Vilnius University Open Series <p>Established in 2019, this journal contains various selected articles in series.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Vilnius University Open Series 2669-0535 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>-</p> Irena Fedorowicz Mirosław Dawlewicz Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 1 7 Wstęp <p>-</p> Irena Fedorowicz Mirosław Dawlewicz Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 8 11 I. Spuścizna kulturalna Rzeczypospolitej obojga narodów <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 9 115 „Establishment of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth” – a philological commentary to the 1569 Union of Lublin act <p>The Union signed at the Sejm of 1569 in Lublin established common institutions for the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which lasted till 1795. Apart from the monarch elected by the nobility of both states, it established a common legislature (Sejm), foreign and defense policy and currency. The armies, treasuries, law systems, state offices and judiciaries remained separate. The philological aspects important of the characterization of the Union comprise of the fact it was written in Polish and it’s stylistic affilation, the document’s signatories name form diversity, the way the text is composed and official and rhetoric style determinants included, which imply both informative and persuasive functions.</p> Stanisław Dubisz Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 15 27 10.15388/PZOP.2020.1 Letters of Remigian Korwin Kossakowski (Remigijus Korvin Kosakovskis 1730–1780) in the Vilnius University Library <p>In this article it is aimed to tell about a person, which was unduly forgotten in the history of the Vilnius University, though among his other activities, he did a lot to support and help the astronomers, coming to Paris and London from Vilnius. A former jesuit, talented preacher, professor of Rhetorics and other disciplines in Vilnius academy, Remigian Korwin Kossakowski (1730–1780) wrote a lot of letters to Vilnius (and perhaps to Warsaw too), from 1774 on, while working in Paris as the representative of the National Comission of Education of the Commonwealth of Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The letters which are kept in Vilnius university library, mainly addressed to the astronomers Marcin Poczobut and Andrzej Strzecki (1737–1797) are mainly connected with the scientific journey of Strzecki in 1778 to Paris and London and the circumstances of election of Poczobut as a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris. Letters are filled with digressions, reminding of gawenda literary genre, providing the researcher with data on the details of everyday life in the second half of XVIII century, political and ideological views of the addressee, his nostalgy for the Grand Duchy and Poland and his exceptional gift of expressing his feelings. The style of these letters show us that the human who wrote them was well educated, highly critical, curious and well-spoken, and the contents testify the not so well known side of the history of science relations between Vilnius, Warsaw and Paris.</p> Veronika Girininkaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 18 51 10.15388/PZOP.2020.3 About Seraph’s arrow and St. Michael’s shield. A poem by priest Dominik Zabłocki OP for Countess Teresa Barbara Radziwill Pac on the occasion of her name day <p>In the second half of the eighteenth century a lot of occasional poems were published in Vilnius. Their authors were often representatives of various orders: the Piarists, the Jesuits, the Basilians, the Dominicans. Name day poems enjoyed great popularity, which was influenced by the intensive development of various forms of social life. Name day poems were part of “home muse” or family poetry. The authors often addressed their works to representatives of the political and official elite of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, who played an important role in the public and political life of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The poems were more often devoted to the representatives of the male lineage due to their social status and functions, although it happened that women, especially representatives of influential families in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, were also the recipients of these poems. The article discusses an occasional work by a priest Dominik Zabłocki, Dominican friar, devoted to Countess Teresa Barbara Pacowa of the Dukes of Radziwills – a lady of the Austrian Order of the Starry Cross. The poem describes her personal merits, the merits of her husband and family, referring to the rich symbolism of the coat of arms of the Pac, the Radziwill and the Zawisza families from which Teresa Pacowa’s mother was descended. This piece of work undoubtedly belongs to the group of texts that were addressed to a wider audience and performed a political and propaganda function.</p> Regina Jakubėnas Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 52 64 10.15388/PZOP.2020.4 Comparison of Mikalojus Daukša’s „Catechism“ (1595) and Its Polish Original: Onomateme „širdis“ and Its Equivalents <p>The article continues the research, which centers on the comparison of Mikalojus Daukša’s <em>Catechism</em> (DK, 1595) and its Polish original – Jakub Ledesma’s <em>Catechism</em> (LeK, ~1572). This time the article focuses on the polysemy of the word širdis, which becomes apparent in the comparison of the fixations of this word in Daukša’s texts (Daukša’s <em>Postilla</em> (DP, 1599) is referred to as an additional source) and their original Polish equivalents as well as the contexts of their usage. DK lexeme <em>širdis</em> corresponds to LeK <em>serce, serdeczny, żywot, myśl, vmysł. DP lexeme širdis is selected as an equivalent to the lexemes and phrases with serce, serdeczny, myśl, vmysł, męstwo, pamięć, sumnienie, stałość, trwałość, żalość, wdziecżnie, miec na pieczy</em> in Jakub Wujek’s text. The inconsistencies between the onomateme širdis and the Polish original are due to the translation author’s creative experience as well as the range of meanings associated with this word and its phrases in the native language and the tradition of usage.</p> Jūratė Pajėdienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 65 81 10.15388/PZOP.2020.5 Vilnius and Polock. Two centers of Polish culture on the threshold of the 19th century <p>At the beginning of 19th century Vilnius and Polock were the only towns on the territory of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania in which Polish publications, newspapers, theatres and high schools existed. Enlightenment ideas and liberal trends played an important part in the Vilnius community. On the contrary, ideological climate in Polock was created by Jesuits – the order dissolved by the Pope, but existing in the Russian territory. The Author indicates the differences between these two communities and also draws attention to Lithuanian poems written in Vilnius by Antanas Strazdas and Byelorussian poems written there in the Philomaths community by Jan Czeczot. He also considers how big was the influence of Polock environment on the literary activities and attitude of Jan Barszczewski, a student of Polock college and future leading representative of Polish-Byelorussian literary borderland.</p> Andrzej Romanowski Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 82 100 10.15388/PZOP.2020.6 Trakai Castle Court Acts of 1660–1661: Typological and Language Characteristics <p>The paper deals with the local court records of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) from the collection of Vilnius University. The study of Trakai Castle Court documentation of 1660‒1661 (F7–TPT, 1660‒1661) allows us to conclude that the chancery work in local courts in the GDL was highly developed at the time. The system of documents’ drawing up and registering was clearly regulated and structured, taking into account the needs of state and public life. Almost all types of court records were composed according to well-defined canons, owing to which we can speak about certain genres of legal documentation that had developed apparently by the end of the 16th and the middle of the 17th centuries. The manuscript written in Polish and Ruthenian languages is important for research of Lithuanian, Polish and Byelorussian history. The abundance of accumulated information enables us to consider it as unique reference book that reflects changing sociolinguistic situation of the GDL. From the middle of the 17th century, Polish starts to significantly dominate in legal documentation, thus forces Ruthenian out of court by the end of the century.</p> Viktorija Ušinskienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 101 115 10.15388/PZOP.2020.7 II. Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie w badaniach XIX wieku <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 119 243 Multilingual competence of Adam Mickiewicz <p>This article aims to show multi-stage acquisition of linguistic competence by Adam Mickiewicz as a phenomenon of his era. It is also intended to bring closer political relations and cultural traditions of numerous environments, among which the poet stayed during his travels around multiple countries. It will also be important to show the usefulness of subsequent languages that our bard faced as an erudite and genius of the nineteenth century. Mastery of 11 foreign languages, apart from Polish as a mother tongue, including some used only for communication purposes, even at the basic level, can certainly raise admiration, also among posterity. In this respect, therefore, Adam Mickiewicz still appears to be an unsurpassed authority.</p> Helena Błazińska Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 119 138 10.15388/PZOP.2020.8 The Archeology of Speech. Language as a Testimony to the History of Lithuania in Franciszek Ksawery Bohusz’s Thesis „On the Origins of the Lithuanian Nation and Language“ <p>Franciszek Ksawery Bohusz (1746–1820) was a philosopher, theologist, Jesuit, political activist, participant of the Kościuszko Uprising, member of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Science, honorary member of the Vilnius University, translator and publisher of the Napoleon Code, who was also the author of the thesis On the Origins of the Lithuanian Nation and Language (1808). The thesis was written in an effort to save from forgetting the traditions of the people whose language, as the author noted, gradually “diminished” and “faded” at the beginning of the nineteenth century, being crowded out by Polish which was used in various areas of everyday life. Bohusz’s work turned out to be a significant voice, a testament which raised interest of many Lithuanian culture researchers. It contributed to the longterm study of the history of the Lithuanian nation and language by numerous Vilnius University professors and students.</p> Olaf Krysowski Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 139 157 10.15388/PZOP.2020.9 Educational opportunities and prospects. From the notes of Wilhelmina Zyndram-Kościałkowska <p>The aim of the article is an attempt to define the nature and specificity of opportunities and perspectives of education in the autobiographical reflection of Wilhelmina Zyndram-Kościałkowska (1844–1926), who was a friend of Eliza Orzeszkowa. The author uses the manuscripts of the writer collected in the Lithuanian State Historical Archives in Vilnius. The essence of the research is the question – how Kościałkowska defines the opportunities and perspectives of education. The reflection on them becomes the fundamental way of defining and diagnosing the intellectual identity of the community, of which Kościałkowska feels an integral part. The article is divided into several most important issues focused on education within the walls of Vilnius University, the founding fathers of Vilnius Alma Mater, reflection on the educational activities of Eliza Orzeszkowa, the impact of russification on education in the territories annexed by Russia, the role of memoranda on education, the concept of superpowerhood as well as the importance of language as a tool and code integrating the national and intellectual community.</p> Dawid Maria Osiński Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 158 182 10.15388/PZOP.2020.10 Polish and Lithuanian civil resistance in the painting of the 19th century: Kanutas Ruseckas and Vincentas Smakauskas <p>Hopes to restore the independent state of Lithuania lasted throughout the 19th century and promoted ideas of civil resistance in Poland and Lithuania. The struggle for independence erupted through the uprisings of 1794, 1830-31, and 1863. While these attempts at armed resistance did not lead to the liberation of Lithuania nor Poland, they demonstrated the undying willingness to regain freedom. The role of artists grew up with the increasing repressions of the tsarist government. Paintings and poems became weapons in the fight against the tsarist policy of Russification. The paper focuses on the works that the painters, Vincentas Smakauskas (1797–1876) and Kanutas Ruseckas (1800–1860), done after the suppressed uprising of 1831. A research hypothesis is a statement that paintings produced in this dramatic period of history embodied secret symbolic meanings and represented ideas of civil resistance.</p> Vaida Ragėnaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 183 202 10.15388/PZOP.2020.11 Selected sociocultural aspects of receiver-oriented adaptation (based upon the analysis of Lithuanian translation of Henryk Sienkiewicz’s „Szkice węglem“) <p>The present article analyses the Lithuanian translation of Henryk Sienkiewicz’s novel Szkice węglem (1876), published in 1890 by „Ukinįkas” („Ūkininkas”) magazine. Themes covered: historical and cultural as well as social and pragmatic contexts of Paisziniai anglimis; the scope of adaptation work in order to create a simplified version for less educated/culturally developed readers; translation authorship identification, strategies, techniques and selections used by the translators. The characteristic of translation process and the final lexical, grammatical and semantical structure of the translation is concluded by considering the role of this translation in Lithuanian historical-literary process at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century from a theoretical perspective.</p> Inesa Szulska Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 203 218 10.15388/PZOP.2020.12 The corners of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the early columns of Eliza Orzeszkowa <p>The article recalls little-known columns and literary texts by Orzeszkowa from the earliest period of her work, devoted to descriptions of several parts of the Grodno region, Lithuanian Polesie and Pińszczyzna. The article presents a thesis about the coherence of the vision of the province as a cultural and social space presented in these texts.</p> Iwona Wiśniewska Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 219 243 10.15388/PZOP.2020.13 III. W kręgu Uniwersytetu Stefana Batorego – w stulecie założenia <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 246 432 The Reopening of Universities in Vilnius and Warsaw after World War I in Contemporary Press <p>The article presents the circumstances of the resumption of activities of Polish universities in Warsaw and Vilnius in 1915 and 1919. It describes the political situation that accompanied both events. In the case of the University of Warsaw, it was the realities of World War I and the desire of the emperors of Germany and Austria-Hungary to win over Poles against the Russians. In the case of Vilnius University, it was the renewal of Polish scientific and cultural life and confirmation of the annexation of the Vilnius Region to the Republic of Poland, which was at the time still at war with Soviet Russia.