Kriminologijos studijos <p>Founded in 2014 and dedicated to publishing articles in criminology.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Kriminologijos studijos 2538-8754 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> The Construction of Lithuanian Prison Sentence Assumptions in Critical Criminology Perspective: an Analysis of the Goals of Imprisonment <p>The declared aims of custodial sentencing worldwide and in Lithuania are to protect society from crime and reduce recidivism; it is agreed that these aims can be achieved only when the duration of imprisonment is devoted to the prisoner’s gradual return to society (UNODC 2015). However, the newest Lithuanian strategic documents note that the sentencing system does not promote the change of prisoners’ criminal habits, offender resocialization is fragmented, and prison staff carries out offender protection and surveillance, not resocialization and social help (LR Vyriausybė 2021b). By building upon the ideas of social constructionism tradition (Berger and Luckmann 1999) and critical criminology (Christie 1999; Hulsman 1997; Quinney 2004; Mathiesen 2006), this paper analyzes the aims of custodial sentencing in the context of Lithuanian penal system’s reform and specifies possible implementational problems of declared aims of imprisonment. Document analysis showed that the raising and naming of imprisonment problems are conditioned by the commitment to international organizations and projects, as well as the cascading aims of the Lithuanian political agenda. In Lithuania, the purposes of custodial sentencing continue to be relatively general and instrumental. They are used to justify current and future means of reform while it is expected of correctional facilities to provide long-term positive influences on a person and fulfill quantitative indicators. We presume that resocialization and social integration ideas, as the main declared aim of custodial sentencing, are “imprisoned” in political discourse, which lacks critical analysis and does not provide much chance for success.</p> Jolanta Aleknevičienė Ignė Kalinauskaitė Loreta Matačiūtė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-28 2022-10-28 9 232 253 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.9 The Search of the Influence of Bourdieu Sociology to Criminology <p>-</p> Arūnas Poviliūnas Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-28 2022-10-28 9 254 271 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.10 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>-</p> Laima Žilinskienė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-28 2022-10-28 9 1 7 Individual Characteristics and Punitive Practice for the Women Accused of Illegal Possesion and Distribution of Drugs or Psychoactive Substances <p>According to the official statistical data, in Lithuania, female offenders make up approximately 10% of the convict population and 5% of the prison population (Department of Statistics, 2022). Due to rather small numbers of women drawn into the criminal world, female offenders and their specific needs are often hardly visible to the representatives of the law enforcement and correctional system. Therefore, the punitive practices applied to female offenders as well as the social context of their criminal behavior remain understudied topics in Lithuania. The main purpose of this study is to uncover the individual characteristics and the offending circumstances of the women accused of illegal posession and distribution of drugs. Also, this study includes the analysis of the sentencing trends for female culprits of drug-related crimes. The analysis of court practice and the interviews with the sentenced women has shown that, compared to males, females had no stable source of income and had to take care of the children and other family members more often. In addition, unlike males, females did not distribute drugs in the organized criminal groups, while the additional offences were mostly related to drug abuse rather than any other complicated criminal scheme. Finally, the comparison of sentencing trends has shown that Lithuanian courts tend to be more merciful towards women as they where imposed with shorter prison sentences. This study is one of the few attempts to explore the social context of female criminal behavior which will hopefully encourage to individualize the sentences imposed to female offenders.</p> Liubovė Jarutienė Copyright (c) 2022 Liubovė Jarutienė 2022-10-25 2022-10-25 9 199 231 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.8 International comparison of manifestations and tendencies of registered juvenile delinquency in Lithuania <p>In the article manifestations of registered juvenile delinquency, its‘ structure and tendencies in Lithuania are analyzed, Lithuanian indicators are also compared with the indicators of other European countries. The comparative study shows large differences in registered juvenile delinquency, which are primarily determined by different scopes of criminalization of delinquency, different intensity of formal control, as well as different rules for registering juvenile delinquency. The absolute indicators of registered juvenile criminal offences in Lithuania have been decreasing for the past two decades, and the relative indicators of registered juvenile criminal behavior have also been consistently decreasing for the last five years. 