Informacijos mokslai 2020-01-09T15:19:22+02:00 Zenona Atkočiūnienė Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: left;">Founded in 1994. Dedicated to publishing articles on the information and knowledge society, information and knowledge management, organizational communication management, investigations of media management, media culture, international and intercultural communication. Indexed in the Scopus database from 2018.</p> The Usage of Information on Costs Classification for Various Purposes of Enterprises’ Activities 2020-01-09T15:16:53+02:00 Daiva Tamulevičienė Jonas Mackevičius <p>Understanding the essence and significance of costs, as well as the possibilities of how to decrease them, is one of the most important conditions for enterprises to succeed. The article analyzes the nature, importance, and description of costs. The volume, dynamics, and structure of Lithuanian enterprises’ costs for the period of 2013–2017 is provided. Features of costs classification, based on which one can determine on what purposes the information on costs may be used, are systematized. The methodology of the usage of information on costs classification for specific purposes is provided. It is comprised of three stages: 1) the foresight of opportunities for the usage of the information fund of costs classification; 2) the setting of goals for the usage of information on costs classification; 3) the evaluation of the effectiveness of the usage of the information fund of costs classification. The second stage should be considered the most important one in this process, because when the information fund of costs classification is being shaped and used, the set goals determine the need and purpose of such information. Taking this aspect into account, it is suggested to distinguish the three main goals of the information on costs classification: the administration and improvement of the accounting system, the improvement of the enterprise’s management system, as well as the establishment and improvement of the enterprise’s activity results.</p> 2019-12-30T10:50:54+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors On the Margins of the Motherhood Discourse: Childlessness in Lithuanian Women’s Magazines during 1991–1996 2020-01-09T15:15:05+02:00 Lina Šumskaitė Gražina Rapolienė <p>Foreign scholars highlight that despite the modernization of social life, cultural attitudes towards the<br>family are changing slowly, and women remain closely tied to the role of motherhood (McKennon Brody, Frey,<br>2017). The media has the power to reflect on and change the attittudes prevailing in society, thereby reducing the stigmatizing ones. Researchers discover the domination of pronatal discourse by analyzing images of childlessness, which supports parenthood in many ways, and individuals, especially women, who do not raise children and are underestimated and often stigmatized (Gibb, 2019; Grill, 2019). In order to understand the current cultural attitudes towards childless women and to analyze changes in comparison to other countries, it is important to examine them from a historical perspective.<br>The representation of childlessness in Lithuanian media during the last decades of the 20th century was not studied yet. The scholars (Marcinkevičienė, Praspaliauskienė, 1999; Maslauskaitė 2001; 2002) who had analyzed Lithuanian women’s magazines during the late Soviet period and after the Independence in 1990 focused mainly on the representations of familial and romantic relationships. This research, based on a qualitative content analysis of 224 articles from the most popular women’s magazines of 1991–1996, showed that sex education and abortion prevention were the prevailing topics covering the lack of public knowledge about reproductive and sexual health. The aim of the media was to consolidate motherhood as the main expression of femininity within the framewok of declining birth rates; therefore, infertility and voluntary childlessness were stigmatized.</p> 2019-12-30T10:41:03+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors The Role of Leadership in the Knowledge Management and Innovation Processes in a Modern Organization 2020-01-09T15:00:33+02:00 Zenona Ona Atkočiūnienė Daiva Siudikienė Ingrida Girnienė <p>The ability to create innovations is one of the most important sources of a competitive advantage for<br>every modern organization, region, and state. In today’s context as a particularly significant problem arises the issue of the role of leaders in organizing effective knowledge management and innovation processes. Although the topic of leadership was analyzed quite extensively in the second half of the 20th century, in the 21st century, it is recognized that organizations of this age need a new quality of leadership, as the organizations themselves and their environments are undergoing profound changes. This paper analyzes the changing approaches to leadership and its role in a modern organization, focusing on the concept of innovative leadership and its peculiarities in order to identify the components of this phenomenon and their links to knowledge management and innovation processes. After analyzing significant aspects of this topic, identified were the relationships between innovative leadership, knowledge management, and innovation performance, as well as an integral theoretical model of innovative leadership, knowledge management, and innovation performance for driving continuous innovation performance has been developed.