Lietuvos istorijos studijos 2022-07-07T03:28:49+00:00 Tomas Vaiseta Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1992 and dedicated to publishing articles on Lithuanian past, its historical development, and statehood of the Lithuanian nation, development of material and spiritual culture, its interaction with other nations, place in the world civilisation.&nbsp;</p> Printed Music as a Medium of International Representation for the Magnates of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: A Case Study of Music Prints Dedicated to Jan Karol Chodkiewicz and Aleksander Chodkiewicz 2022-07-07T03:28:49+00:00 Aleksandra Pister <p>The article deals with the collections of printed music dedicated to the distinguished nobles, statesmen and military commanders of the Grand Dutchy of Lithuania, brothers Jan Karol and Aleksander Chodkiewicz. These collections were printed in Venice in the beginning of the 17th century and dedicated to the Lithuanian magnates by Italian composers Giovanni Valentini and Giulio Osculati. However, it was not in their home country where composers became acquainted with the above-mentioned noblemen who had studied and travelled extensively in Italy but in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In fact, both composers had served for certain periods of time as musicians in the Polish court chapel under Sigismund III Vasa. The said collections of motets are being examined here with an emphasis on publicity and international representation. The author notes that besides the reasonable expectations of both Italian composers to raise their public profiles, to publish and disseminate their work in Europe, these personal aspirations also resonated with the interests of other public figures. They both represent Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, as a generous patron and a leading social figure. The dedications were intended to glorify the Chodkiewicz and raise their profile within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and beyond. They account for the magnates’ victories in major military campaigns of the time, such as those achieved during the Polish–Swedish war of 1600–1611, as well as Chodkiewicz’s merits in defence of the state. Within the context of shifting confessional identities at the turn of the 16<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;and 17<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;centuries (i.e. the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation movements) these notated sources should be considered as a reflection of the magnates’ confessional identity. The very genre of printed works&nbsp;– motets for Catholic church service&nbsp;– reflects Chodkiewicz’s firm self-determination as Roman Catholics.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors The Activity of Tadas Daugirdas in Warsaw (1877–1891): From a Painter to an Archaeologist 2022-07-05T09:39:35+00:00 Eligijus Raila <p>Tadas Daugirdas actively participated in the National revival culture but later was forgotten. His work covered several areas of cultural and intellectual life including painting, archaeology, ethnology, museology, and publicist writing. Daugirdas contributed significantly to the creation of the national flag of Lithuania. The fourteen years, from 1877 to 1891, he spent in Warsaw had the great influence on his worldview. Living in Warsaw he maintained close relationship with such people as artist and art critic Stanisław Witkiewicz, doctor and ethnologist Władysław Matlakowski, archaeologists Adam Honory Kirkor, Dmitrij Samokvasov, and Gotfryd Ossowski; he also corresponded with Mečislovas Davainis-Silvestraitis on the issues of Lithuanianism. The Warsaw period determined his future activities which he developed after his return to Lithuania. He came to Warsaw as a painter and returned to his parents’ manor in Lithuania as an archaeologist and a promoter of folk art.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Juozas Gabrys and Lithuania at the League of Nations: Political Activity 2022-07-05T09:39:35+00:00 Monika Šipelytė <p>The political activity of Juozas Gabrys at the League of Nations in Geneva from 1927 to 1939 is the main subject of this article. He and his colleagues established&nbsp;<em>Lithuanian Information Bureau</em>&nbsp;here in the 1930s and worked as journalists. Gabrys also sought to gain a position as a Lithuanian diplomat and the best possibility for that was the post of an ambassador to the League of Nations in Geneva. He thought that his mission was to propagate Lithuanian interests in Western Europe, and the fact that he had started this activity before World War I, should have granted a good and prosperous life for himself as well. Unfortunately, good intentions not always were embodied in the fruitful results. As for the image of the Lithuanian activity in Geneva, not all of Gabrys’ actions succeeded in a positive way. Of course, at the surroundings of the League, Lithuania was seen and heard not only from Gabrys’ publications, but also from official Lithuanian information agencies and legislations. But maybe his irony and accusations worked as stimulator for other Lithuanian journalists and politicians? And maybe his true role at the scene of diplomacy was not to make the decisions, but to take into account every decision made and explain it to the society of Lithuania and Geneva.