchaeological Profile of the Subačius Street 41 Population <p>In 2014–2015, an unknown 16<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>–17<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>-century cemetery was discovered at the Subačius Street 41 plot in Vilnius. The uncovered human remains are considered to be one of the most abundant and best-preserved anthropological material in the territory of present-day Vilnius. Paradoxically, historical sources do not mention this burial site, although the abundance of the interred individuals does not imply an accidental burial, but perhaps a functioning cemetery for some time. In such exceptional cases, the only source of information is the synthesis of archaeological and anthropological research data.<br>This article presents preliminary results and a brief overview of bioarchaeological (demographic, paleopathological, and dental research, height reconstruction) investigation. A total of 151 individuals were studied, with almost half (45%) of them consisting of children. Almost 60% of the individuals had one or more pathological lesions. The average height of male individuals was estimated 168.2&nbsp;cm, the average height of females was 157.8&nbsp;cm. The aim of this study can be defined as twofold: an attempt to identify the people buried outside the city walls and systematize for the first time the bioarchaeological data of one-out-of-many Vilnius populations. Currently, the Subačius Street 41 population does not resemble a typical urban community, so the study itself is the first attempt to reveal the osteobiography of these 16<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>–17<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century Vilnius residents.</p> Justina Kozakaitė Žydrūnė Miliauskienė Rūta Brindzaitė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 116 138 10.15388/ArchLit.2019.20.5 Mummy Stories <p>This article represents a summary of the author’s past 12 years of research on several mummy sets. As mummy studies expand as a sub-specialty of biological anthropology, it is important to highlight the significant contribution that the study of preserved remains can provide to both archaeology and history.</p> Dario Piombino-Mascali Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 139 150 10.15388/ArchLit.2019.20.6 Monitoring of Immovable Cultural Heritage Implementing 3D and Artificial Intelligence Technologies <p>Preservation of immovable cultural heritage is one of the main challenges for contemporary society. Nowadays very often organizations responsible for heritage management constantly have to deal with lack of resources, which are crucial for proper heritage preservation, maintaining and protection.<br>The possible solution of these problems could be automated heritage monitoring, based on the 3D and AI technologies. 3D scanning technology is the most accurate method to capture the situation of an evolving cultural heritage object or complex at a given time. As a cultural heritage object or complex is evolving continuously, AI based comparison of two 3D point clouds created at different time allow to reliably trace potential changes. Proposed solution is realized by project financed by Research Council of Lithuania „Automated monitoring of urban heritage implementing 3D technologies”. The first results of the project are presented at this article.</p> Rimvydas Laužikas Albinas Kuncevičius Darius Amilevičius Tadas Žižiūnas Ramūnas Šmigelskas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 151 166 10.15388/ArchLit.2019.20.7 Upon Looking in the Archives… (Review of R. Banytė-Rowell’s Monograph “Die Memelkultur in der Romischen Kaiserzeit”) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mykolas Michelbertas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 167 170 10.15388/ArchLit.2019.20.8 An Overview of the Scientific Activities of the Department of Archeology <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Violeta Vasiliauskienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 20 171 175