2020–2021 the number of administrative offenses committed by minors in Lithuania also decreased, which is primarily associated with restrictions in public life introduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Serious violent crimes by minors, characterized by low latency, are often widely described in the media, and constitute a small part of the structure of crimes committed by minors in Lithuania, and the number of murders is consistently decreasing&nbsp;– in 2021 it was the smallest during the entire period of independent Lithuania&nbsp;– only one murder was registered. After completing this study, it can be said that the indicators of registered juvenile delinquency compared to other countries should be seen first of all as an output of the juvenile behavior control mechanisms operating in each country, which tells little about the real extent of juvenile delinquency. The minor juvenile delinquency is more latent and its rates should be first evaluated. Cases of serious delinquency are characterized by a much lower latency, but in this case too, in order to compare registered delinquency, it is necessary to simultaneously assess complex differences in criminal prosecution between countries.</p> Gintautas Sakalauskas Vaidas Kalpokas Jolita Buzaitytė-Kašalynienė Birutė Švedaitė-Sakalauskė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-19 2022-10-19 9 173 198 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.7 Violence, Pregnant with Peace: Criminological Reading of Lars von Trier <p>In this article, the works of cinema director Lars von Trier are invoked as an instrument to explain various criminological theories. Mostly, the approach of cultural criminology is applied as well as other perspectives: dramaturgical-existential approach, peacemaking, and (anti)positivism. Both because of the topics presented (such as transgressing and questioning the socially acceptable norms, violence, fear, humiliation, deviant sexuality, despair, etc.) and the methodology of the filmmaking process, the self-labelled ‘best director in the world’ can be quite rightly described as one of the most thought-provoking criminologists in Europe. Paradoxically, ideas presented in his films, though seemingly violent and destructive, might be inspirational for those who seek peace and enlightenment.</p> Salomėja Zaksaitė Copyright (c) 2022 Salomėja Zaksaitė 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 9 151 172 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.6 Deviant Women in the Media: Between Reality and Fiction <p>Media has the power not only to determine the main issues, but also to reflect crime statistics. It’s common that fear of crime is constructed using eye-catching headlines and sensational narratives. This is especially the case when the crime is committed by women. In addition to its main aim - to examine how deviant women are portrayed - the article also focuses on the evolution of crime news, analyses female crime data and its treatment on the Lithuanian news portal DELFI.</p> Rimantė Gaičevskytė-Savickė Copyright (c) 2022 Rimantė Gaičevskytė-Savickė 2022-08-10 2022-08-10 9 129 150 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.5 Homicide Trends and Types in 1920s-1930s Lithuania: Limitations of Official Statistics <p><span xml:lang="en-GB">This article calls into question the reliability of the official historical statistical sources of homicides in 1920s-1930s Lithuania and aims to evaluate the limitations of the mentioned sources. With this in mind, we will attempt to make some assumptions about homicide types and trends in interwar Lithuania.</span><strong>&nbsp;</strong><span xml:lang="en-GB">The Central Statistical Bureau had been&nbsp;</span>publishing statistical data relevant to the investigation of homicides in&nbsp;<em>Statistical Bulletins and the Statistical Yearbooks of Lithuania since 1924. These statistical sources in the homicide study were problematic due to an unclear data collection methodology, the use of different homicide terms, unrealistic definitions of urban and rural areas and changes in Lithuania’s territory and population. We cannot determine the exact rates of the 1930s homicides due to the change in the homicide terminology and its content. Between 1924-1931</em>&nbsp;the term&nbsp;<em>violent deaths, except suicides,&nbsp;</em>was&nbsp;used, and homicides were not singled out. The analysis also shows that until 1931 violent deaths included homicides and accidental deaths too.&nbsp;From 1932 to 1939&nbsp;violent deaths were divided into 4 groups:&nbsp;<em>suicide, homicide, accidents</em>&nbsp;and<em>&nbsp;other viol</em>ence.&nbsp;The more detailed data of the 1930s have revealed that the&nbsp;most frequent victims of homicide were in the 15-29 and 29-44 age groups for men, while the 15-29 age group stands out for females.&nbsp;The most common method of killing was shooting. The police-published homicide statistics also reveal a problem of terminology. According to the Penal Statute of Lithuania,&nbsp;<em>deprivation of life was&nbsp;</em>distinguished into the crimes of&nbsp;<em>homicide; infanticide; abortion; preparation to murder; attempted murder&nbsp;</em>and<em>&nbsp;persuasion and help to commit suicide</em>.