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors A Symphony of Movement. Road Traffic Rules and Traffic Accidents in the First Republic of Lithuania 2022-07-05T09:39:34+00:00 Adomas Žirlys <p>The article examines the laws and rules governing traffic on streets and roads published in the First Republic of Lithuania, as well as statistical data on traffic accidents. Centralised legal regulation of traffic did not begin until the late 1930s, but within a short period of time three successive laws were published. In the mid-1930s, such a law regulated not only the movement of motor vehicles, but also all non-motorised vehicles and pedestrians. At the same time, statistics on road accidents began to be collected. It is clear from these statistics that, despite strict traffic regulation and sluggish motorisation, the number of accidents has steadily increased.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Lithuanian Partisan Warfare in Museums during the Soviet Occupation and after the Restoration of Independence 2022-07-05T09:39:33+00:00 Aistė Petrauskienė <p>The Lithuanian partisan war of 1944–1953 left many unanswered questions, which began to be examined more objectively in Lithuania after the restoration of independence. However, during the Soviet period, this topic also received a lot of attention, albeit from the Soviet propaganda side. The subject of the partisan war is defined rather narrowly in the museums of the Lithuanian SSR and independent Lithuania, but the context goes well beyond the issue of museum exhibitions and displays. Abundant archival documents provide a rather interesting picture and allow us to analyse not only the changes of the topic itself in museums in the Soviet system, during the Revival and in independent Lithuania, but also to show it as a struggle for memory. After the end of the partisan war, this topic was not eliminated from public life. Particular attention has been given to the reinterpretation of information. The shift from military to ideological propaganda was initially reflected in practical decisions. At a time when political life was undergoing the so-called ‘Khrushchev thaw’, propaganda gave particular attention to the interpretation of the legacy of the partisan war. The years 1957–1960 were a turning point in the formulation of further propaganda guidelines. During this period, the Museum of the Revolution of the Lithuanian SSR, in cooperation with the KGB structures, began to organise systematically expositions of the “crimes of the bourgeois nationalists” and exhibitions on the basis of the collected items. The introduction of a compulsory propagandistic idea of the “class struggle” during the Soviet era resulted in complex, largely emotion-based processes during the transition period. From the very beginning of the Sąjūdis, in the context of the partisan war. To refute the “class struggle” assessment established during the Soviet period, first of all, the construction of a narrative of the guerrilla war based on historical research was abandoned from the very beginning. The choice of a martyrological narrative, mainly based on empathy with the processes that took place in the past, has eventually shaped the narrative on victims in the museum exhibitions of independent Lithuania. As the generation of creators changed and young cultural workers took over the activities of the museums, and as experts in various fields were involved in the creation of the exhibitions, not only the forms of presenting the partisan war began to change, but also the content. It is centred not on fatalities, but on the determination to fight and defend the independence of the country.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Left Transforming into Right: The Adoption and Interpretation of the Ideas of the Fluxus Movement in Lithuania in the Second Half of the 20th Century 2022-07-05T09:39:32+00:00 Dovilė Zubavičiūtė <p>The article examines how the ideas of the left-wing Fluxus movement were accepted and interpreted in Lithuania in the second half of the 20<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century. The matter is that alongside unusual ways of artistic expression, the practices called&nbsp;<em>fluxisms</em>&nbsp;transcended the boundaries of the art field. The analysis has shown that the artistic actions and their content at that time, and especially in the 1980s and 1990s, were based on the quotation, adaptation, and use of Fluxus ideas in Lithuania. Freedom, experimentation, and performativity were intertwined with the political revival movement, the mood of national resistance, and the (self-)ironic relationship with the Soviet era. The ideas of the left avant-garde movement were understood and used for national cultural and political purposes during Lithuania’s revival.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors History and Structure 2022-07-05T09:39:31+00:00 Michel de Certeau Vytautas Volungevičius <p>&nbsp; „Histoire et structure“ (in<strong>&nbsp;</strong><em>Histoire et psychanalyse entre science et fiction</em>) de Michel de Certeau&nbsp;© University of Minnesota Press, 1986 amerikietiškam leidimui; © Editions Gallimard, Paris, 1987 pirmajam prancūziškajam leidimui ir kitiems anglų kalba pasirodžiusiems leidimams; 2002 antrajam pataisytam ir papildytam leidimui&nbsp;„Un chemin non tracé“ par Luce Giard ir 2016 pasirodžiusiam pataisytam ir papildytam leidimui.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Opus magnum by Polish Historian on Vilnius University in the Interwar Period 2022-07-05T09:39:30+00:00 Algis Povilas Kasperavičius <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors How to Commemorate the Darkness 2022-07-05T09:39:30+00:00 Tomas Vaiseta <p>Rec.:&nbsp;<em>Hektoras Vitkus, Vygantas Vareikis, Edvinas Ubis, Justas Stončius</em>, Macikai: atminties vieta Europos pakraštyje, Klaipėda: Klaipėdos universiteto Baltijos regiono istorijos ir archeologijos institutas, 2021.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors From Childish Admiration to Scientific Research 2022-07-05T09:39:29+00:00 Dovilė Čypaitė-Gilė <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors