Lietuvos istorijos studijos <p>Founded in 1992. Publishes articles on Lithuanian sociocultural and political history, cultural anthropology, heritage conservation and archaeology, the Lithuanian nation and its historical development.</p> en-US <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> (Tomas Vaiseta) (Vigintas Stancelis) Tue, 21 Jul 2020 08:01:46 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Edvardas Gudavičius: a Man – a Master of History – a Stone <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Alfredas Bumblauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Few Comments on Our Young Historika Edvardas Gudavičius Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Last Speech of prof. Edvardas Gudavičius to a Community of Historians <p>2019 m. spalio 21 d. Vilniaus universiteto Istorijos fakultete buvo minimas prof. Edvardo Gudavičiaus 90-mečio jubiliejus. Jame dalyvavo pats profesorius ir gausiai susirinkusiems svečiams pasakė trumpą kalbą. Ją transkribavo ir parengė Ieva Šimanauskaitė.</p> Edvardas Gudavičius Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The “auf die Hand” practice: Releasing captives on parole between the Teutonic Order and Lithuania in the end of XIVth and the first half of XVth centuries <p>This article presents an analysis of an occurring phrase and practice “auf die Hand” (<em>to one’s hand</em>) and its meaning in the end of the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries. The main sources for such a study were correspondence between the Teutonic Order’s officers and Lithuania’s rulers, issued documents, and other contemporary written evidence. The “auf die Hand” custom was not just a practice to release captives&nbsp;<em>on parole</em>&nbsp;solely on their own oath, but also on the guarantee of a ruler, officer or another trustworthy person. The captive released&nbsp;<em>on parole</em>&nbsp;or the guarantee promises to return whenever the captor summons him. Also, the guarantor vows that the captive will safely return on a given time. This research shows that the captives with questionable honour may not have been interceded merely for the risk of escaping, because the guarantor, who had also sworn in his honour, would have to compensate for the escaped captive. No doubt such practice was adopted through contact with the Teutonic Order and knights from Western Europe, since we can observe specific features of chivalry: surrender, honour, oaths. Also, it is evident that the meaning behind “auf die Hand” had a semantic connotation&nbsp;– raising a hand to give an oath and giving the captive “to guarantor’s hands.”</p> Antanas Petrilionis Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Activities of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania chancellery under the management of Leon Sapieha (1585–1623) <p>After the reforms that took place in 1566 the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Union of Lublin began its new phase of life in 1569. During this phase The Chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania played an essential role. At the time the institution was comprised of Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and its most important employees&nbsp;– clerks&nbsp;– people of average nobility that had a chance to show their knowledge working at a chancellery. Leon Sapiega was one of such people. While examining the works of other historians we can notice that L. Sapiega has a variety of biographies, but not including the clerical aspect, they can be considered to be a collection of chronological presentation of facts and not a comprehensive biography of a high-ranking official. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to answer the question of how L. Sapiega as a person influenced the development of the Chancery of the GDL. Institutions are usually represented by leaders and each leader leaves a footprint in the institution’s history. L.&nbsp;Sapiega was not an exeption as his office had undergone several stages of development.</p> Vita Diemantaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Organization of Trade in Nemunas from the Riverhead ports of the Radziwiłł and Sapieha families in the 1760s and 1770s <p>This study concerns the transportation of goods and raw materials through the Nemunas River to the Baltic Sea ports in the second half of the 18<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century. The main goal of this paper is to analyse how two different methods of goods transportation (shipment of goods by river vessels and by timber rafts) were organized and to determine how their economic models functioned in practice. This research relies on the data of Income-Expenditure registers of timber rafting from Radziwiłł (Świerżeń Nowy) and goods transportation from Sapieha family (Ruzhany and Derechin) estates in current-day Belarus. The analysis showed that the Sapieha family’s highest share of revenue derived mostly from the exportation of grown raw materials, mostly rye. Salt, wine, beer, various types of metal alloys, etc. were bought in exchange. Part of the revenue was used to cover debts, thus the generated income of the voyage did not reach the treasury of the Sapieha family. The analysis of timber-rafting income-expenditure showed that the timber was drifted to the town of Rusnė, near the Nemunas river delta, or to the city of Königsberg. The sources failed to show the full extent of timber trade generated revenue due to the specifics of its trade, however, the analysis showed that the biggest part of expenditures (about 90–95 percent) went on the hiring of employees and on timber preparation and it’s transportation to the river ports. This article also uncovers the different aspects of how these different kinds of trade voyages were organized and how the river trade-related infrastructure operated that supplements our understanding of the Nemunas river role in the economy of Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the second half of 18<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century.</p> Darius Sakalauskas | Aivaras Poška Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Echoes of Danger from Tallinnn: The Reaction of the Lithuanian Armed Forces Command to the Communist Uprising in Tallinn on 1st of December in 1924 <p>The article analyzes the reaction of the Lithuanian Armed Forces Command to the Communist putsch in Tallinn in 1924. News to the Lithuanian Armed Forces command about the communist uprising in Tallinn was reached through diplomatic channels, newspapers published in Lithuania and the Political Police. Following the events in Estonia, the Lithuanian Armed Forces Command realized the danger of a communist uprising in Lithuania and developed military plans to suppress a possible communist uprising. According to these plans, units of the Armed Forces and Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union had to protect the most important state objects (railway lines, highways, bridges, stations, state institutions, banks, prisons, postal, telephone and telegraph stations), ensure their functioning during the Communist uprising anywhere in Lithuania and we ready to fight Communist uprising. The entire territory of Lithuania, according to the borders of the Military Garissons, was divided into security areas, and arial commanders were appointed, in each area the most important objects of the state were identified and divisions of troops and rifles were assigned to protect them.</p> Kęstutis Kilinskas Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural memory in Lithuanian periodical press during World War II <p>During World War II Lithuania was ruled by three completely different<strong>&nbsp;</strong>political regimes.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>In the first year Lithuania was authoritarian state ruled by group of nationalists, in 1940 Lithuania was occupied by Soviet Union and in 1941 State was occupied by Nazi Germany. All these political powers was undemocratic and propagated their ideologies. One of the most important aspect of every ideology is to suggest new concept of time. This change of perception of time could be seen in the change of cultural memory. Article try to analyze this change using the most popular Lithuanian periodical press of the period. This research analyzed main historical periods and the most popular themes represented in the main newspapers. Using theories of Anthony D. Smith and Raoul Girardet research showed what historical periods was seen positively and what negatively, what was main historical heroes and enemies; also how foreign history was represented in the periodical press. The quantitative content analysis showed that while representations of history in the so called independent Lithuania and in Lithuania occupied by Nazis was quite similar, historical representations during first Soviet occupation was unique. Qualitative content analysis showed that there was three very different paradigms of cultural memories, represented in periodical press. Lithuanian nationalist mostly tried to promote Lithuanian medieval times and especially Lithuanian dukes and historical capital Vilnius, also they tried to justify their politics creating myth of great welfare during their rule. They praised Soviet history, criticized Poland and poles, but wrote about most of the countries quite neutral. During Soviet occupation all Lithuanian history was harshly criticized and showed as negative times, this regime promoted only few Lithuanian heroes who died young or was known for their left wing politics. Main historical past represented in the newspapers was history of Soviet Union, other countries was ignored. Main enemies of Soviets was Lithuanian gentry, and Lithuanian rulers of the past. During Nazi occupation there was more Lithuanian national history than German history, but the main appreciable historical periods was Lithuanian prehistory and the 19<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;Century. Regime promoted history of Lithuanian culture and language, but tried to ignore Lithuanian state. Foreign history was mostly binary&nbsp;– propaganda criticized Soviet Union as well as Tsarist Russia, USA and United Kingdom, but appreciated history of Italy, Japan, Finland, Turkey, Spain etc. Main historical enemies were of course Bolsheviks and Jews.</p> Titas Krutulys Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Tue, 21 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000