Literatūra <p>Founded in 1958. Dedicated to publishing articles on Lithuanian and World literature as well as studies concerned with the Classics and cultural studies.</p> en-US <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> (prof. dr. Regina Rudaitytė) (Vigintas Stancelis) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Father, Womb, Blood: Apollo’s embryological theory, the ethics of revenge, and the supposed exclusion of women in Aischylos’ Eumenides <p>In Aischylos’&nbsp;<em>Eumenides</em>, Apollo intimates a theory according to which the father is the sole genetic parent of the child. The status of this conception, and whether it is depicted as an outlandish idea, has been much and inconclusively discussed. This paper considers a neglected piece of evidence: Apollo’s use of the very unusual word αὐτάδελφον when addressing Hermes. In light of the Greeks’ awareness of this etymology as well as the other instances of this rare word in tragedy, the author argues that Aischylos’ text highlights the etymological connection to δελφύς, the womb, thus evoking the role of the mother. This suggests that Aischylos subtly lets his, and Apollo’s, language rebel against the notion of merely paternal kinship, and the concomitant ideas about revenge, retaliation and children’s obligations to their parent.</p> Johan Tralau Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Drama and politics in the Atlantis story <p>This paper explores the prevailing readings of the Atlantis story. The purpose of this paper is to show how interpretative judgements on the narrator’s intentions, the objectives of the characters, and the genre and the development of the story prepares the grounds for the political understanding of Athens and Atlantis. In this way, I will show how the dramatic framework influences the expression of political thought. I argue that the most important dramatic feature of the story is Critias’ interaction with Socrates and Timaeus, which explains why Critias composes two speeches that are essentially dedicated to the question of political origins.</p> Vilius Bartninkas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Anagnorisis in Aristotle’s Poetics: problems of definition and classification <p>The article analyses the problems of meaning and classification of the term&nbsp;<em>anagnorisis</em>&nbsp;(ἀναγνώρισις) as it is defined in Aristotle’s&nbsp;<em>Poetics</em>. It focuses on how the term&nbsp;<em>anagnorisis</em>&nbsp;is understood and interpreted by scholars&nbsp;– different translations and their interpretations of the same type of anagnorisis are compared. The article also searches for the answers to the following questions: does the term of&nbsp;<em>anagnorisis&nbsp;</em>discussed by Aristotle mean the recognition of persons or just any kind of truth in a drama; why do some translators differentiate five and others six types of anagnorisis; what did Aristotle bear in mind by distinguishing the type of anagnorisis called “the recognition made by a poet himself” (Arist.&nbsp;<em>Poet</em>. XVI, 1454b 30–31), whereas it is known that all recognitions were created by poets themselves; does “an anagnorisis by false reasoning (a false syllogism)” occur among tragedy characters or does the audience at first misjudge, but later recognises the characters correctly?<br>The author of the article argues that the version of the Arabic manuscript of Aristotle’s&nbsp;<em>Poetics&nbsp;</em>is more logical, as it states that one of the characters (θατέρου) rather than a spectator (<em>θεάτρου</em>) mistakenly recognises another character (Arist.&nbsp;<em>Poet</em>. XVI, 1455a 12–17). First of all, Aristotle does not state specifically that this is the fifth (different from all the others) way of recognition, but while discussing the fourth way of “anagnorisis by reasoning”, he adds that there is also and “an anagnorisis by false reasoning (a false syllogism)” (Arist.&nbsp;<em>Poet</em>. XVI, 1455a 12–13). Secondly, the recognitions described by Aristotle in Part XVI of&nbsp;<em>Poetics</em>&nbsp;occur between two characters, when one has to recognise the other. Therefore, the author of the article does not agree with the opinion by Dana Munteanu (2002)&nbsp;– that in Menander’s comedy&nbsp;<em>Epitrepontes</em>, Smikrine’s false recognition should be referred to as an erroneous spectator’s recognition, whereas at the end of the play Menander depicts Smikrine as a misled spectator just observing the events uninvolved without understanding them properly. By such leaving the word “spectator” in Aristotle’s classification of the fifth type of anagnorisis and using it for a character observing the actions of the play uninvolved, an ambiguity occurs, as Aristotle himself in his&nbsp;<em>Poetics</em>&nbsp;speaks many times about an actual spectator of the tragedy, who while watching the action of the play experiences fear and pity.<br>The author of the article thinks that the translation of chapter XVI of Aristotle’s&nbsp;<em>Poetics</em>&nbsp;by Marcelinas Ročka (1990) should be corrected in some places. At the fifth “recognition by false reasoning”, a note in square brackets stating that this is the last recognition should be omitted. In fact, it is the next-to-last recognition discussed by Aristotle. In translation “the recognitions invented by the poet himself”, some other word can be used, as Aristotle here has in mind that poets usually write poorly and use trite recognitions. A phrase “to contrive” (in Lithuanian “sukurpti”) could be used here instead, as it means “to make or put together roughly or hastily”. It is also true speaking of the translation that a character of the play rather than the audience recognises another character by false reasoning.<br>Finally, the author of the article draws a conclusion that according to Aristotle an anagnorisis is the recognition of persons occurring among characters of the play. In Aristotle’s&nbsp;<em>Poetics</em>, six variants of anagnorisis are distinguished and their classification made based on the principle of artistry and the originality of its use in plays.</p> Jovita Dikmonienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Transformation of the Classical genre: Quadratus and beginnings of Christian apology <p>Quadratus belonged to the second generation of Jesus’ followers. At the early stage of his life he was an itinerant preacher of the Gospel, also visiting Asia Minor in the course of his travels. It was there that he may have received information about the persons who had directly experienced Jesus’ beneficence. After he settled in Athens, Quadratus, just like other Athenian apologists, Aristides and, later, Athenagoras, was not part of the Church hierarchy, but, more likely, a free teacher. When Hadrian was visiting Athens, he was presented with an apology which should have provided the emperor with reliable information concerning the new religion. The paper suggests a hypothesis that the direct impulse to defend Christianity was the conflict between the Christians and the Athenian society on the issue of the Eleusinian mysteries.<br>Quadratus’ apologetic opus, among other topics of which we have no knowledge, discussed the unique character of the miracles performed by Christ, comparing them to the deeds of the demigods or of the contemporary miracle-workers. It also (according&nbsp;<em>Martyrologium</em>&nbsp;of Bede the Venerable) discussed the nature of Christian food, emphasising its ordinary character. Just as the&nbsp;<em>Letter to Diognetus</em>, it probably suggested that the Christian way of life and customs were not different from those of other people.</p> Vytautas Ališauskas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Translation problems of theological and philosophical concepts in the Gospel according to Philip <p>This article discusses the translation problems of theological and philosophical concepts in the apocryphal Gospel according to Philip. This text attributed to Valentinian Gnosticism originally was written in ancient Greek language, although now it is extant only in Coptic. The translation history of this gospel allows glancing at the transformation of theological and philosophical concepts in the texts of Early Christianity and their usage in heterodox contexts. The uniqueness of the Gospel according to Philip is revealed in its fragmentary character, lack of narrative and clear structure. All these aspects raise the question about the coherence of the theological and philosophical concepts used in the text. At first sight, it is not evident if the concept translated from Greek to Coptic reflects the identical concept or if concept gains additional connotation.</p> Gražina Kelmelytė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Augustine’s critique of representation in arts: Confessions <p>This article is concerned with the critique of representation in art found in Augustine’s&nbsp;<em>Confessions.&nbsp;</em>The aim of the author is not only to reveal the fundamental influence of Plato and Aristotle on Augustine’s criticism, but to show the unique aspects of Augustine’s thought. The article considers Augustine’s critique of art in the&nbsp;<em>Confessions</em>&nbsp;to be three-fold: the ontological critique, the ethical (psychological) critique of intention and the critique of pagan ethos in art. The article considers the ontological critique as based on the neoplatonic dualism of body and soul as well as the platonic concept of image. Therefore Augustine considers artistic representation to be three-times removed from reality and sees the experience of God as the perfect aesthetical experience. Author states that the ethical critique considers art as a form of idolatry, which