<br>The author presents the first structures of the revived universities and the profiles of their rectors: prof. Józef Brudziński in Warsaw and prof. Michał Siedlecki in Vilnius. The focus is also placed on recreating the celebrations themselves, which have already been described by contemporaries as historical. The course of these events and their artistic setting have been reconstructed on the basis of historical accounts (newspapers, photographs). Much of the discussed material has been included as illustrations and recalled for the first time in one hundred years.</p> Grzegorz P. Bąbiak Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 247 276 10.15388/PZOP.2020.14 Stanisław Pigoń and Manfred Kridl. Two concepts of literary research at the Stefan Batory University <p>The article presents two different methodologies of eminent USB professors and lecturers: Stanisław Pigoń (1921-1931) and Manfred Kridl (1931-1939). Stanisław Pigoń, taking over the Department of Polish studies in Vilnius University, after Józef Kallenbach, continued traditional philological research on romantic literature, with particular emphasis on Mickiewicz and his Vilnius years. Pigoń’s interest included: the Philomatic environment, the issues of the Kaunas-Vilnius “Dziady” and research on location of the so-called Konrad’s cell. In turn prof. Kridl introduced the modern “integral method” to Vilnius Polish studies, derived from Roman Ingarden’s theory of literary work, research on the issues of the style and structure of the poem and Russian formalism. Both educated a group of eminent scholars (Czesław Zgorzelski, Maria Renata Mayenowa, Irena Sławińska, Maria Rzewuska and others).</p> Tadeusz Bujnicki Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 277 293 10.15388/PZOP.2020.15 About „filomacka“ tradition during the inter-war period in Vilnius: “Wiwlasy” by Edward Walewski (1926) and a newspaper „Filomatka“ (1929). <p>In Vilnius that was considered as spiritual capital of Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the period of inter-war, and mainly in ’20s of the XX century still was very living romanticism tradition. The important person and symbolic messenger of this tradition was Adam Mickiewicz, the most famous polish-lithuanian poet, polish national prophet. Very noticeable was the fact that the best known literary scientists, like: J. Kallenbach, S. Pigoń, K. Górski were employed in Polish Literature Department, in Faculty of Humanities of Stefan Batory University. Wladysław Mickiewicz – son of the poet Adam Mickiewicz, also his biographer visited Vilnius and university in 1922. In 1926 was published collection of poems named <em>Wiwlasy. Jamb na stulecie filomatów</em> by Edward Walewski. It consists of 48 sonnets that describe the activity of „Filomaci and Filareci“ Society members. The lyrics refer also to people (J. Lelewel, K. Kontry, E. Groddeck), and places (Nowogródek, Tuhanowicz, Bolcienik) related to some meaningful locations connected with „Filomaci“ trial case. The other significant literary event was the attempt to issue due to efforts of some teachers K. Adamska-Roubina, S. Szemitówna-Cywińska and O. Zambrzycka-Swianiewiczowa, in Vilnius in 1929, the school newspaper „Filomatka“. Till our times only one archival copy is left, there is no evidence if there were more copies. It is necessary to mention that both literary events, despite their weak response, are interesting and worth mentioning examples of still alive tradition of „Filomaci“ in Vilnius.</p> Irena Fedorowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 294 313 10.15388/PZOP.2020.16 A page from the history of the University of Vilnius: selected biographical threads <p>The article concerns the scientific path of the employees and authorities of the University of Vilnius, who had the courage to to hold a repeat official presentation of a dissertation of prof. Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov in 1978 (the previous presentation took place in Moscow in 1955, but the documentation was “lost”) and to award the title of doctor honoris causa to Vladimir Nikolaevich Toporov in 1994. Biographical threads also concern employees who moved to Warsaw after WWII, primarily Professor Maria Renata Mayenowa. She was an assistant in the Stefan Batory University and participant in the seminar of professor Manfred Kridl. As a person of Jewish nationality, she lived in hiding near Bracław under the name of Szadziewicz during the occupation and survived thanks to the help of the university community. The following names appear on further pages: Professor Tadeusz Czeżowski, Janina Zienowicz, Stefan and Lidia Wołoszyn, Feliks and Maria Wolscy. The atmosphere of mutual support and help is noteworthy. The milieu of the period is overviewed on the basis of correspondence of Professor Mayenowa to Professors Kridl and Elzenberg. As defined by Professor Zygmunt Saloni, Professor Mayenowa was “Polish by choice”.