Lietuvių kalba <p>Founded in 2007. Is an international peer-reviewed linguistic journal that publishes research on all core aspects of the Lithuanian language including phonetics and phonology, morphology and syntax, lexis and discourse, semantics and pragmatics.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Lietuvių kalba 1822-525X <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Dialecticism as a measurable value <p>Traditional dialectology describes dialecticism as a whole of dialectal attributes, while multimodal dialectology portrays it as a certain expression by which those attributes are realised. As a result, an analysis of the latest dialectal formations – geolects and regiolects – faces a varying degree of dialecticism because the most prominent dialectal attributes are ‘erased’ from usage or have become unstable dialectal markers that not everyone and not every time uses.<br>The degree of dialecticism can be measured. One option to reveal it is to apply Fumio Inoue’s method of quantitative values, which the author of this article construes as a relationship between theoretically probable and actually used dialectal forms. The higher the percentage of dialectal instances, the more dialectal the local language variation is.<br>To obtain the most objective view possible, the dialecticism of the language of local informants must not be measured purely as the means of the observable dialectal instances. The boundaries between the minimum and maximum degree of dialecticism have to be mapped at all times. Furthermore, these boundaries need to be verified with statistical methods.&nbsp;</p> Danguolė Mikulėnienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 11 10.15388/LK.2020.22434 Sustainability of dialecticity in the regions of Lithuania: the perspective of the EMIC narrative constructor <p>The paper expands on the problem of sustainability of dialecticity, i.e. the conditions and the potential of the dialect codes in the regions of Lithuania based on the data of the project “Distribution of Regional Variants and Quasistandard Language at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Perceptual Approach (Perceptual Categorisation of Variants)”. It aims to reveal whether and to what extent the narrative of an ordinary member of a language community allows to approach regional dialecticity via the dimension of (non)sustainability of dialecticity.<br>The empirical basis for the analytical discourse developed in the paper was constructed from the data revealing the language attitudes of 910 young persons from 21 regional points (which in the <em>etic&nbsp;</em>narratives were estimated as includable into the zone of the already formed (or forming) variant on the basis of the traditional dialect), fixed by applying the instrumentarium worked out in perceptual dialectology&nbsp;(PD).<br>Having generalised the data of language self-observation and acknowledgement of dialecticity in the micro-/macro-environment, it might be claimed that, in the region of Lowland dialecticity, the areas of the sustainable dialecticity dominate: here, no less than 2/3 of the community might be estimated as having the potential to choose and realise the dialect code.<br>The PD research including the young Highland people, which was based on the comparative analysis of the data, concerning the application of the language behaviour of young people and their <em>a priori</em>&nbsp;attitudes toward the spread of the dialect code, led to the observation that the following&nbsp;<em>ab intus</em>&nbsp;estimations of the dialect codes have been constructed:&nbsp;<em>I am more tolerant toward it</em>;&nbsp;<em>I show less attempt at self-identification</em>.<br>It should be stressed that, in the regions of Highland dialecticity, not merely the areas of the sustainable dialecticity have been fixed, where the communal members firmly positioned their identity as active (im)permanent representatives of the dialect code. The <em>emic</em>&nbsp;narratives reconstructed from the PD research data allowed to distinguish the areas of the relatively sustainable dialecticity, where only around 1/2 of communal members might be identified as the active (im)permanent representatives of the dialect code, and the areas of the unsustainable dialecticity where only 1/3 and less of the communal members were apt to recognise their dialect identification.<br>The holistic estimation of both the Lowland and the Highland dialecticity, based on the reconstructed fragments of the <em>emic&nbsp;</em>narratives revealing the tendencies of code adjustment, led to the conclusion that Lowland dialecticity should be claimed as more sustainable.