Vilnius University Open Series <p>Established in 2019, this journal contains various selected articles in series.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Vilnius University Open Series 2669-0535 Editors and Table of Contents <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kristina Rutkovska Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 1 7 The Importance of Mother Tongue to the Cultivation of Values and Personality Development: A Philosophical Aspect <p>The author of the article examines the relation between language and values from the perspective of a native speaker who finds in his or her mother tongue a linguistic articulation of those values that are prevalent in the speaker’s community and are shared by all or most of its members.<br>Language is a unique medium where values are presented, examined and constantly re-evaluated by members of a linguistic community. Especially the native speaker’s mother language, much better than any other language learned later in life, reveals its special role in the process of a person’s moral growth and overall personal development. The mother tongue shared by certain linguistic community plays the leading role in forming one’s world view, and this linguistically created world outlook is imbued with specific moral and aesthetic values characteristic of that linguistic community. The mother language not only emerges as a bridge that connects the native speaker to his or her ancestors and the entire cultural legacy created by former generations, but also reveals itself as the most rewarding medium for the expression of the native speaker’s personal experience and personal creative insights.<br>The author of the article is of the opinion that the appreciation of one’s mother tongue and the recognition of its privileged status should not be viewed as leading to linguistic and cultural isolation, but as opening the gate to other languages and linguistic world views. What is even more important is that, in the author’s opinion, the appreciation of one’s mother tongue enhances one’s ability to appreciate the linguistic medium as such and to celebrate language as such, not only one’s mother language. Respect for our mother tongue also enhances our capacity to creatively and respectfully encounter other languages and other linguistically construed world views.<br>Yet it is also argued that we should not view our mother tongue as the only, albeit very authoritative, guide in the sphere of values – our own critical mind and critical reflexion on the nature of values should go hand in hand with the received collective wisdom that we find crystalized in our mother tongue, in language as such, as well as in all forms of traditional culture.</p> Naglis Kardelis Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 13 23 10.15388/VLLP.2020.1 On the Assumptions and Postulates of Cultural Linguistics (On the Example of the Definition of Polish PRACA (‘WORK’)) <p>The study consists of four parts. The first part is devoted to the beginnings of cultural linguistics in Poland, connected with the Wrocław-based programme for research on Polish national culture, the emergence of the “Language and Culture” research network (and a publication series with the same title), and the launch of the Lublin-based journal Etnolingwistyka in 1988. The second part contains examples of linguistic facts being viewed in cultural perspective, with a special role of the lexicon as the “mirror of culture”. Part three presents a repertoire of seven conceptual constructs proposed in Lublin cognitive ethnolinguistics (linguistic worldview, stereotypes as cultural concepts, cognitive definition, viewpoint and interpretive perspective, profiling of base images, values, and the experiencing, conceptualizing, and speaking subject). Finally, the fourth part illustrates the application of this theoretical framework in an analysis of the Polish cultural concept of PRACA ‘WORK’.</p> Jerzy Bartmiński Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 24 45 10.15388/VLLP.2020.2 Explicating Cultural Concepts <p>Ethnolinguistics deals with collective identities and reality-interpreting narratives. Collective identity (beliefs, values, and their symbolisations shared by a community) is defined as a mental construct, access to which can be obtained through complementary and linguistically “externalised” images. Inquiry into identity is the most effective when it is concerned with language, both in the narrower sense of linguistic structure and textual narratives, and in the broader semiotic sense. Whichever option is selected, the important issues to be addressed include the linguistic phenomena that make up identity, the methodology of identity research, as well as the data on the basis of which collective identity can be reconstructed.<br>In this study, attention is paid to narrative linguistic phenomena: language is viewed as a most human phenomenon and a significant social fact that contributes to the construction of collective identity. The notion of “reality-interpreting narratives” pertains to subjectivised stories of the world, more or less stable judgements, stories that interpret reality and assume the shape of cognitive definitions.<br>In the course of thirty years of work on and with the cognitive definition, two types of ethnolinguistic description have emerged: holistic (integrated) and separated (isolated). The former is preferred in the Dictionary of Folk Stereotypes and Symbols, the latter in the Axiological Lexicon of Slavs and Their Neighbours. Both types of description reveal the functioning of images (sterotypes/concepts) in a network of relationships that allows one to capture the system of values that underlies the languages and cultures being studied. These relationships are here illustrated with the Polish images of róża ‘rose’ and wolność ‘freedom’.</p> Stanisława Niebrzegowska-Bartmińska Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 46 69 10.15388/VLLP.2020.3 The Concept of Values in the Lithuanian Worldview <p>Although the value system has been discussed since the antiquity, the list of underlying values has not been available yet. Socrates elaborated on virtue, courage and justice, Plato was concerned about truth, goodness, wisdom, determination and temperance. Aristotle analysed ethical norms. Thomas Aquinas considered values to be perfection, which exists as absolute good. He distinguished prudence, justice, volitional morality, faith, hope and love. Jeanas-Jacquesas Rousseau tended to exalt ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity, and humanism and considered happiness, reason, sympathy to be underlying values, encouraged development of volition, independence and pro-activeness. The most relevant values for Immanuel Kant included reason, liberty, self-respect, honour, duty, autonomy, volition and goodness. The philosophers of the 20th century, for example, Max Scheler, made attempts to classify values. The Italian philosopher Battista Mondina stated that values can be of different levels (from the perspective of values not all the things and behaviour patterns are equal: some of them possess more value, whereas the others – less) and comprise a certain hierarchy. He presents a more detailed classification of values, which better complies with life and attitudes of an individual in the 20th century.<br>In the end of the 20th century the researchers got an idea of creating a hierarchy of values relevant to a separate nation. The description of the project “Polish Axiological Dictionary”, which distinguishes the values of importance to the Polish, can be considered an example.<br>It is obvious that a unified conception of values did not exist: different authors treated values in a different way. The concept value is used in various meanings: as an aspect of world value, as attractive objects, life quality, valuable things or phenomena, behaviour norms which influence decisions. Values reflect what is most valuable for an individual from cultural, psychological, sociological, moral and esthetical perspectives. An individual is governed and guided by values; he/she lives for them.<br>The values make up the core of every culture. However, the issue of values raises many questions. Firstly, does a canon of universal values exist? In fact, such values as motherland, patriotism, democracy and tolerance are important but are they equally important? Such daily life values as – work, career, and money – are conceptualised. The question arises if this has always and everywhere been like this? Are such values as family, marriage, child still relevant these days? Most likely for Lithuanians these values will hardly differ from common European or common human values but it is still interesting what is typical only of Lithuanians, what did they include into their value system adopting experience of neighbouring countries and what presupposed the meaning of words.<br>Working on the book “Values in the Worldview of Lithuanians” an idea came to mind that following the concept analysis, attempts can be made to classify Lithuanian values.<br>Various classification principles can be applied:<br>• Societal values: state, nation, motherland, language, freedom, land, work, commitment, justice, duty, honour, morality, the good, the beautiful, morals, etc.<br>• Personal values: happiness, family, home, personal liberty, health, loves, etc.<br>They can also be related to the individual’s growth:<br>• Values that build up the personality: home, family, nature, faith, work, morals, love – that is, everything, what a person gets in the family.<br>• Values that improve the personality: state, nation, language, freedom, patriotism, empathy, tolerance, wisdom, etc. – that is, everything, what a person gets at school and in his/her further life.<br>However, strict boundaries do not exist and cannot exist because a person functions as a member of society as well as a separate individual.</p> Irena Smetonienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 70 80 10.15388/VLLP.2020.4 Lithuanian Cultural Landscape in Folklore from the Perspective of Values <p>In the article, the contemporary human being’s search for values is primarily linked to the folkloristic reflection of Lithuanian cultural landscape. Following the framework of hermeneutics and based on the folkloristic symbolism of landscape in Lithuanian folklore (mainly in the oldest layer of folk songs), the manifestations of a long-lasting solidarity between community and nature are discussed. The focus has been placed on the small community – the family and its immediate relationship with the surrounding nature. In the introductory part of the article, the notion of ritualism is discussed which is based on the universally acknowledged concept of the rites of passage (les rites de passage). Within the context of this concept, the depiction of the public events of family life (the rituals of marriage and death) constituted a solid premise for the investigation of the so-called common places (loci communes) in Lithuanian folk poetry, which in this regard are usually represented by landscape-related narrative segments and symbolism. Folkloristic interpretations of the prominent elements of Lithuanian landscape (trees, water, stones) have been selected for the investigation. The introduction also reveals the importance of a family over an individual in the exploration of a human being’s relationship with the surrounding nature. The first part of the article ‘The Reflections of Anthropomorphic Reception of Trees’ asserts that in the folk songs marked by archaic stylistics, the poetic narrative of trees contains abundant mythopoetic allusions to the constant identification of a human being (usually, a family member) with a tree, as well as other metamorphoses and motifs which attest