Kalbotyra https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra <p>Founded in 1958. Dedicated to publishing articles on synchronic and diachronic research into various aspects of language studies as well as studies addressing cross-linguistic issues.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Kalbotyra 1392-1517 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/journalpolicy">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16548 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Aurelija Usonienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 1 6 A token-based investigation of verbal plurality in Lithuanian dialects https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16549 <p>This paper examines the use of the verbal suffixes -(d)inė- and ‑dav‑ in Lithuanian dialects. Both suffixes express pluractionality, although of different types, and their distribution in Lithuanian dialects differs as well. Using corpus data, we find that in South Aukštaitian ‑dav‑ is rarer and -(d)inė‑ is more frequent than in East Aukštaitian; in Lithuanian dialects of Belarus -dav- is almost absent. We argue against the assumption that -(d)inėforms have extended into the domain of the past habitual at the expense of ‑dav‑ forms; a slightly higher token frequency of -(d)inė‑ in South Aukštaitian seems to apply irrespective of any particular tense. We also argue that only token-based analyses can substantiate claims concerning areal distribution of certain grammatical forms and constructions.</p> Kirill Kozhanov Björn Wiemer Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 7 31 10.15388/Kalbotyra.2019.1 Referential and pragmatic-discourse properties of Lithuanian reference impersonals: 2sg-imp, 3-imp and ma/ta-imp https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16552 <p>In this paper I describe the semantics, pragmatics and the discourse functions of three Lithuanian agent-defocusing constructions, featuring the non-referential use of second person singular/third person verbal forms and the non-agreeing participial forms in ma/ta. These three constructions can all be defined as impersonal, in the broader sense of the word, as the agent (or the main participant, whatever its semantic role may be) is constructed as non-referential: I label them 2sg-imp, 3-imp and ma/ta-imp. My corpus consists of original Lithuanian texts (a short story and entries on an Internet forum) and of the Lithuanian translations of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s novella Le Petit Prince and J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. My analysis shows that 2sg-imp are preferably used to express generic agents (anyone) and 3-imp are preferably used to express referential indefinite agents (someone). while ma/ta-imp are referentially flexible. 2sg-imp are pragmatically marked in that they are used to express empathy between the speaker and the pool of potential referents; they are mostly used in specific discourse types, such as opinion statements and life drama situations. 3-imp are preferred in situations where the indefiniteness of the agent is relevant to the development of the narrative; ma/ta-imp are instead preferred when the agent is irrelevant, and the focus is on the event itself. The behavior of Lithuanian 2sg-imp, 3-imp and ma/ta-imp is consistent with the one already described for similar constructions in other European languages.</p> Lidia Federica Mazzitelli Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 32 57 10.15388/Kalbotyra.2019.2 Juk and gi, and “particles” in contemporary Lithuanian: Explaining language-particular elements in a cross-linguistic context https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16553 <p>In this paper, I propose to take a fresh look at the elements traditionally termed “particles” in descriptions of Lithuanian. I establish criteria that would allow one to come up with a meaningful classification of such elements, and argue for the descriptive language particular category of “sentence particles”. I then turn to the syntax and functions of juk and gi, two prominent elements of this category. In order to understand their functions better, I invoke cross-linguistic comparison. I demonstrate that the ideas expressed in the literature on the German particles doch and ja can also be applied to Lithuanian. All four particles exhibit a common meaning component, which I describe as framing the proposition as uncontroversial, but also significant differences. Finally, I provide a brief overview of similar categories in some neighboring and genealogically related languages, and introduce the general methodological and areal-typological dimension of the phenomenon.</p> Vladimir Panov Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 58 86 10.15388/Kalbotyra.2019.3 From the Borderland of the Lithuanian Southern Aukštaitians: Changes in the Syntactic Constructions https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16554 <p>The dialectological and sociolinguistic material from the Southern Aukštaitian borderland is under the investigation in this article. The most recent records of the speaker of the Lithuanian Southern Aukštaitian in Šalčininkai district are analyzed in order to study the changes in the syntax. The peripheral area of the Southern Aukštaitian located in Šalčininkai district is surrounded or, speaking more precisely, in contact with languages other than Lithuanian, i. e. Belarusian and Polish, and relatively recently with the Russian language as well. The purpose of this article is to reveal the process of interception and convergence of syntactic compounds in the Lithuanian dialect of Šalčininkai district. The paper is based on ideas by Vytautas Ambrazas (2006) on this topic.