Kriminologijos studijos 2020-03-20T09:03:29+00:00 Laima Žilinskienė Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 2014. Dedicated to publishing articles in criminology.</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2020-03-20T09:03:29+00:00 Laima Žilinskienė <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2020-03-20T09:03:28+00:00 Laima Žilinskienė <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Biopolitics and Disciplinarity in the Legislation of Conduct in Public Spaces of Vilnius 2020-03-20T09:03:26+00:00 Maryja Šupa <p>This article presents the specific rhetoric of social control present in the sections of national and municipal legislation pertaining to conduct in public spaces of Vilnius, Lithuania.<br>Theoretically, the paper utilises M. Foucault’s framework of power modalities both because of Foucault’s engaged questioning of power and the applicability of his insights to the spatial dimensions of the city. The paper bases its interpretive scheme on two premises: a) that law reveals biopolitical and disciplinary aspects of social control; and b) that urban public space presents a valuable case for the analysis of these aspects.<br>A qualitative content analysis of national and municipal legislation has revealed that national legislation is driven by biopolitical objectives and municipal legislation by disciplinary ones. The national legislation focuses the regulation of public space on public order, public calm, and public dignity – public mores that must be upheld in the interest of the population and expanding beyond strictly public space. Disciplinarity is evident in municipal legislation insofar as it breaks space up into governable fragments, imposing painstakingly detailed prohibitions and obligations, and building a hierarchy inside the population between the desired and subnormal subject.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Mechanisms and Methods for Placing New Psychoactive Substances under Control 2020-03-20T09:03:25+00:00 Algimantas Čepas Radosav Risimović <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The article deals with the international and national mechanisms used to place new psychoactive substances under control. The authors provide an overview of the systems in use in the United Nations and the European Union, as well as in many European and other states, to criminalize newly emerging psychoactive substances, as well as propose certain legislative changes that could be adapted in the European Union to make the procedures of criminalization more straightforward. The article also provides for an overview and analysis of legal formulations used to define new psychoactive substances in different European and other states: list approach, generic scheduling, blanket bans, regulation through the laws on consumer protection and health protection, establishing legal markets for new psychoactive substances.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Problems Related to Reintegration of Young Ex-Offenders in Estonia 2020-03-20T09:03:23+00:00 Anna Markina <p>Based on 22 semi-structured interviews with 24 young ex-offenders in Estonia, this article looks at the effect that stigmatization has on the reintegration of young ex-offenders. The study looks at to what extent and in which domains ex-offenders experience stigma, how they manage it, and what effect it has on social participation and involvement. The results indicate that young ex-offenders experience stigma while looking for jobs and accommodation and when interacting with the criminal justice system. The strategies for managing stigma mostly include secrecy and withdrawal. These strategies are closely related to self-stigmatization, low societal participation, and a low level of trust toward state institutions.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Constructing Criminological Knowledge: the Experience of the Development and Implementation of Interdisciplinary Criminology Studies at Vilnius University 2020-03-20T09:03:21+00:00 Aleksandras Dobryninas Jolanta Aleknevičienė Aušra Pocienė <p>Taking a social constructionists perspective, the article presents not widely known sides in the development of modern Lithuanian criminology related to the emergence, formation and development of criminological studies at Vilnius University. Since the emergence of the first criminological courses in Lithuanian academic institutions, they, as in other European continent universities, were usually taught in law faculties and schools. However, in the mid of 1990s, a unique situation occurred at Vilnius University, where sociologists and psychologists started teaching criminological courses at the Faculty of Philosophy. Later, in 1999, with the methodical help of the Faculty of Law, the teaching staff of the Faculty of Philosophy developed and implemented two-year masters programs in sociological and psychological criminology.<br>The gained educational experience in managing and implementing interdisciplinary criminology programs at Vilnius University paved the way for introducing in 2017 new interdisciplinary bachelor study programme in criminology. On the one hand, the emergence of such studies would be impossible without long-term close and constructive collaboration between the sociologists, psychologists and lawyers of Vilnius University and, on the other, - without the active involvement of the new generation of young criminologists in the educational process. Authors emphasise, that the emergence and development of the criminology studies in Lithuania was influenced by both the developmental context of criminology at European and North American universities and the methodological and organisational support, which Lithuanian criminologists had been receiving from their colleagues from western academic institutions.