&nbsp;However, this terminology was only partially reflected in the police statistics, as between 1927-1930&nbsp;the police used the term&nbsp;<em>homicides and classified them into the ones committed: for-profit; during brawls; for other purposes</em>.&nbsp;<em>Infanticide</em>&nbsp;was separated from homicides. Leaving out&nbsp;<em>others</em>,&nbsp;<em>infanticide</em>&nbsp;was the most common murder type in interwar Lithuania. Since 1931 the statistics of the police had been using the term of&nbsp;<em>deprivation of life</em>&nbsp;and distinguished it into the 7 types according to the motive:&nbsp;<em>for-profit; during brawls; defending one’s own life or the lives of others; involuntary; infanticide; abortion&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>for other purposes.&nbsp;</em>It did not include dead bodies found, suicides and accidental deaths.&nbsp;After analysing the 1931-1938 data on&nbsp;<em>deprivation of life</em>, excluding abortions, homicides would vary from 200 to 300 per year. When comparing all the deprivations of life with homicides by the cause of death, it can be concluded that these figures included preparation for murder and attempted murder as well as persuasion and help to commit suicide. Thus, due to the change in the terminology and the inclusion of attempted murders, the police statistics can be considered unreliable.&nbsp;Homicides are the most precisely quantitatively defined by the rates of causes of death, which in 1932-1938&nbsp;Lithuania were relatively stable with an amplitude of 93-139 murders per year. On a basis of the analysis of the police statistical data, it is possible to identify at least 4 main types of homicides in interwar Lithuania: reproductive – infanticide and abortions, aggressive – killings during brawls, economic&nbsp;- for profit as well as unintentional homicides that happened during accidents.</p> Sigita Černevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 9 100 128 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.4 The criminalization of stalking and characteristics of court practices in stalking cases in Lithuania <p>Stalking is considered a serious public health problem as well as a harmful form of victimization often leading to severe consequences for the victim. Although there is still little agreement on the exact definition of stalking, it has been recognized that the core elements of stalking include deliberateness and recurrence of the stalker’s actions as well as victim fear and concern for safety. The main purpose of this article is to debate on the definition of stalking as well as provide the rates of stalking in Lithuania. Authors conclude that stalking refers to a constellation of a diverse range of actions and may include both direct communication with the victim and the use of cyberspace technologies. A rapid development of modern digital technologies leads to a wide variety of complex stalking behavior patterns that makes it complicated to generate an adequate legal response to this phenomenon. The results of a public survey conducted by a research group from the Law Institute of the Centre for Social Sciences in 2021 show that the rates of stalking in Lithuania are comparable to those reported in foreign studies as 17.5% of Lithuanian population have experienced stalking at least once during their lifetime. Stalking by the current or former intimate partner was the most prevalent stalking category, as it comprised nearly 39% of all stalking cases in the state. The article also covers some aspect of court practices in stalking-related cases during the period from 2016 to 2020, before anti-stalking legislation was introduced in Lithuania. By year 2021, when stalking was criminalized in Lithuania, 23 European Union member countries have managed to develop criminal anti-stalking legislation. Another aim of this article is to discuss the way criminal anti-stalking legislation was introduced in Lithuania and compare Lithuanian approach to the legal provisions enacted in other countries. Authors conclude that although the introduction of criminal anti-stalking legislation in Lithuania was an important step towards ensuring victims’ safety, it still may possibly lead to some practical issues during the criminal investigation of stalking cases.</p> Ilona Laurinaitytė Ilona Michailovič Liubovė Jarutienė Justina Zokaitė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 9 77 99 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.3 Working patriarchies? Police and criminal justice responses to domestic abuse in Scotland 1960–1990 <p><span xml:lang="en-GB">Post-war Scotland remained a deeply patriarchal country. Domestic abuse was common yet widely under-reported by the women it affected. This article argues that police and criminal justice agencies in Scotland 1960–1990 were ‘working patriarchies’ which created significant barriers to reporting. Oral history narratives from domestic abuse survivors, police and criminal justice professionals reveal deeply patriarchal workplaces and practices designed to maintain longstanding traditions of the patriarchal family. These inhibited reporting, denied women access to safety and justice in private life and contributed to women’s continuing inequality in post-war Scottish society</span>.</p> Anni Donaldson Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 9 47 76 10.15388/CrimLithuan.2021.9.2