<br>It should be maintained that the concluding remarks are based on the reconstruction of the <em>emic&nbsp;</em>narratives of the group of recipient participants who represent one age category. Therefore, to achieve a more accurate (non)sustainability discourse in dialectology, further steps are required, e.g. the PD research should include the recipients of various age groups; the results obtained in the PD analysis should be compared with the data of direct observation, etc.</p> Daiva Aliūkaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 20 10.15388/LK.2020.22435 The perception and value of the new local language variety: the case of the Samogitians of periphery <p>Dialects change, transform, and new ones – transitional, intermediate varieties between dialect(s) and standard language – emerge due to various extralinguistic factors (see Lenz 2010, 296). The research shows that the variety of the periphery of Samogitia, Akmenė region has also changed (Murinienė 2018).<br>The aim of this study is to reveal the gymnasium students’ competence to identify local intermediate variety by assessing it from the perspective of three language varieties – dialect, semi-dialect (intermediate variety) and standard language, and also its value. The data was obtained from a questionnaire, based on the methodological principles of sociolinguistics and perceptual dialectology, to reveal attitudes of young residents of Akmenė region.<br>The analysis shows that gymnasium students, according to their verbalised and visualised attitudes, identify the local variety as a semi-dialect and reflect a less marked dialect. Respondents call it semi-Samogitian dialect, semi-Samogitian and semi-Highland dialect/standard language. In the mental maps, the local dialect is also marked as a semi-dialect and is located between Šiauliai and Mažeikiai, which reveals the reflected peripherality of the local language variety.<br>According to the associations with users of semi-dialect, this variety acquires a high value compared to the (traditional) dialect. The user of the intermediate language variety is described as adaptable, flexible, and simultaneously modern, but not the person who abandons the traditions. The local language variety is important for expressing the local identity because the standard language usage is not recognised among the local dialect users as a conscious separation from the community if it is used in informal situations.</p> Monika Triaušytė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 15 10.15388/LK.2020.22436 Fundamental study on the sounds of standard Baltic languages: phonetic and phonological differences <p>The article discusses the most important differences in the sound structure of contemporary Lithuanian and Latvian standard languages, scientific and practical benefits of a fundamental comparative instrumental sound research, reviews possible further innovations in theories and methods of acoustic and articulatory phonetics and phonology, and perspectives as well as tasks of such research.<br>In his monograph <em>Comparative History of the Baltic Languages&nbsp;</em>(2019), Pietro Umberto Dini observes that there is a constant decline in the synthetic structure in the Baltic language systems, most notably as a reduction of the flexural forms of the noun and verb. He argues that the Baltic languages, like all other Indo-European languages, recognise a structural development: agglutination → synthetic → isolation language. According to the author, the isolation stage of development in the Lithuanian language is just starting, and the isolation structure of the Latvian language is becoming more and more pronounced. Pietro Umberto Dini states that “from the Baltic systems, the Latvian language ‘drifts’ faster in terms of structural development, and the Lithuanian language remains the most morphologically conservative of the current Indo-European languages due to the much slower change” (Dini 2019, 577). The author, based on, for example, the growing tendency in the colloquial Lithuanian language to move the accent to the first syllable (where the accent has long been emphasised in the Latvian language), considers that analogous tendencies are observed in both languages, i.e. the Baltic languages are evolving towards convergence. The data presented in this article and the latest synchronous instrumental studies of the sounds of the Baltic languages do not confirm the convergence trends: the sound structure of the Lithuanian and Latvian languages is still quite different (cf. Urbanavičienė, Indričāne, Jaroslavienė, Grigorjevs 2019, 286; see also Jaroslavienė, Grigorjevs, Urbanavičienė, Indričāne 2019). Both Baltic languages are characterised by quantitative vowel opposition, adjective system (polytonicity), sufficiently simple structure of consonant compounds (e.g. CV and CVC syllable types make up 79% of all Lithuanian syllables, see Karosienė, Girdenis 1994, 40), the same phonological opposition of consonants (voting, modal, local). However, the Lithuanian language has a free accent, while the Latvian language has a fixed accent. One of the most important distinguishing features of the current Baltic languages is palatalization: Lithuanian language is characterised by secondary palatalization and opposition palatalised vs. unpalatalised realisation, which presupposes a twice as large inventory of consonant phonemes in the Lithuanian language and, in comparison with the Latvian language, an accurate, precise articulation of consonants.