<br>Because of continuous language contact a lot of variants in the present Lithuanian dialect of Šalčininkai region have developed. For example, very frequently the prepositions ant ‘on’, dėl ‘for’, į ‘to’, po ‘after’ used in combination with case tend to acquire more specific meanings. A lot of them become analogous to those found in the neighbouring Slavic languages and thus are often alien for Lithuanian. The impact of standard Lithuanian cannot be totally disregarded either.<br>The Lithuanian and Slavic languages are in active contact in these neighbourhoods, that is’ why they tend to develop the same patterns and constructions. In many cases the local Belarusian dialect, known as the poprostu (‘plain language’ – a local variant of the Belarusian northwestern dialect), plays a stimulating role here. Relatively recently all three contact languages, i.e. Lithuanian, Belarusian and Polish, have acquired numerous lexical and grammatical borrowings in the dialects of Šalčininkai neighborhoods. This is one of the conditions for accelerating the incorporation and adoption of alien syntactic patterns in the Lithuanian language.<br>In intense contact, borrowing is not limited to several different patterns because syntactic rules could be adopted as well. Surely, the archaic constructions could acquire entirely new semantic content. The prepositional phrases have been adopted and used not instead of pure cases, but rather alongside with them.</p> Nijolė Tuomienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 87 106 10.15388/Kalbotyra.2019.4 Intercultural Perspectives on Research Writing, Pilar Mur-Dueñas, Jolanta Šinkūnienė, eds. John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia (2018) https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16555 <p>Intercultural Perspectives on Research Writing, Pilar Mur-Dueñas, Jolanta Šinkūnienė, eds. John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia (2018). VII + 310 pp., ISBN 9789027201973.</p> Mirna Varga Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 107 113 10.15388/Kalbotyra.2019.5 Feste Wortverbindungen in Forschung und Lehre: Phraseologismen, Kollokationen und Verwandtes. In Erinnerung an Saulius Lapinskas (1954–2014). Internationale wissenschaftliche Tagung an der Universität Vilnius https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16557 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Justina Daunorienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 114 120 10.15388/Kalbotyra.2019.6 In memoriam. Aurelija Mickūnaitė Griškevičienė (1971–2019) https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16558 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Aurelija Usonienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 121 124 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16559 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Aurelija Usonienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 72 130 136 The Corpus of Lithuanian Children Language: Development and application for modern studies in language acquisition https://www.journals.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12422 <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper describes The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language and its possible applications for modern studies on the first language acquisition. First of all, the procedure of data collection for the Corpus is discussed. Furthermore, the main methodological principles of longitudinal and experimental data compilation and transciption are decribed. Finally, different studies in developmental psycholinguistics which have been carried out so far and which demonstrate possible ways of the application of the Corpus data for different scientific purposes are introduced.</p> <p>The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language developed at Vytautas Magnus University comprises typical and atypical, longitudinal and experimental data of the Lithuanian language development. The Corpus was compiled using different methodological approaches, such as natural observation and semi-experiment. The longitudinal data (conversations between the target children and their caretakers) compiled according to the requirement of natural observation includes transcribed and morphologically annotated speech of two typically-developing children, one late talker, one early talker, one child from a low SES family, and a pair of twins. The data was collected during the period of 1993–2017 and and it can be divided into three cohorts. The semi-experimentaldata (~ 124 hours) comes from numerous studies in narratives and spontaneous dialogues elicited from typically-developing and language-impaired monolingual and bilingual (pre-) school age children.</p> <p>From the very beginning of data collection for the The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language, studies in the develomental changes of typical child language have been carried out. Over the past decade, these studies have been supplemented by statistical analysis of elicited semi-experimental data; the majority of these studies deal with typical vs. atypical (delayed or impaired) language acquisition and with differences between acquision of Lithuanian in a monolingual vs. bi-/polylingual settings.</p> <p>The paper provides an overview of data of The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language, which have been collected from 1993 but still needed to be structurized according to the employed methodology of data compilation and possible applications for different scientific purposes.</p> Ingrida Balčiūnienė Laura Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė Copyright (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 72 7 25 10.15388/Kalbotyra.2018.1