Lietuvos istorijos studijos <p>Founded in 1992. Publishes articles on Lithuanian sociocultural and political history, cultural anthropology, heritage conservation and archaeology, the Lithuanian nation and its historical development.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Lietuvos istorijos studijos 1392-0448 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> What Type of Cavalry Did Lithuanians Use to Counter the Crusaders in the 13th Century? <p>This article is dedicated to investigating the problems regarding the existence of Lithuanian cavalry in the 13<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century as well as the identification of its type and its ability to counter the heavy cavalry of the West. Firstly, we analyze the validity of different opinions about the date when Lithuanians began to fight on horseback that are revealed in our historiography&nbsp;– that this had happened on the junction of the 13<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;and 14<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;centuries, on the second half of the 13<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century, or long before the beginning of the Baltic crusade. We come to a conclusion that there is enough evidence to support the third opinion, oriented at pre-crusader times. Furthermore, we agree with the idea, soundly based in the description of the source, that these forces were light cavalry. In the second part of our article, we address attention to the peculiarity of the tactics employed by the previously mention cavalry forces: even being able to fight on horseback, these units would get out of their saddles and because of that were often mistaken for infantry. Even more, they would intentionally seek out areas unfavorable for cavalry forces (forests, for example), fighting on foot in these environments, because in those places the enemy was not capable of using anything to their advantage: big war horses, better armor, a close battle order, or lances. The article suggests that this battle method lets us determine, with more precision, the type of Lithuanian light cavalry, equating it to the better-known Irish hobelars who had served in England’s army. In the Teutonic Order’s state in Prussia, the equivalent of hobelars were the native “free” Prussians. Both these types of units rode small horses, fought equally well on horseback as well as on foot, and used javelins. In the last part, we argue on the possibilities of such light cavalry overcoming its heavier counterparts. According to the author of this paper, such possibilities would arise only occasionally&nbsp;– when knights were trapped in swamps in the forests or did some sort of tactical mistake. Eliminating this backwardness, the Lithua­nian state had begun using heavy cavalry forces by the early 15<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century.</p> Eligijus Šmidtas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 8 30 10.15388/LIS.2019.44.1 Internal and External Structure of Ruthenian Letters in Early Modern Lithuania <p>A thorough analysis of approximately one hundred unpublished and about seventy published letters written by Lithuanian noblemen and the Grand Duke of Lithuania led to a conclusion that there were three distinct types of letters. They represent correspondence between socially unequal as well as equal individuals. The external structure of a letter does not indicate the social differences between the addresser and the addressee. On the one hand, the external structure of a letter did not represent the addressers themselves; first of all, it was relevant for the intermediaries who confirmed the authenticity of the letters, registered the correspondence, and handed in the letters. On the other hand, the format of the seal is not a reliable indicator as well. The Lithuanian nobility, when communicating amongst themselves, sealed their letters with signets, while in correspondences with foreign countries they normally used larger seals. The Salutation (Latin:&nbsp;<em>salutatio</em>) is the element of a letter’s internal structure that is essential for understanding the power and status relation between an addresser and an addressee. Only “partners” of equal status informed each other on their health conditions or asked about each other’s well-being.</p> Andrej Ryčkov Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 31 46 10.15388/LIS.2019.44.2 Editorial Board and Table of Contents Alfredas Bumblauskas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 1 7 On the Way to Perfection: The Characteristic of Novices of Lithuanian Jesuit Province in the 17th–18th c. <p>This article presents the first stage of a long-lasting Jesuit formation&nbsp;– the Novitiate. The activities, rules, calendar, and instructions of the Jesuit Novitiates were defined by the official documents of Jesuit Order. The Novitiate in Vilnius was the only institution of its kind in the Lithuanian Jesuit Province. After the establishment of the Jesuit Novitiate in 1604, 23 people joined it, and this number gradually increased. The average number of novices in Vilnius in 1604–1771 was 56. Young people of all ages expressed their desire to join the Jesuit Order. They were admitted to the Order at the age averaging between 17–18 years, but there were also novices who did not match this average (the age of novices ranges from 15 to 30 years). Meanwhile, lower requirements for brothers made it possible for them to join the Order at an older age, with the average age of 25. Sometimes, those who had been admitted to the Novitiate had already received an education (often in Jesuit schools) or were already priests. After the establishment of the Novitiate, besides Lithuanians, another large part of the novices was from Polish lands and Ruthenians. By separating the Jesuit Provinces of Lithuania and Mazovia, the Lithuanian Province became even more “Lithuanian.” In 1604–1771, only 48 people left the Novitiate, which is only about 10 percent of the total number of the retired members in the Province (the vast majority, almost 80 percent, of the members who were retired from the Order were scholastics). This initial analysis assumes that the typical Jesuit novice is about 18-years-old and of Ruthenian or Lithuanian/Samogitian origin.