</p> 2019-12-30T10:21:07+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors A study of the attitude of generation z to cross-cultural interaction in business 2020-01-09T15:07:03+02:00 Denys Lifintsev Cristina Fleșeriu Wanja Wellbrock <p>Background and Purpose: In a digitally globalized world cross-cultural interaction in social and business environment has become more widespread than ever before. The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitude of Generation Z representatives to different aspects of cross-cultural interaction.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: We used an online questionnaire to collect data for our study. A sample of 324 young adults from three countries: Germany (n=113/34.9%), Romania (n=107/33.0%) and Ukraine (n=104/32.1%) participated in the online survey. The sample consists of university students aged less than 23 years to match the criteria of being representatives of Generation Z. Different statistical tools were used to check the hypotheses.<br>Results: The results of the study indicate that Generation Z representatives consider cross-cultural communication skills as highly important both in their private and business life. The main motivation factors to work in a multicultural business environment have been identified as well as major barriers for effective cross-cultural interaction.<br>Conclusion: This paper illustrates that Gen Zers are willing to work in a multicultural business environment; moreover it can give them additional motivation. This trend along with ongoing processes of globalization and digitalization fosters further interconnection of countries and regions of the world, making cross-cultural communication and cross-cultural management techniques even more important.</p> 2019-12-30T10:02:37+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors The The image of Russia in the Kosovo media discourse: comparison between the public and the private media 2020-01-09T15:02:06+02:00 Lindita Tahiri Muhamet Mavraj <p>Considering the traditional role of Russia in excluding the Kosovo territories from the Albanian state, as well as the recent role of Russia in anti-Kosovo independence diplomatic lobbying, this study aims to identify the dominant narratives in Kosovo media about Russia by comparing three media outlets: the public service broadcaster RTK, the daily newspaper Koha Ditore and the online newspaper Gazeta Express. Different types of framing, such as titles, sources and attitudes are analysed; Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is used to highlight participants and the kind of actions they undertake in the journalistic discourse, raising questions about narrative choices and their ideological influence in the Kosovar audience. The results of the analysis show that the private outlets and in particular the online medium, which is popular amongst young audiences, tend to construct the affirmative image of the Russian leadership, especially regarding the portrayal of Vladimir Putin. While the affirmative reading for the Kosovar audience is privileged, other kinds of readings are suppressed, thus creating the ground for broader intended strategic objectives of political discourse.</p> 2019-12-30T10:00:32+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors MCDM approach for weighted ranking of candidates in e-voting 2020-01-09T15:19:22+02:00 Rasim Alguliyev Ramiz Aliguliyev Farhad Yusifov <p>The aim of the study is the application of multi-criteria evaluation methods for ranking of candidates in e-voting. Due to the potential to enhance the electoral efficiency in e-voting multiple criteria, such as personality traits, activity and reputation in social media, opinion followers on election area and so on for the selection of qualified personnel can be considered. In this case, the number of criteria excesses in the decision-making stage directed us to the use of a multi-criteria decision making model (MCDM). This paper proposes MCDM for weighted ranking of candidates in e-voting. Criteria for the candidates’ ranking and selection are determined and each voter uses the linguistic scales for the ranking of each candidate. Candidates’ ranking is evaluated according to all criteria. In a numerical study, it is provided the candidates’ evaluation on the base of selected criteria and ranked according to the importance of criteria. To assess the importance of the criteria and to evaluate the suitability of the candidates for each of the criteria, the voters use linguistic variables. In practice, the proposed model can use different evaluation scales for the selection of candidates in e-voting. The proposed model allows selecting a candidate with the competencies based on the criteria set out in the e-voting process and making more effective decisions.</p> 2019-12-30T09:50:53+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-12-31T08:59:29+02:00 Zenona Atkočiūnienė <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Communication Challenges for Foreign Students Studying in English in a Non-English Academic Environment 2020-01-09T15:09:02+02:00 Beata Grebliauskienė <p>Recently, education has become a global industry driven by students who have decided to study abroad. Trends show that more and more students choose to study at universities abroad for one reason or another. The growing number of international students also means a growing number of different cultures in a classroom. Cultural diversity is a highly complex phenomenon that influences the process of learning and teaching with its elements and has both positive and negative effects.<br>The challenges faced by students with different cultural backgrounds, their impact on learning processes and academic achievements are of interest to researchers. But it should be noted that this type of research is mostly carried out in universities, where both local and foreign students study in the same language and operate in the same linguistic and cultural environment. However, an increasing number of universities operating in a local cultural and linguistic environment offer study programs abroad (mostly in English). And these organizations, as far as foreign students, face unique problems.<br>The results of the qualitative research show that foreign students studying in such programs face both similar and<br>unique challenges compared to studies in universities in English-speaking countries.</p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Audience Development of an Art Organization in Terms of Relationship Marketing 2020-01-09T15:11:07+02:00 Ugnė Pavlovaitė Ingrida Griesienė <p>The article conceptualizes the audience of art organization, introduces the main art organization audience’s groups and analyzes the concept of relationship marketing in the context of art organizations. Relationship marketing tools are identified as an important instrumentality in order to develop and maintain networks between interested parties (various audience groups). The art industry is perceived as a medium for the implementation of relationship marketing. The theoretical platform model that is developed by art industry organizations is revealed as a universal and widely applicable tool among the biennials of contemporary art. The analysis of academic discourse presents the key groups of relationship marketing as well as dimensions which allows to evaluate the success of maintained networks. Following the features of public sector institutions a noticeable aspect in building relationships is the pursuit of economical benefit. Despite the economical benefits, interested audience groups of art organization are seeking of social benefits. At this point, the main relationship marketing dimensions – trust, commitment, satisfaction – are considered as a valuable measurement of the created platform network that reveals quality. It is concluded that arts organizations use appropriate relationship marketing tools to identify, establish, and maintain long-term relationships with their audience, for which the arts organizations provide additional organizational resources related to communication. The article presents an empirical study of the marketing relations of the biennial from research conducted in 2019 about the development of the biennial of contemporary art as an art platform where relationship marketing, as well as the main art organization audience groups, were presented. Case studies of the biennials of the contemporary art biennales Kaunas Biennial and EVA International were carried out. A qualitative study was chosen in order to empirically test the functioning of the theoretical model of the biennial as an art platform in terms of relationship marketing. Research data were collected using a qualitative (structured-standardized interview) research method. Following the analysis of the scientific literature and the empirical research data, guidelines for the development of an art organizations in terms of audience development were created.</p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Lithuanian Social Entrepreneurs’ Experiences of Evaluating the Impact of Their Social Businesses 2020-01-09T15:13:04+02:00 Rasa Pušinaitė-Gelgotė Raminta Pučėtaitė Aurelija Novelskaitė <p>This paper raises research questions on how social business representatives assess the impact of their social businesses and what methods they use to evaluate or measure it. The findings of data analysis of the interviews with 20 social entrepreneurs in Lithuania indicate that social entrepreneurs just begin to measure impact and do not always distinguish it from outcomes and outputs. This can also be influenced by impact measurement methods/tools, which are publicly available for social entrepreneurs or provided by funding organizations. Social entrepreneurs acknowledge that they must create and evaluate this impact, but research findings indicate that they distinguish more reasons not to do that. Impact evaluation is more explicitly revealed when discussing internal (consumers, employees) rather than external stakeholders. Some social entrepreneurs understand the need to evaluate their activities in monetary terms, but they do not do it, which is explained by the early development stage of social businesses in Lithuania. Moreover, social entrepreneurs do not have experience in measuring impact from a multidimensional perspective, i.e., including the social, environmental, cultural, and economic dimensions, and it seems that the necessity of doing this has not come to their awareness yet. The article is concluded with recommendations for strengthening social entrepreneurs’ capabilities in impact evaluation.</p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors