Literatūra <p>Founded in 1958 and dedicated to publishing articles&nbsp;on Lithuanian and World literature and cultural studies.&nbsp;Indexed in the <em>Scopus</em> (Q4) database since 2020.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Literatūra 0258-0802 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>-</p> Rūta Šlapkauskaitė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 1 7 André Malraux and Romain Gary as the Writers of Adventure and Metamorphosis <p>Among the French novelists of the 20th century, André Malraux and Romain Gary stand out for their practice and thought of adventure, at a time when individual adventure seems to be condemned by collective history. On this point, their works show clear convergences. Each of them, in fact, testified in his work to a life of “active adventurer”. Each of them built a work in which adventure, as a spring of action or as a theme of reflection, occupies a major place.&nbsp;<em>La Voie royale</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Les Conquérants</em>,&nbsp;<em>Les Racines du ciel</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>La Promesse de l’aube</em>&nbsp;bear the mark of these convergences between two authors who are known to have frequented and appreciated each other. Moreover, according to both of them, the adventurer is in search of metamorphosis because he suffers from being locked up in the prison of identity. He seeks in adventure an experience of otherness which alone allows him to exist fully, by changing his “skin”. In this respect, much of Gary’s work seems to illustrate Malraux’s definition of the adventurer in the preface to&nbsp;<em>Le Démon de l’absolu</em>. But while Malraux moves away from the novelistic genre and turns, from 1945 onwards, to a reflection on art that gives adventure and metamorphosis an essentially aesthetic meaning, Gary does not cease to confer on adventure a profoundly existential meaning and goes so far as to situate it at the very heart of the creative process of the novel. This vision of adventure, which he develops in particular in his essay&nbsp;<em>Pour Sganarelle</em>, culminates in this ultimate adventure which will be accomplished, with the invention of Émile Ajar, in a totally new metamorphosis of the author. This discrepancy may provide an element of explanation for the differences that can be observed today between the reception of Malraux, who seems to be on the decline, and that of Gary, which is much more flourishing.</p> Denis Labouret Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 8 24 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.1 Two Forms of Humanism: André Malraux and Romain Gary <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>This article purposes to shed a mutual light on André Malraux’s humanism on the one hand, and on Romain Gary’s on the other hand. Our approach consists in juxtaposing their views on some of those faculties which, in the interaction of the living with the world, seem specific to mankind: the collective faculties of fraternity, culture, and science, the metaphysical abilities to ponder death, cosmos, and evolution.<br>Malraux views fraternity as a “virile” instinct that best manifests itself during warfare, and Gary makes it feminine and akin to “universal love”. While Malraux, most classically, opposes culture to nature, Gary, in an original perspective, sees culture as a new “nurturing environment”. Malraux does not believe in science as a metaphysical incentive, but Gary finds its results stimulating. Malraux tends to think (somewhat paradoxically) about “man’s fate” (at an ontological level) through the (sole) metamorphosis of the works of art as produced in the historic period up to his days. In a broader perspective, Gary considers the biological evolution of mankind over geological ages, methodically starting with the late Devonian when lungless creatures crept up from sea to land, and hopefully envisioning the end result of the twenty thousand years to come. Malraux’s cosmos is a rival to mankind, while Gary sees humanity at home in the universe. Malraux is obsessed with individual death to the point of concluding that any meaning assigned to human lives is nothing but aleatory. Gary has faith instead in the “joy of being” during one’s lifetime, and in the continuous progress of humanity as a species.<br>In such mutual lights, it appears that Malraux’s humanism, not unlike the most melancholic currents of romanticism, is tragic indeed, as many critics have already noted: desolate (man is alone) and devastated (devoid of meaning). As to Gary’s humanism, it comes out as relatable to Julian Huxley’s&nbsp;<em>evolutionary humanism</em>, and no longer as desperate as a certain, inexplicably vivacious, academic tradition still claims it to be. By contrast with Malraux’s, it appears to be actually full of consideration for a wide variety of human interests, yearnings and dreams. It is tactfully expressed in a way that stimulates hope. And its fictionalized form is masterly, not only in terms of novel-writing (Gary’s books being so unlike thesis novels) but also in terms of analytical thinking and philosophical foundation.</p> Jean-François Hangouët Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 25 48 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.2 Two Cinemas: Sierra de Teruel by André Malraux and Birds in Peru by Romain Gary <p>This communication reviews some of the aesthetical and circumstantial characteristics of André Malraux’s only film,&nbsp;<em>Sierra de Teruel</em>&nbsp;(1939), also known as&nbsp;<em>Espoir</em>&nbsp;(<em>Hope</em>, 1945), and of Romain Gary’s first film,&nbsp;<em>Les oiseaux vont mourir au Pérou</em>&nbsp;(<em>Birds in Peru</em>, 1968). As regards&nbsp;<em>Espoir</em>, our observations are based on the 1939 and 1945 versions of the film, now of easy access, and on the abundant and reliable academic literature published about it.&nbsp;<em>Birds in Peru</em>, conversely, is a far lesser-known and lesser-documented work. Screenings of Gary’s film are all too rare indeed nowadays and, but for a few highly specialized references, its appraisal still consists in a short set of irrelevant legends, continually retold by biographers and academics alike despite their blatant discrepancies with historical evidence, with the film itself, and with Gary’s literary works in general. Ours are first-hand observations: in our possession is a release print, which we had digitized and can thus view at will. In addition, we have explored a variety of source materials in cinematographic archives and historical newspapers.<br>Valued either as one of Malraux’s works or as an example of antifascist propaganda, it is lucky that&nbsp;<em>Sierra de Teruel</em>&nbsp;can still be viewed today, despite the political censorship that prevented its release in September 1939 and despite the destruction of all prints but two by the German occupant in France during WWII. Equally fortunate are the facts that moralistic considerations failed to stop the release of&nbsp;<em>Birds</em>&nbsp;in 1968 and that prints of it aren’t all lost. Gary scholars will find food for thought in it, as well as semioticians, Gary’s film being just as allegorical as his contemporary novel&nbsp;<em>The Dance of Genghis Cohn</em>. More generally still, both works, no naïve executions, bring evidence that talented writers can change media effectively. Far from being literal adaptations, their two films narrate free and inspired versions of stories already told in the written form. Their filming style is creative, their technique masterly. Their ease with the cinematographic medium allows them to reemploy and expand devices known to make their personal literary signature. Such as the striking juxtaposition of action and scenery used by Malraux to convey his metaphysics of disjunction between man and nature. Such as the subtle art of immigrating lexical components from other tongues and languages, idiosyncratic to Gary’s novel writing. Even elements of their respective forms of humanism show through their films.</p> Jean-François Hangouët Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 49 69 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.3 From Clappique to Sganarelle: Fluttering with Malraux and Gary <p>Romain Gary is not close to André Malraux only by his political and war time commitments. They also share a form of creative fantasy that shakes up literary genres, embodied by the character of Clappique, in&nbsp;<em>La Condition Humaine</em>. He serves as a model for the recurring figure of the Baron in Romain Gary’s novels, through different incarnations from&nbsp;<em>Le Grand Vestaire</em>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<em>Les Couleurs du jour</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Clair de femme</em>. Fanciful and comical portraits, these caricatural characters appear as a buffoonish recourse in the face of history. Gary will push this salutary counterpoint very far, gradually releasing the comic force of his fantasy, while Malraux will not resist giving this endearing double a last lap in his&nbsp;<em>Antimémoires</em>. Seeing the writer as Clappique makes it possible to show the fruitfulness and the constancy of this “wacky” («&nbsp;farfelue&nbsp;») dimension, which is part of the companionship between the two writers.</p> Julien Roumette Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 70 80 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.4 Malraux and Gary Mythomaniacs <p>Mythomania is not an isolated pathology in psychiatry: it is mixed with other mental disorders. It is not always easy to assess their seriousness or to differentiate them from banal lies; when someone invents a life other than his own without realizing it, he can be called a mythomaniac. Autobiographical literature contains many texts where truth rubs shoulders with fiction; some writers even have a reputation as great storytellers. Malraux and Gary are among them: both in books and in public statements, they shaped their own legend when their lives were already exceptionally rich, even romantic; they practiced autofiction before the letter. It is likely that their dissatisfaction with reality and existential anxieties have fueled this permanent need to falsify self-talk. Malraux mainly practiced self-heroization while Gary, much more capable of self-mockery, had fun wearing different masks and imitating the chameleon.</p> Thierry Laurent Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 81 94 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.5 The Metamorphosis of Places in André Malraux’s Les Noyers de l’Altenburgand Romain Gary’s Education européenne <p>This article examines the importance of imaginary spaces and places (literary isotopias) in André Malraux’s&nbsp;<em>Les Noyers de l’Altenburg&nbsp;</em>(1943) and Romain Gary’s&nbsp;<em>Education européenne&nbsp;</em>(1945). It analyses the metamorphoses of space and place, together with the relationships between those spaces and the novels’ characters, in order to identify commonality as well as differences between the approaches of the two authors. The roles of nature, art and myth in the two novels are also considered, particularly in the context of war. Moreover, the article takes into account the humanism of both authors against the background of wartime. André Malraux’s crucial concept of metamorphosis finds significant echoes in Romain Gary’s novel&nbsp;<em>Education européenne</em>, particularly in the aspiration to transform the world, change mentalities and remake communities both in the national and international contexts. For both writers, the metaphysical struggle against death is often portrayed as being more important than the military conflict with the enemy. Moreover, the novels of both writers have undergone a number of literary metamorphoses in terms of textual genesis and generation. Although Romain Gary’s work is probably less well known today than that of André Malraux, we may find, in conclusion, that the former’s approach, style and content of thought are actually just as “modern” and appealing to readers nowadays.</p> Peter Tame Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 95 105 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.6 André Malraux at the Heart of Romain Gary’s Imaginary Museum <p>Malraux is in the center of Gary’s imaginary museum. His name and thought are regularly quoted in Gary’s work. When the author of&nbsp;<em>Pour Sganarelle</em>,&nbsp;<em>La Promesse de l’aube</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>La Danse de Gengis Cohn</em>&nbsp;refers to the metamorphosis and the museum without walls – two concepts Malraux invented –, he uses Malraux’s image and writings to reveal how himself sees the world and the artist’s role. To analyse those quotes leads to reading Gary’s work through the lens of Malraux’s. It also shows how Gary portrays himself as a «&nbsp;conqueror of the impossible&nbsp;» while making his model embody his own aesthetic and ethical aspirations. His selfportrait as a jumping jack makes Gary follow the path of his friend, who elevated Man by softening his condition.</p> Jonathan Barkate Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 106 122 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.7 When Art Becomes a Rectification of Humankind: Gary and Malraux, A Same Aesthetic Humanism? <p>When we question the humanism of Gary or Malraux, we see the question of art arise on all sides. Aesthetics and ethics indeed seem intrinsically linked, firstly because, for them, art is a way of denying the inhuman, whether it be the absurdity of our condition or the crushing weight of History. At a time when the Second World War brought human barbarism to the forefront, what the artist gave us in his works was a finally acceptable image of humankind. Art, according to them, is, at the same time, a consolation and a shelter for humanist ideals, and an ethical gesture in itself. We will try here to confront in Gary’s and Malraux’s books the connections between art and humanism, and to question the existence in these two authors - while preserving the specificities of each - of what one could call an aesthetic humanism.</p> Lou Mourlan Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 123 134 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.8 The Imaginary Museum : From Malraux to Gary <p>The concept of an imaginary museum developed by André Malraux in the eponymous book was taken up by Gary, notably in his novel La Danse de Genghis Cohn. This reappropriation of the concept allows to reborn it in a more subversive form and to pose the question of the aestheticization of suffering through art. In doing so, Gary, while paying tribute to the writer and intellectual who was one of the first to believe in him, allows himself to extend his reflection on the concept of imaginary museum, thus linking their two thoughts that seem to respond to each other like mirrors placed face to face in his work.</p> Esther Grimalt Copyright (c) 2022 Authors 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 135 143 10.15388/Litera.2022.64.4.9