<br>Authors also present and describe the developmental process of both master and bachelor studies: they introduce the leaders, organisers and lecturers of these programs, observe their structure and inner consistency, analyse the role of interdisciplinarity in organising criminology studies. The article identifies the challenges and problems facing both the teaching and learning processes and their potential solutions, which should ensure the quality of studies, their correspondence to the state-of-art methods in criminological research and practical needs of contemporary society.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Gender-based Violence in Lithuania during Late-Soviet Period and Post-Soviet Transformation 2020-03-20T09:03:20+00:00 Monika Kareniauskaitė <p>The aim of this article is to research the concept and different definitions of gender-based violence in Lithuanian society during the late Soviet period and the first decade of Lithuanian independence. These different definitions of&nbsp;gender-based violence are reconstructed and presented in the different discourses of criminological knowledge and beliefs: a) the expert criminological discourse; b) the so-called discourse of the ‘well-informed citizens’; c) the so-called discourse of the ‘people from the street’. The theory of three different criminilogical discourses in Lithuanian crimininology is developed by Aleksandras Dobryninas but based on theoretical insights of Alfred Schütz. The article analyzes the third level from the perspectives‘ of the victims of gender-based violence.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2019-05-27T13:42:05+00:00 Kriminologijos Studijos <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2018-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2019-05-27T13:42:05+00:00 Kriminologijos Studijos <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> 2018-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press Trends in Pre-Trial Detention Practices in Lithuania: Perspectives of Legal Culture 2019-09-17T20:33:27+00:00 Skirmantas Bikelis <p>[full article and abstract in Lithuanian; abstract in English]</p> <p>This article presents some of the results from the research project “DETOUR: Towards Pre-Trial Detention as Ultima Ratio,” funded by the European Commission (2016– 2017), where the author of the article, together with his colleague V. Pajaujis from the Law Institute of Lithuania, as well as project partners from Austria, Germany, Ireland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Romania, addressed the legal, procedural-structural and legal-cultural particularities in different countries that might be the roots of the different practices in pre-trial investigation when deciding on coercive measures for suspects. The research was particularly focused on the views and attitudes of the practitioners: judges, prosecutors, defense lawyers. Multiple semistructural interviews (no less than 35 per project partner), and four international events with the practitioners’ participation, have been carried out during the project.</p> <p>First, the article presents and discusses the dynamics of statistics in pre-trial detention in Lithuania. Some factors that make impact on statistics that have no relation to the changes of the legal culture in pre-trial investigations are discussed. However, the author comes to the conclusion that even revised statistics indeed indicate a huge drop in the prevalence of pre-trial detention.</p> <p>This assumption is further confirmed by the opinions of the respondents and by the particular instances of objective and subjective factors that might have impact on the downward trend in the application of pre-trial detention.</p> <p>Among the objective factors, the positive experiences of the practitioners in the effective operation of the European arrest warrant have been noted. Also, the practice of the European Court of Human Rights, which emphasized the importance of the equality of parties and the adversarial principle in detention hearings, highly contributed to the elimination of ill-practices, whereas before and during the detention hearings prosecutors used to provide less information from files for the defense than for the judge.</p> <p>The interviews with prosecutors and judges showed instances of a positive shift in attitudes from an orientation toward (or even an over-emphasis of) securing the proceedings to a reasonable balance between the interests of justice and the protection of human rights. It seems that this shift is closely connected with higher standards motivating pre-trial detention. Also, standards of professional contacts between the police and the prosecution, and between the prosecution and the judiciary, have reportedly risen quite substantially, especially in bigger cities.</p> <p>Even though the Lithuanian justice system still employs more coercion in the pre-trial investigation (more detention) against suspects more than most of the European countries, the general outlook in this field is rather optimistic.</p> 2018-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press