</p> Brigita Zorkienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 47 61 10.15388/LIS.2019.44.3 Lithuanian–Latvian Local Border Traffic, 1919–1939 <p>&nbsp;Today, both Lithuania and Latvia are part of the Schengen Area, which means their citizens can freely travel between these states. The situation was different during the interwar years: the border between these Baltic Republics was strictly guarded, and traveling abroad was more complex. However, the order crossing for local residents of the border area was simplified by the local border traffic regime agreed upon by both countries. This paper aims to explore the evolution of Lithuanian-Latvian local border traffic policy in the interwar period and its impact on locals (primarily on Lithuania’s side). In the first few years after the establishment of the new states, border crossings for residents of Lithuania’s border area were regulated by internal state legislation. Initially, people were devastated by the requirement to cross the border only at sparsely placed border crossing points, the restrictions on trade, and the radical reduction of the border area. After the peaceful settlement of the Lithuanian-Latvian border in 1921, newly signed bilateral treaties began to solve the crucial problems of the locals. However, there were instances of bilateral friction and various incidents; authoritarian state structures also had reservations based on the issue of potentially unfavorable foreign influences. The breakthrough in the diplomatic relations between Lithuania and Latvia in the 1930s saw a new level of liberalization of the local border traffic policy. A positive impact was widely felt among the locals. However, certain economic concerns made this new policy short-lived. In the interwar years, grievances and discontent toward the new border relations were gradually replaced by acceptance and adaptation. Bilateral cooperation made it possible to react to and suit the needs of the people. The overall Lithuanian-Latvian local border traffic regime showed a tendency of liberalization over time, a process which was curtailed by certain political and economic realities and considerations.</p> Leonas Nekrašas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 62 75 10.15388/LIS.2019.44.4 Heroes in Lithuania: Aspect of (De-)Heroization, Case, Approach <p>In this article, I explore a tendency of (de-)heroization in Lithuania during the 20<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century. This research is focused on a historical hero, that is, a mental construct based on a historical prototype: a protagonist of the factual versus fictional narrative who was idealized, mythologized, and initiated to meet the current collective needs and demands. The aim can be generalized by the following questions: who is a historical hero and why is he important; what makes (de-)heroization relevant and how did/does it occur; why this phenomenon is relevant to Lithuania and how should it be further explored? The applied methodology involved a case study (an analysis of the transforming and transfigured heroes, the origin and evolution of the heroic narrative about Lithuanian-American pilots Stephen William Darius and Stanley [Thomas] Girch, aka Darius and Girėnas), a discourse analysis, and an interdisciplinary approach focusing on the heroism humanities in the context of the emerging transdisciplinary heroism science. The emergence and specificity of the heroic ideals&nbsp;– the Great Lithuanian and Winged Lithuanian&nbsp;– and types&nbsp;– the Warrior and Aviator&nbsp;– is explored, and the tendency of idealization and ideologization as well as inertia and stagnation in heroization processes are revealed. The resilience of the cult of power, as well as ideological relics of Lithuanian nationalism and even Soviet utopianism in the current heroism discourse, has led to an unsettling conclusion that the process of hero-making simultaneously and repeatedly involved an exalted idealization and deep depreciation of the heroic figures and their original ideas and/or achievements and of the historical past and historical heritage in general. This kind of (de-)heroization was an integral part of the construction of the Lithuanian mythical modernity.</p> Gražina Kristina Sviderskytė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 76 94 10.15388/LIS.2019.44.5 Arnaldo Momigliano. The Rise of Antiquarian Research <p>Arnaldo Momigliano (1908–1987) yra žinomas XX a. italų istorikas, išgarsėjęs savo darbais apie Antikos pasaulio istoriją. Jis taip pat labai svarbus savo istoriografiniais tyrimais. Knyga&nbsp;<em>The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography&nbsp;</em>(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), paremta jo skaitytomis paskaitomis, skirta apmąstyti šiuolaikinės Vakarų istoriografijos intelektinius ir metodologinius pamatus XX a. antroje pusėje ryškų poslinkį nuo politinės prie socialinės istorijos patyrusios istoriografijos kontekste. Momigliano parodo modernios istoriografijos ištakas Antikos istorikų darbuose, keldamas klausimus apie antikinę graikų ir žydų istoriografiją ir kodėl Vakarų tradicijoje įsigalėjo graikiškoji, kodėl autoritetingiausiu Antikos istoriku tapo Tukididas, o ne Herodotas, kaip antikvarinis domėjimasis paveikė šiuolaikinės istorijos formavimąsi, kaip graikų istoriografija buvo romanizuota.<br>Šios knygos skyrių „The Rise of Antiquarian Research“ iš anglų kalbos vertė&nbsp;Mingailė Jurkutė.</p> Mingailė Jurkutė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 95 110 10.15388/LIS.2019.44.6 Apie Pauliaus Valavičiaus gyvenimą ir tragišką mirtį <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Irena Valikonytė Saulė Viskantaitė-Saviščevienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 111 125 10.15388/LIS.2019.44.7 Tarptautinių santykių gijas narpliojant <p>Rec.:&nbsp;Zenonas Butkus, Tarp Trečiojo Reicho ir Trečiosios Romos: Vokietijos ir Sovietų politikos poveikis Baltijos šalių tarptautinei ir vidaus padėčiai tarpukaryje, Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla, 2019.</p> Adomas Žirlys Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 126 128 10.15388/LIS.2019.44.8 Religija, kalba, kultūra ir politika XI‒XX amžiuje <p>Apie tarptautinį seminarą „Religious Communities and Political Constructions: Balkans, Eastern Europe, Mediterranean (11<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>‒20<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>Centuries)“</p> Martynas Jakulis Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 44 129 131