</p> Elżbieta Janus Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 314 327 10.15388/PZOP.2020.17 Professor Mieczysław Limanowski on Vilnius and the cultural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania <p>This text deals with the depiction of Vilnius in the work of Mieczysław Limanowski, geologist, co-founder of the Reduta Theatre Company, art and theatre critic, and professor at the Stefan Batory University. The author, drawing on the work of specialists from various fields, presents a semiotics of Vilnius in Limanowski’s writing. In his depiction of the city and the larger region, reflections on nature and culture and interwoven, and thus his work is an outstanding early example of modern cultural geography. In his vision of Lithuania and Vilnius we can identify such interdisciplinary traits as the motive of the road and the theme of transcendence, along with spirituality recorded in the cultural code of the city. In Limanowski’s writing on Vilnius his reflections on the Gates of Dawn and on the Church of Saint Nicolas are particularly noteworthy.</p> Maria Kalinowska Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 328 343 10.15388/PZOP.2020.18 “Lithuanian Athens”. Ludwik Janowski’s versions of the history of Vilnius University <p>The subject of this article is scientific reflection about the works on the history of Vilnius University had written in the first two decades of the twentieth century by the cultural historian, Ludwik Janowski (1878-1921), who was associated with the scientific community in Kiev and Krakow, and in 1919-1921 he was a professor at The Stefan Batory University in Vilnius. Janowski’s interest on the history of Vilnius University was a kind of a research passion all his life. Though he failed to write a historiographic synthesis that it has been planning. In his works he tried to correct and supplement the research on the history of Vilnius University. His studies and books compose a specific synthesis in fragments, which shows in a multi-variant narrative the most important stages and factors in the development of this great center of science and culture.</p> Urszula Kowalczuk Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 344 368 10.15388/PZOP.2020.19 Marian Zdziechowski and the Russian students at the Stefan Batory University in Wilno <p>The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between Professor Marian Zdziechowski and the students of Russian nationality at the Polish University of Stefan Batory. This scientist and thinker was the curator of the Russian Student Union and the student corporation “Ruthenia Vilnensis”. Zdziechowski’s participation in the activities of Russian student organizations and involvement in the fate of individual students is explored in the context of the scholar’s attention to Russian religious philosophy and his goodwill towards the Russian emigrates and minorities in Poland, and the rejection of communism. The main research material consisted of archival documents and publications in Vilnius interwar periodical press in Polish and Russian. The study showed that Zdziechowski was an ideological leader, a highest authority and a role model for Russian students in Wilno.</p> Pavel Lavrinec Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 369 387 10.15388/PZOP.2020.20 Ferdynand Ruszczyc, Jan Bułhak and the Vilnius University <p>The article presents a personal relationship between the two outstanding authors, between F. Ruszczyc, a painter, writer, organizer of artistic and social life in the Vilnius Region and J. Bułhak, an excellent photographer and an intriguing writer. Attempts were made to indicate how this relation was significant to the functioning of the Vilnius University at the beginning of its “renewed” existence. The analyzes were based on the diaries of F. Ruszczyc (“Ku Wilnu”, “W Wilnie”) and the notes of J. Bułhak (“26 lat z Ruszczycem”, “Liść wawrzynu i płatek róży”). These works tell us a lot about the mission of the University and tasks that it faced in 1919. Regina Ruszczycowa is mentioned in the article as well. The analysis of her correspondence with Ferdynand Ruszczyc reveals us many details about university life and about her husband fascination with Vilnius.</p> Beata K. Obsulewicz Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 388 405 10.15388/PZOP.2020.21 University in Vilnius and its staff in the correspondence of Polish linguists Kazimierz Nitsch and Antonina Obrębska-Jabłońska <p>The paper briefly outlines the history of Alma Mater Vilnensis from the university’s inception to the end of 1939, together with the research fields and organizational and teaching achievements of those Vilnius scholars who are mentioned relatively more frequently in the aforementioned correspondence. The author’s guiding idea was to show how considerably an additional source such as private correspondence can supplement official knowledge about individual scholars, their community and the times they live in. Extensively quoted excerpts from letters are sometimes supplemented by the author’s own observations and suggested literature of the subject. The text focuses mainly on the academic achievements and behaviours of SBU-affiliated researchers such as Jan Otrębski, Halina Turska, Jan and Halina Safarewicz, Olgierd Chomiński as well as others who appear in the background.</p> Elżbieta Smułkowa Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 406 432 IV. Interpretacja przestrzeni z perspektywy XX i XXI wieku <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 433 496 „Kresy Pierwszej i Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej“ (the ‘Kresy’ of the Commonwealth of Both Nations and the Second Republic of Poland), i.e. an exercise in close reading of a certain map. Reflections on the contemporary ‘Kresy’ discourse <p>The article is an attempt to interpret a schematic map entitled Kresy I i II Rzeczypospolitej (‘Kresy’ of the I and II Republic, published in Bolesław Hadaczek’s companion History of the ‘Kresy’ literature). I try to read this text of culture critically, showing on its example the abusive functioning of the ‘Kresy’ discourse.</p> Paweł Bukowiec Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 435 446 10.15388/PZOP.2020.23 (Not) Forgotten “Vilnius stories and legends” by Władysław Zahorski <p>The purpose of the article is to show how Vilnius stories and legends, collected by Władysław Zahorski, are alive today and are reflected in the physical, visual form of the city, including in monuments, memorial plaques, installations, but also in stories told to guests and residents of the Lithuanian capital.<br>The stories explain the appearance of specific historical and geographical objects in Vilnius, contain signs of the past, reflect old beliefs, customs, ethical and social principles, and clarify encrypted religious, historiographic and national meanings. They bring information about legendary rulers and important places.<br>Zahorski’s book is part of the city’s presentations characteristic of tourist guides addressed to the universal recipient. Stories and legends create a picture of a multicultural, multi-faith city with a complex past that is visible today through various physical signs. Zahorski combines various narratives about Lithuanian, Polish and Jewish Vilnius in the book.</p> Teresa Dalecka Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 447 459 10.15388/PZOP.2020.24 On the Significance of the Concept of Memory Culture in Urban Studies (A Case Study of Vilnius) <p>This article aims to present the possibilities offered to urban studies by the concept of memory culture. The case study discussed is that of Vilnius in the 1990–2018 period. The definition put forward by C. Cornelißen, for whom memory culture is “the formal generic term for all possible forms of conscious human memory of historical events, personages and processes”, inspired the creation of a research model encompassing: the multilingual urban discourse of Vilnius (analysis of texts), interviews with representatives of the official and alternative discourses of Vilnius’ memory (analysis of oral histories), and spatial representations of the past (analysis of carriers of memory). This diversified corpus of sources will allow for as comprehensive as possible a description of the phenomenon that is present-day Vilnius’ memory culture; it will also extend the boundaries of research towards true interdisciplinarity.</p> Małgorzata Kasner Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 460 475 10.15388/PZOP.2020.25 The role of Polish writers from Lithuania in the development of Polish-Lithuanian literary relations in the 21st century <p>Poles are the largest national minority in Lithuania. Among them, several dozen people are involved in creating literature in Polish, and a dozen actively participate in literary life. Despite such a significant potential, the participation of this group in the development of Polish-Lithuanian literary relations was negligible until recently. Polish writers from Lithuania mainly participated in Polish literary life and published their works in Poland. They did not translate them into Lithuanian and did not participate in Lithuanian literary life. The text lists a few examples of the participation of Polish writers from Lithuania in creating literary contacts between Poland and Lithuania, as well as in translation and publishing activities in the field of Polish-Lithuanian literary cooperation. Only in recent years has the activity of Polish writers from Lithuania in this field increased significantly thanks to the involvement of the young literary generation.</p> Paweł Krupka Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 476 482 10.15388/PZOP.2020.26 Lituanian directors read „Forefathers’ Eve” <p>The article concerns two theatrical stagings of “Forefathers’ Eve” made by Lithuanian directors: Jonas Vaitkus (Academic Dramatic Theater in Vilnius, 1990) and Eimuntas Nekrošius (National Theater in Warsaw, 2016). The author recalls the history of the reception of both productions, juxtaposes them and analyzes the Lithuanian threads presented in them.</p> Maria Makaruk Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 483 496 10.15388/PZOP.2020.27 V. Pogranicze kulturowo-językowe <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 497 572 Borderline regionalisms in sociolect of Polish descent youth in Vilnius <p>The aim of the paper is introduction and analysis of regionalisms of Vilnian polish youth’s sociolect. Regionalisms and dialectical forms that are typical of Polish language of the North–Eastern Borderlands were given to the study. In the given collection the most substantial group constitutes lexical regionalisms. Morphological (word–formative and inflectional) and phonetical regionalisms appeared in the lower range. They represent different theme range. The analysis of regional lexeme meaning, given by the respondents, revealed that a part of them were used in their main regional meaning. However, there are frequent examples of neosemanticism that are used in a metaphorical meaning with a severe emotional tone.</p> Mirosław Dawlewicz Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 499 511 10.15388/PZOP.2020.28 Attitudes to the Polish language of Polish youth minority living in Eišiškės <p>The aim of the article is to analyze language attitudes expressed by young people belonging to the Polish ethnic minority living in Eišiškės. The material for this research was collected in 2020 by student Aneta Borisevska on the basis of a survey developed in the project “Sociolinguistic map of Lithuania: city and town (2013)”. The results of the survey show that the Polish language is assessed ambiguously by the respondents: the common Polish language is considered prestigious and necessary for contacts in Poland, but the Polish dialect is considered mixed and unsuitable for use in Vilnius or Poland. Young respondents state that they will need the Lithuanian language the most to study and work in Lithuania. In Eišiškės, there is a tendency to use the Lithuanian language more widely, the Polish dialect it is mostly spoken at home and with acquaintances.</p> Kinga Geben Aneta Borisewska Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 512 525 10.15388/PZOP.2020.29 Principles of „The Normative Dictionary of the Polish Place Names from the area of Lithuania“ <p>The aim of the article is to elaborate on the principles of the online edition of <em>The Normative Dictionary of the Polish Place Names from the area of Lithuania</em>. This is a normative dictionary. It contains Polish equivalents of contemporary Lithuanian place names from the area of Lithuania, their declination, adjectives and names of residents. The dictionary contains names of districts, towns and villages, counting over 20 residents from Vilnius, Šalčininkai, Trakai, Švenčionys and Širvintos regions. The dictionary includes names from the Vilnius area inhabited by numerous Polish minority, and selected names from different parts of Lithuania, important in terms of history, culture and society (e.g. from the area of Lauda and the vicinity of Kaunas). The article outlines the structure of the dictionary, looks into difficulties encountered in its development and supplements this study with a brief description of the Dictionary and of the present state of work on it.</p> Halina Karaś Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 526 539 10.15388/PZOP.2020.30 “Liankialis” and “Litwiak”. An outline of anthroponymy based on tombstone inscription in Southern Vilnius Region and Lublin Province <p>This article shows an outline of anthroponymy which I excerpted from the tombstone inscription from two parish cemeteries approximately 700 km apart from one another. The first one is located next to Porudomin (lit. Parudaminys), situated 20 km south of Vilnius in Lithuan ia (currently Vilnius Region). The second one – in the Southern part of Lublin Province in Biłgoraj County next to Józefow. The ethnonyms and extracted suffix served as a starting base which showed the popularity of the names ending with -icz, -owicz, -ewicz, usually with the roots derived from the given names in<br>Vilnius Region, however in Lublin Province one can distinguish the following primal forms: appellatives, occupational and secondary patronymics, with the suffix -k. Names ending with -icz, -owicz, -ewicz – these forms were earlier recognized as prestigious forms, belonging to higher social spheres, which have spread among peasants in the south of Vilnius Region, taking patronymic character which are reflected in the names with the suffix -k in the South of Lublin Province. Also there is an evidence of formation of the ethnonyms: Liankialis in Vilnius Region and Litwiak in Lublin Province.</p> Irena Kulik Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 540 558 10.15388/PZOP.2020.32 Polish healing conjurations (zagowory) in the collection of Lithuanian conjuration’s manuscripts <p>Lithuanian conjurations (<em>zagovory</em>) constitute a unique part of Lithuanian folklore. In the collection of conjurations’ manuscripts described in the publication of Daiva Vaitkevičienė (2008), we will find records of these archaic texts in various languages, including Polish. Polish-language conjurations constitute a separate subgroup in the Balto-Slavic context. Following the chronological criterion, we are dealing with texts of pre-Christian and after-Christ origins. Due to mutual cultural influences as well as functioning of different languages within Lithuania, it is usually not possible to determine the original language of conjuration. Only in a few cases we are able to state, which version of conjuration is its translation. This is indicated primarily by the structure of the text as well as its lexical features, adaptation or transliteration. The article describes the attempt to compare Polish and Lithuanian conjurations’ texts, classify their main themes and analyze how they worked.</p> Tatjana Vologdina Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 559 572 10.15388/PZOP.2020.33 Index of surnames <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Irena Fedorowicz Mirosław Dawlewicz Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 573 594 10.15388/PZOP.2020.34 Biographical notes <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Irena Fedorowicz Mirosław Dawlewicz Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 595 606 10.15388/PZOP.2020.35 Bibliographic Data <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 608 608