projects the innermost desires of the soul (the desire of God) onto the material pleasures of the outer world. Even though Augustine’s thinking is based on the Aristotelian concept of catharsis, the conclusions are entirely different – in Augustine’s opinion the aesthetical experience does not free the audience of its corporal appetites. Quite the contrary, the appetites get more intense. It should also be brought to the attention of the reader, that Augustine holds a certain hostility towards theatre and pagan literature as a pagan social practices. Augustine develops the thought of these Greek philosophers from the Christian point of view and bases his ethical critique of the aesthetic experience along with the critique of aesthetic practices on it. Moreover, he is more open to the concept of art as a fiction than Plato.</p> Mantas Tamošaitis Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Between the tropes and pragmatics: the rhetorical aspect of Rozmowa polaka z litwinem <p>This paper presents rhetorical aspects of a sixteenth century Lithuanian polemical treatise “Rozmowa polaka z litwinem” (“Pasikalbėjimas lenko su lietuviu”). This anonymous work is often labeled as “humanist”. Even though many scholars analyse its contents and emphasize references to the Classical Antiquity, formal aspects and their pragmatic implications remain unevaluated. Scholars have mainly focused on the issue of it authorship and quoted it illustrating cultural and political sixteenth century changes in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The main aim of this article is to reveal rhetorical tropes and figures employed by the author of the treatise and discuss the possible motivation of their selection.&nbsp;<br>“Rozmowa” responds to, “Quincunx”, written in 1564 by a Polish polemist Stanisław Orzechowski (1513–1566). It is a part of a prolonged polemic between the later and Lithuanian Chancellor, Palatine of Vilnius Mikalojus Radvila “The Black”. The details and the course of their dispute is reconstructed by Orzechowski himself in the letter to Piotr Miscovius, which also is titled “Apologia pro Quincunce”. He refers to the “Rozmowa” without mentioning its title or particular author. Historiography attributes it to the Vilnius mayor (<em>wójt</em>) Augustyn Rotundus (c. 1520–1582). Both Orzechowski and Rotundus studied abroad and had spent some time in Italy. Not only curricula of their studies of&nbsp;<em>artes liberales</em>&nbsp;were influenced by Classical Antiquity, they also undoubtedly got familiar with humanist culture of the contemporary Europe.<br>“Rozmowa” consists of two main parts, which are separated by a verse. The treatise is written in a form of a dialogue, and allows to portray a vivid discussion and multiple points of view. The first part of “Rozmowa” focuses on the questions of the political theory, whereas the second one is dedicated to the history of Lithuania, its dynasty and the issue of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. While the first part is polemical, the second one has epideictic character. The author employs personification, paradiastole and antithesis. The latter two allow changing the normative contents of political concepts, and irony highlights the absurdities in the Polish political practices. The Lithuanian, one of the characters, uses deprecation and interpellation, addresses the absent participants of a dialogue (e.&nbsp;g. Orzechowski himself). The author quotes Ancient authors, Scripture, Church Fathers and contemporary thinkers (e.&nbsp;g. Machiavelli and Erasmus), whose ideas provide him with literary&nbsp;<em>topoi</em>. Merged with the rhetorical techniques, they constitute the political arguments of the treatise and allows the author to express one’s political ideas.</p> Skirmantas Knieža Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Classical texts in the art treatises of early Modern Period <p>This paper discusses the quotation frequency and reference strategies of Leon Battista Alberti, Federico Borromeo, and Gabriele Paleotti. These three Catholic art theoreticians of Early Modern period engaged Classical texts as the point of reference and expertly manipulated the Classical sources to provide contextual arguments in the formation of their own artistic theories. Alberti, Borromeo, and Paleotti directly alluded or referred to Pliny the Elder, Plutarch, Xenophon, Strabo, Aulus Gellius, and other Classical sources rather extensively. This can be noticed from various quotation strategies applied in Alberti, Borromeo, and Paleotti treatises and by statistical data on quotation frequency in Alberti’s&nbsp;<em>De pictura</em>, Paleotti’s<em>&nbsp;Discorso intorno alle immagini sacre e profane</em>, and Borromeo’s&nbsp;<em>De pictura sacra</em>.</p> Tomas Riklius Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200