<br>The article highlights certain similarities and differences in the sound structure of the contemporary Lithuanian and Latvian standard languages based on the latest synchronous comparative research of the Baltic sound system: two scientific monographs of the series <em>Sounds of the Baltic Languages in the early 21st Century&nbsp;</em>(Jaroslavienė, Grigorjevs, Urbanavičienė, Indričāne 2019; Urbanavičienė, Indričāne, Jaroslavienė, Grigorjevs 2019), where the sounds of Lithuanian and Latvian languages are instrumentally studied and described according to the same principles. This is an excellent basis to continue the instrumental study of the contemporary Baltic sounds (and to discuss the importance of the research) on other relevant aspects and perspectives (a few new instrumental non-comparative studies already exist, cf. Ledichova 2020); to update and highlight the practical benefits of such studies and audio recordings (by taking into account the assistance in language learning, examining standard language norms, pronunciation tendencies, the importance in medicine, developing tools and instruments for language technology and artificial intelligence), innovations and perspectives of theories and methods. It is a very important incentive to continue instrumental scientific and practical research of Lithuanian sound methodological innovations, drawing increasingly clear prospects for further research.</p> Jurgita Jaroslavienė Jolita Urbanavičienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 18 10.15388/LK.2020.22437 The practice of experimental investigations of lexical tones in Baltic subdialects: some of the new insights in methodology <p>This article provides an alternative way of experimental investigation of lexical tones in the Baltics. The main idea holds on a presupposition that the phonetic basis of prosodic elements in question can be explained in a more appropriate way in terms of a combined analysis of acoustic correlates, rather than a selective one. The lexical tone in this case may be interpreted as a factor which determines the type of acoustic correlation. Ideally, the interdependence of that sort could be defined by mathematical functions. The analysis of the empirical basis provides clear evidence in the favour of such methodological approach. Phonetic data from both, the Latvian (Valmiera) and the Lithuanian (North Žemaitian) subdialects confirmed clearly that the highest level of the tone distinction can be reached by a combined analysis of the pitch slope, pitch jerk and the duration of the long accented vowels. These results have arguably improved the interpretation of the phonetic tone structure and shed a new light on the typological links between the Baltic dialects. Finally, it presupposes that the phonetic nature of prosodic elements in some degree depends on a methodological way we choose for the investigational purposes.&nbsp;</p> Evaldas Švageris Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 19 10.15388/LK.2020.22438 The derivational family of the noun SAULĖ <p>The word&nbsp;<em>saulė</em>&nbsp;(‘the sun’) and the denotation indicated by it has a lot of meanings in the Lithuanian culture: the mythologists, philosophers, art critics, and literature critics have written about this phenomenon. The article analyses the derivational family of the noun&nbsp;<em>saulė</em>. Having analysed the derivatives with the root word&nbsp;<em>saul</em>&nbsp;(or one of the root words) found in various sources and the relations between them, the following conclusions have been drawn.<br>The derivational family, the centre of which is the noun <em>saulė</em>, consists of 287 derivatives: mostly nouns (78 per cent of all derivatives), adjectives (15 per cent), verbs (4 per cent) and adverbs (3 per cent). First degree derivatives are dominant, i.e. such derivatives whose underlying word (or one of them) is the noun&nbsp;<em>saulė</em>: cf. first degree derivatives make 74 per cent of all derivatives, and 26 per cent of all derivatives of further derivation stages.<br>The nouns are formed by using all derivational types; however, the compound nouns prevail: they make 69 per cent of all noun derivatives. 61 per cent of compounds are with the second verbal component. The components of 34 per cent of compounds are linked with the vowel -<em>ė</em>-. Some compounds have direct meanings (they denote purpose and place), and many more compounds have figurative meanings (metaphorical and metonymic). The noun&nbsp;<em>saulė</em>&nbsp;almost always (99 per cent) is the first component of the first degree compounds.<br>There are a few neologisms – the derivatives or the derivatives that have acquired a new meaning – in the derivational family of the noun <em>saulė.</em>&nbsp;New realia are named as neologisms or they are variants and synonyms of derivatives incorporated in dictionaries.<br>The research revealed that, in the Lithuanian language, the same entities (mostly plants, phenomena) are named in terms of variation: 40 rows of derivational variants (DV) and 33 rows of derivational synonyms (DS) have been formed and discussed. The plant <em>saulėgrąža</em>&nbsp;(‘a sunflower’) and the time when the sun sets down&nbsp;<em>saulėlydis</em>&nbsp;(‘the sunset’) have a particularly high number of conjugate names: in these rows of DV and DS, there are 33 and 29 derivatives, respectively. Although in many cases DV and DS are the words of a close (or even identical) semantical meaning, their usage and frequency differ: usually only one member of the DV and the DS row is common to the contemporary Lithuanian language, it is often used, while other derivatives often belong to the passive lexis and are known to a small part of the Lithuanian language users, or are recorded in written sources. In rare cases, conjugate derivatives are related in terms of antonyms.</p> Jolanta Vaskelienė Greta Girdvilytė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 23 10.15388/LK.2020.22440 Boundaries of word-formation. New reflections on old things <p>The attitude that word-formation fully coincides with derivation has been well established in the Lithuanian linguistics. The means of formation that fall outside derivation are regarded as peripheries of derivation that are not worth a considerable attention, although formal features of derivation are obvious (<em>skruzdėlė&nbsp;</em>cf.<em>&nbsp;skruzdė</em>), or absolutely fruitless prescriptive discussions about some kind of mistakes (<em>profsąjunga</em>&nbsp;cf.&nbsp;<em>vyrgydytojas</em>) are generated. In addition, composition is attributed to derivation, even when it is not clear where&nbsp;word-formation formant is and how to identify the meaning of forming a compound&nbsp;(<em>nelaižytveršis: nelaižytas veršis</em>). The article puts forward a solution to the discussed problems, which embraces all the formation in the Lithuanian language (not only derivation) and deals with the problems of derivation mentioned here.<br>Seeking to address the problems raised, it is necessary to evaluate the role of language economy in the word-formation and, based on this evaluation, to expand perception of the importance of word-formation. Word-formation embraces not only derivation, but also all other ways of formation that go beyond the boundaries of morphemes. However auxiliary, insignificant or peripheral they may seem, they are a part of an integral word-formation system. All the attributes of this word-formation phenomenon, such as opposition, foundation and formant, synchronically apply to the whole word-formation. For this reason, the boundaries of derivation should be expanded. The most significant question here refers to semantic measuring and the volume of the formation meaning. Taking into account the fact that the main and fully comprehensive function of word-formation is not about increasing the number of words, but rather about rationalisation of their emergence, i.e. language economy, and also assuming that all the aspects of formation meaning (lexical, grammatical as well as economy) overlap and only one of them prevails, the general scheme of formation meaning (not only the derivational meaning) can be presented more or less as follows:<br>Meaning of economy (<em>profsąjunga, mikriukas, epaštas, JT, sodra,&nbsp;</em><em>nelaižytverš</em><em>is, eras, skruzdė</em>)&nbsp;economizing means of linguistic expression.<br>Grammatical meaning (<em>gerumas,&nbsp;</em><em>ėjimas, begalvis, palangė, stiklinė</em>)&nbsp;change in grammatical content&nbsp;economizing means of linguistic expression. &nbsp;&nbsp;<br>Lexical meaning (<em>žiūrovas, namelis,&nbsp;įlanka, snūduriuoti, rugiagėlė, nueiti</em>) change in lexical content economizing means&nbsp;of linguistic expression and changing grammatical content if necessary.<br>Such explanation of the general meaning of formation and inclusion of language economy expands the understanding of formation beyond the boundaries of derivation and allows referring to a new concept of the word-formation system.&nbsp;</p> Antanas Smetona Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 7 10.15388/LK.2020.22441 When traditions meet different approaches: the case of exophoric Lithuanian demonstrative pronouns <p>This paper aims to review the existing research on the exophoric Lithuanian demonstrative pronouns and to give a short review of other possible parameters alongside the distance that influences the choice of demonstratives as well as the applied methods in the field. It also suggests some key aspects for the analysis of the exophoric use of demonstrative pronouns.</p> Gintarė Judžentytė-Šinkūnienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 13 10.15388/LK.2020.22442 On adverbial clauses in spoken Lithuanian <p>The aim of the paper is to investigate adverbial clauses of time, cause, condition and concession in spontaneous private communication. The study explores semantic relations between the main and subordinate clauses, grammatical features and predominant conjunctions.<br>The data for the research was collected from the morphologically annotated <em>Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian</em>, namely, its sub-corpus of spontaneous private speech which is used at home, at friends’ place, or which is produced by close friends.<br>The analysis of spontaneous private communication shows that the finite adverbial clauses of time, cause, condition and concession are related to a set of conjunctions, but other indicators such as the use of verbal categories (especially tense, aspect and mood), contextual lexical markers as well as pragmatic inference also help to determine the semantic relationship between the main and the subordinate clause.<br>In a spoken language, temporal clauses are usually combined with the conjunctions <em>kai, kaip&nbsp;</em>‘when’<em>, kol&nbsp;</em>‘while’, less frequently – with&nbsp;<em>kada&nbsp;</em>‘when’; causal clauses are combined with the conjunction&nbsp;<em>nes</em>&nbsp;‘because; since’, less frequently – with&nbsp;<em>kad&nbsp;</em>and<em>&nbsp;kadangi</em>&nbsp;‘because’; conditional clauses are typically combined with the conjunction&nbsp;<em>jeigu&nbsp;</em>‘if’, less frequently – with&nbsp;<em>jei</em>&nbsp;‘if’, concessive clauses – with the conjunction&nbsp;<em>nors</em>&nbsp;‘though’. The conjunctions&nbsp;<em>kai&nbsp;</em>‘when’<em>, kol&nbsp;</em>‘while’,&nbsp;<em>kadangi&nbsp;</em>‘because’,&nbsp;<em>jeigu</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>jei</em>&nbsp;‘if’ correlate with the particle&nbsp;<em>tai</em>&nbsp;that is very frequent in a spoken language, while the conjunction&nbsp;<em>nors</em>&nbsp;‘though’ – with the contrastive conjunction&nbsp;<em>bet</em>&nbsp;‘but’.<br>In the natural language flow, the structure of adverbial sentences is modified: other sentential and discourse units can intervene between the main and the subordinate clauses, and the adverbial conjunction moves from the initial to the medial position.<br>Traditional Lithuanian grammars emphasise that the position of adverbial clauses is undefined: they can appear before or after the main clause. However, the analysis of spontaneous speech shows that the position of a subordinate clause is influenced by the semantic relationship between the clauses. If a subordinate clause refers to a previous action or event, then it dominates in a preposition. Besides, the position of an adverbial clause is also influenced by correlative conjunctions: the main clause with the correlative particle <em>tai</em>&nbsp;dominates in the postposition.<br>The research also revealed that Lithuanian adverbial clauses could function at the discourse level: in dialogues, the structure of a complex sentence is broken down and subordinate adverbial clauses can acquire additional – discourse – functions. Adverbial conjunctions, in their turn, can indicate relations with a previous discourse.&nbsp;</p> Erika Jasionytė-Mikučionienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 25 10.15388/LK.2020.22443 Metaphorical somatonyms of northern Samogitians: artefactual motivational model <p>The article presents the analysis of the onomasiological structure of the metaphorical somatonyms of Northern Samogitians, focusing on the indicators of the source of metaphors. Based on the explicit semantics of the source (lexical motivators), the metaphorical somatonyms of Northern Samogitians belong to several motivational models, the most productive of which is the artefactual motivational model. The basis of the artefactual metaphor is the associative similarity of the object (artefact) and the body part according to various parameters – shape, size, features of structure and materiality, actions, especially repetitive movements.</p> Jūratė Lubienė Dalia Pakalniškienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 15 10.15388/LK.2020.22444 Does the connotation of the word KAIMIETIS ‘countryman’ change? <p>The recording of the derogatory meaning of the&nbsp;<em>kaimietis</em>&nbsp;‘countryman’&nbsp;in the&nbsp;<em>Dictionary of the General Lithuanian Language</em>&nbsp;and the recently spread statement among linguists that a new negative connotation (meaning) of the word&nbsp;<em>kaimietis</em>&nbsp;has appeared, led to the analysis of the usage of the word. For the research of sociolinguistic and stylistic interpretation of the word, material was collected from the Fiction and Press sections of the Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian Language (CCLL). In addition, examples from dictionaries, media, works of Lithuanian fiction and other contemporary texts were collected.<br>Since many years, in its main meaning, the word <em>kaimietis</em>&nbsp;has remained functionally stylistically and evaluatively neutral word meaning a rural resident (less often a person of rural origin).&nbsp;In almost one-fifth of the examined contexts of the word&nbsp;<em>kaimietis</em>, the word itself has an evaluative tone that is emphasized in one way or another; the number of contexts of positive and negative evaluation differs little.&nbsp;1375 examples found in CCLL of usage of nouns&nbsp;<em>kaimietis&nbsp;</em>‘countryman’,<em>&nbsp;</em><em>kaimietė&nbsp;</em>‘countrywoman’&nbsp;in all forms in the contexts were distributed according to the content as follows: neutral (~ 83%), negative (~ 10%) and positive (~ 7%).<br>From the modern language usage data, it is clear that it is purposeful to talk about the systematic connotation of the noun <em>kaimietis</em>&nbsp;when its meaning is not a “rural resident” (“peasant”) or “a person of rural origin”, but a certain stereotype, usually with negative uneducated and similar characteristics. The recording of the derogatory meaning of the&nbsp;<em>kaimietis</em>,<em>&nbsp;</em><em>kaimietė&nbsp;</em>in the&nbsp;<em>Dictionary of the General Lithuanian Language</em>&nbsp;is a case of legitimation of the penetration of low-style means of expression into neutral-style discourse and such manifestations.&nbsp;The fact that the word&nbsp;<em>countryman,</em>&nbsp;having the derogatory meaning “ignorant, etc.”, does not necessarily apply to the countryman, does not in any way diminish the denigration of the rural man.&nbsp;The one-sided negative attitude towards the countryman arises from a superficial knowledge of the village, certain ideological attitudes, as well as from a person’s spiritual immaturity, urban pride; it spreads and has an effect because of the urban territories.<br>Contexts of unfavorable evaluation are not a new phenomenon: reflections of a negative <em>kaimietis</em>&nbsp;connotation also exist in old phraseology, interwar and later texts in journalism and fiction.&nbsp;Negative evaluation of rurality is especially strong in slang, jargon, and low culture in general.&nbsp;This connotation is reinforced by the denigration of the language of the villagers. On the other hand, the public has always been characterized by solidarity with the rural man, the ability to appreciate what is good and beautiful in the village.&nbsp;</p> Regina Kvašytė Kazimieras Župerka Džiuljeta Maskuliūnienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 9 10.15388/LK.2020.22445 Derivation of verbs attested in the old Lithuanian scripts: infixed and sta-stem anticausatives <p>The article presents the analysis of infixed and&nbsp;<em>sta</em>-stem verbs opposed to&nbsp;<em>ia-</em>stem verbs attested in the old Lithuanian scripts, investigating the opposition&nbsp;<em>causative/anticausative</em>. The research has shown that this morphosemantic opposition was amply testified in the earliest Lithuanian written sources – 59 correlations of this type were recorded in total. More than 50 percent of the equivalents of the oppositions attested exist in the Latvian language as well. This suggests that the&nbsp;<em>causative/anticausative&nbsp;</em>formation belongs to the Eastern Baltic period, and has been crucial to the productivity of the class of infixed and&nbsp;<em>sta-</em>stem verbs. Although not so abundant, the correspondences of the oppositions found in the Slavic and Germanic languages presuppose an even earlier chronology of decausation. The regularity of the semantics and formal structure of the oppositions allow the relations of the opposites to be treated as derivative. This is particularly true in the case of the abundant reflexes of “complex-root” oppositions such as&nbsp;<em>CeRC/CiRC</em>. The abundance of non-present and prefixed forms of the analysed verbs testifies to the specificity of this flexional class in terms of actionality: inchoative, completive, limitative or punctual meaning realised by corresponding prefixes was important for the development of the morphosemantic uniformity of decausatives and has inspired new patterns of word formation, the durative/terminative opposition and the derivation of the denominatives in particular. The study of the causative/anticausative verbal opposition in the old Lithuanian scripts is significant for the history of Lithuanian infixed and&nbsp;<em>sta-</em>stem verbs and for a typological linguistic research.&nbsp;</p> Dalia Pakalniškienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 16 10.15388/LK.2020.22446 Constructions with the verb EITI ‘to go’ in the 16th century Lithuanian writings <p>This research investigates the semantics and the structure of the constructions with the verb&nbsp;<em>eiti</em>&nbsp;‘to go’ extracted from the old Lithuanian written texts, dating back to the 16th&nbsp;century. It aims to examine the meanings and the structure of the constructions that contain the motion verb&nbsp;<em>eiti</em>&nbsp;‘to go’ within their structure. There is a considerable body of research investigating various aspects of motion verbs in different languages of the world, including Lithuanian. However, no studies have so far targeted constructions<em>&nbsp;</em>with the verb&nbsp;<em>eiti</em>&nbsp;‘to go’, found in the 16th&nbsp;century Lithuanian writings. The present study is based on the qualitative content analysis, quantitative analysis, and frame semantics methodology. The concordances of the Lithuanian texts have been filtered out from the Database of Old Writings digitalised by the Institute of the Lithuanian Language. The examples were taken from Martynas Mažvydas’&nbsp;<em>Katekizmas</em>&nbsp;(MžK) and&nbsp;<em>Forma krikštymo</em>&nbsp;(MžF), Jonas Bretkūnas’&nbsp;<em>Biblija</em>&nbsp;(BB),&nbsp;<em>Giesmės Duchaunos</em>&nbsp;(BG),&nbsp;<em>Kancionalas</em>&nbsp;(BKa) and&nbsp;<em>Kolektos&nbsp;</em>(BKo), Mikalojus Daukša’s&nbsp;<em>Katekizmas</em>&nbsp;(DK) and&nbsp;<em>Postilė</em>&nbsp;(DP).<br>The frames of <em>Motion</em>,&nbsp;<em>State</em>,<em>&nbsp;Law</em>,&nbsp;<em>Eternity</em>,&nbsp;<em>Service</em>,&nbsp;<em>Opposition</em>,&nbsp;<em>Law</em>, etc., evoked by the selected constructions, were examined using the frame semantics (<em>FrameNet</em>&nbsp;Project). The research has shown that the current constructions with the motion verb&nbsp;<em>eiti</em>&nbsp;‘to go’ can form the core of the mentioned frames. The observation that has emerged from this analysis is that some meanings of the analysed constructions are conserved in the current Lithuanian language while others have already disappeared. This work could be useful for historical linguists.</p> Agnė Lisauskaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 19 10.15388/LK.2020.22447 Variation in translations of biblical quotations in Žemčiūga Teologiška by Simonas Vaišnoras (1600) <p>The aim of this article is to investigate the translation variations of Biblical quotations in Simonas Vaišnoras’&nbsp;<em>Žemčiūga Teologiška</em>. This text is a translation of Adam Francisci’s theological tractate&nbsp;<em>Margarita Theologica</em>, and it was published in 1600. From the first sight, it seems that Vaišnoras tried to make his translation as similar to the original as possible. That is why, in many cases, his translation looks literal and a lot of syntactic constructions and the word order in it seem to be closer to Latin than the Lithuanian language. However, a closer look at the translations of Biblical quotations shows a different situation. In some cases, Biblical quotations are translated differently in different places of the text. Those variations include lexemes, word order, morphological features. Some of those variations are determined by the variations of the translation’s source&nbsp;<em>Margarita</em>&nbsp;<em>Theologica</em>. Another group of the variations appear because the author chose to translate not from&nbsp;<em>Margarita</em>&nbsp;<em>Theologica</em>, but from the Luther Bible. Nevertheless, more than a half of the cases (16 from 28) cannot be explained by the influence of translation sources. It shows that Simonas Vaišnoras was quite free translating this text and sometimes let himself deviate from the original. This article also focuses on the nature of variations – they are classified by the levels of language. The majority of variations are made at the lexical level (43&nbsp;%), a little bit less are at the syntactic level (37&nbsp;%), and the least are at the morphological level (20&nbsp;%).&nbsp;</p> Samanta Kietytė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 12 10.15388/LK.2020.22448 Orthography of books and their authors at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century <p>During development of the Standard Lithuanian language at the end of the 19th&nbsp;century, the dialectal basis was chosen first, and the orthography varied yet for another twenty years. This article analyses the dual orthography – of books and personal orthography of their authors. The study is designed to find out whether the books published during that period reflect the orthographic model chosen by their authors; what factors, in addition to the author’s choice, may have influenced the orthography of the books.<br>The influence of printers on the orthography of books during that period was smaller than before, as many authors did the proofreading themselves. Thus, printers were able to change the orthography in cases where books were printed without the author’s knowledge or consent, such as prayer books. If the author chose unusual, rare, or even self-invented characters, a limited inventory of prints could be a serious obstacle to keep their orthography in the book. As the case of Jonas Basanavičius shows, even when the author offered to finance the acquisition of the necessary prints, this was not necessarily done.<br>At the end of the 19th century, books were published as supplements to periodicals. The editors of newspapers <em>Ūkininkas</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Tėvynės sargas</em>&nbsp;adapted the orthography of such books to their periodicals. Under the terms of the press ban, it was often important for authors just to print a book, and the spelling model was chosen by the publisher. However, authors such as Basanavičius, who considered themselves the creators of the standard language, took care to present their chosen or created model of orthography in their books as well.<br>As the cases of Liudvika Didžiulienė, Dominykas Tumėnas and Basanavičius show, two orthographic standards emerged during the research period: correspondence was written one way and books were printed another. Hence, it is not always possible to judge the orthographic model chosen by the authors in books published at the end of the 19th century and the early 20th century.&nbsp;</p> Jurgita Venckienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 15 10.15388/LK.2020.22451 Some spelling and language features of publicistic works by Povilas Višinskis <p>Povilas Višinskis was a significant figure of the Lithuanian culture, society, and politics at the end of the 19th&nbsp;c. and the beginning of the 20th&nbsp;c., an active advocate of the Lithuanian national movement, a member of the national revival organisation&nbsp;<em>Varpas</em>, and a supporter of the movement to regain the banned Latin characters for the Lithuanian language. His creative legacy includes various publicistic works, found in the press or published as separate booklets; that has yet received little attention.&nbsp;<br>The paper analyses some characteristic spelling and language features of publicistic works by Višinskis.<br>Concerning the spelling, a special focus should be on its promiscuity and randomness. The principles of spelling are mixed up, different word forms are used side by side in the same text, and often it is difficult to explain the reasons and consistency of a particular spelling. With this in mind, it is rather difficult to tell which language and spelling is authentic, and which is edited, proofread or corrected by editors. At the same time, it should be pointed out that such variation in spelling is common to Lithuanian writings of that time, reflecting a phase of the developmental process of the standard language at that time.<br>What concerns the language of Višinskis’ publicistic works, it is characterised by the use of some Samogitian features, rather frequent retention of archaic morphological forms (dual number of nouns and verbs, <em>supinum</em>, athematic verbs, archaic pronominal forms) and cases of stem mixing of nouns. His vocabulary is full of dialecticisms, barbarisms, and semantic archaisms. His syntax contains a lot of non-Lithuanian, foreign constructions, especially those with prepositions.<br>In conclusion, one could say that gradually Višinskis’ language and spelling became more homogeneous. In his latest publicistic works, this language and spelling uniformity becomes clear, while particular forms and constructions are used more consistently.&nbsp;</p> Bronius Maskuliūnas Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 8 10.15388/LK.2020.22452 Presentations of the scientific seminar SYNCHRONIC AND DIACHRONIC STUDIES OF THE LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Agnė Lisauskaitė Vilma Zubaitienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 15 1 52 10.15388/LK.2020.22453