their mutual dependence. This poetic tradition influences the poetry created by individual authors to this day. The article briefly introduces the meaning of a tree in the world of ancient Lithuanian beliefs and customs and notices the major changes in the purpose of the image of a tree in the late tradition of romances. The second part of the article analyses the long-term trajectories of mythopoetic depiction of water and stones in folklore. It is well known that any traditional culture has accumulated a wide range of meanings which pertain to different forms of water and connote rebirth, renewal, as well as fertility and life. Therefore when the article emphasizes the tropes of being near water, drowning in watery depths, which through the lens of myth and ritual embody the act of love (marriage) in Lithuanian singing folklore, it should be noted that this variation of meaning found in Lithuanian folklore constitutes an organic part of the whole of international aquatic symbolism. The mythicised story of a live stone as reflected in folklore could be partially associated with the folkloristic reception of trees and water. Animation of a stone is revealed through the attribution of the qualities of a live being to a stone (in the legends, they move, communicate with each other, live in families). Contrarily, the lifelessness (immobile state) of a stone is mythicised in cases where people who deviate from moral laws are turned into stones. The mythologem of a stone as the landmark signifying the boundary between this and the other world, as well as the association of stones with sacrality and sacred places visited by deities, is widespread. It is ascertained that the narrative of the sacrality of stones did not cease in the period of Christianity.<br>Therefore, the landscape approach applied in this study provided a possibility to observe how, in folklore, the meanings of different components of landscape organically combine into a cohesive union which operates on the principles of synergy. A conclusion may be drawn that folklore unequivocally asserts the idea of a continuous coexistence of a human being and nature and exalts the perception of nature as an essential spiritual value.</p> Bronė Stundžienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 81 101 10.15388/VLLP.2020.5 National Values and the Ways of Reading Them. Dialect Text at the Etnolinguist’s Workshop <p>The study aims to present certain methodological approaches used in the research of dialect narratives. In the introductory part of the article, the author discusses the links between the related sciences, analysing oral text: traditional dialectology, oral history and ethnolinguistics. The concept of cultureme as the unit describing realia, deeply entrenched in a certain type of culture, composing a certain identity of an ethnic group, is also introduced. The notion of a cultureme is very close to the notions of a keyword, described by Anna Wierzbicka, and a stereotype or concept, described by the ethnolinguistic school of Lublin. The difference, however, is that that the description of concepts is aimed at reflecting the folk or nationwide worldview and human view, while culturemes are used to identify a specific community, show the specificity of a certain region and its values. The example of the description of one cultureme (the manor) is used to provide the complicated structure of dialect narrative, its stylistic values, types of a narrator, and subjective way of perceiving and assessing the reality.</p> Kristina Rutkovska Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 102 133 10.15388/VLLP.2020.6 Expression of Value System in the Samogitian Daily Discourse of the 2nd Half of the 20th Century <p>The analysis of the material found in the sources of the Samogitian discourse of the second half of the 20th century, which builds upon the model of the categorization of values proposed by Viktor E. Frankl, makes it clear that the Samogitian daily discourse mainly focuses on creative values. Work is described as essential to everyone and making no harm to the human being. The person’s diligence is associated with one’s abilities, agility, understanding and trustworthiness, because many jobs require people’s collective action. Samogitians are convinced that diligence enables the person to live, to get rich and experience the meaning of life. Both personally and as a member of an ethnic community a Samogitian construes diligence as a quality giving an advantage over others and providing good grounds to brag. The possibility of subsistence and the quality of life are linked with work. However, excessive diligence is considered harmful, and therefore Samogitians advise not to forget common sense while working.<br>The values which are based on experience and feeling are discussed far less commonly. In the sources of Samogitian discourse the expression of exper iential values is linked with joy and surprise about simple objects from the daily environment and the intention to draw the interlocutor’s attention towards them. Love is described as a universal feeling, but Samogitians are not prone to talk openly about it, unless they speak about the stories of their past.<br>The person actualizes attitudinal values whenever he or she is confronted with the restrictions of life and reacts to the suffering sent by one’s fate. Samogitians are used to describe every person’s situation as resulting from the higher force or determined by one’s fate. The gift of life is described as meaningful per se and providing self-confidence.<br>Hardships, troubles and pain are described as temporary conditions, which are easier to live through when one knows that it is always better to be alive than dead. Ethical values always require people to refuse certain temptations. Circumspection allows individuals to avoid deception in the form of abuse or flattery and to keep one’s dignity. The promotion of respect towards another and self-respect is based on the principle of equality by proposing not to treat others as you would not want them to treat you.<br>The available sources of Samogitian discourse include a number of observations that the continuously improving conditions of life and work change people’s behaviour and values: an easier life changes people’s communication towards seclusion and alienation, reduces diligence and concern over the future, promotes effeminacy and lack of self-restraint expressed through the choice of a less virtuous lifestyle. According to interlocutors, the Samogitian language itself changes as well.</p> Jūratė Pajėdienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 134 162 10.15388/VLLP.2020.7 Funeral Hymns of Lithuanians and Vilnius Region Poles’: General Features and Trends of the Repertoire <p>The article discusses the key features and trends of the repertoire of Catholic funeral hymns, functioning in Lithuania in both Polish and Lithuanian; at the same time attempts are made to grasp the possible causes of mutual interactions and influences. In combining literary and ethnological approaches, field research data, historical sources, printed and manuscript hymns are analysed and interpreted, related scientific literature is examined. The conclusion is reached that the similarity and commonalities of the Lithuanian and Vilnius Region Poles’ folk piety funeral repertoire were, and still are, a result of similar cultural conditions. The basis of the old repertoire is primarily determined by trends, influences, and themes coming from Poland, while the areas of the modern repertoire’s influence are much broader: both general international trends and a broad mutual influence can be noted.<br>In Lithuania’s villages and cities it is still common practice to invite a group of hymn-singers to a funeral wake and burial ceremony. Singing of funeral hymns is an old tradition, likely coming from the 17th c., from Poland, slowly covering also the territory of modern-day Lithuania and gradually settling down, gaining distinct regional features.&nbsp;<br>However, we do not have any accounts as to whether a folk piety funeral repertoire existed in Lithuanian – it likely formed later.<br>The texts of funeral songs can be divided into several groups according to their origin and function: some are adapted from church liturgies and are traditional church hymns, while others were created at different times by either anonymous local authors or well-known songwriters. Some hymns, for a long time, functioned as part of the liturgy of death and funerals, they established themselves in the practice of folk piety, while others became part of the funeral repertoire when they came into it from various thematically-fitting church calendar holidays or they were created by known or (more often) anonymous songwriters, then spreading among the people.<br>The similarities of the repertoire of Lithuanian and Polish funeral songs are first of all a result of close cultural conditions. The texts of the oldest repertoire of funeral hymns were usually translated from Polish to Lithuanian, with the former taking root in the practices of folk piety much earlier. The melodies of hymns also mostly came from Poland; many are of liturgical origin, although over the centuries they grew into the local musical environment and gained a distinctive tone.<br>The trends of the formation of the new hymns (from the beginning of 20th c. until now), on the one hand, are a continuation of the previous ones; however, on the other hand, local (Lithuanian) features, resulting from the faster and wider spread of information, become clearer, as well as various international influences. A certain group of hymns exists only in Lithuania, we can clearly see the influence of the Lithuanian environment on the poetry and melodics of Polish-language funeral hymns. This repertoire spreads only through writing down by hand the texts, while melodies are learned by ear; they are not published in any hymnals approved by the Church.</p> Aušra Žičkienė Kristina Syrnicka Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 163 188 10.15388/VLLP.2020.8 Lithuanian Poles Values in the Poetic Texts of Dr. Gabriel Jan Mincewicz <p>The current paper presents an overview of the poetic texts of Gabriel Jan Mincewicz (1938–2016) (PhD in the field of humanities, branch of theology). Merits of Gabriel Jan Mincewicz as the director of the song and dance ensemble “Wileńszczyzna” are emphasized. The poetic works of G. J. Mincewicz were divided into several thematic groups, among them the cultural determinants of the Polish identity and the linguistic image of the homeland were analyzed. The works were discussed in the sacred, historical, social, and linguistic contexts. The article emphasizes as well the social impact that G. J. Mincewicz’s songs have on the society of Vilnius region.</p> Irena Fedorowicz Kinga Geben Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 189 208 10.15388/VLLP.2020.9 On the Category of Sex and Grammatical Gender in the Polish Language <p>The article is concerned with the selected aspects of the relation between sex and gender in the Polish language. The starting point for the discussion is the notion of sex – formed on the basis of the existing (and visible) biological differences in the world of humans and animals, grounded (and reproduced) in culture (i.e. the notion of gender). The aim of the discussion is to realize how these notions are encoded in the Polish language.<br>It has been assumed that the category of biological sex underlies the linguistic category of gender understood, however, broadly, i.e. as a set of heterogenous linguistic forms interrelated by the common content, i.e. the meaning of sex/gender. The description of the category understood this way requires a holistic view of language as a tool for expressing thoughts (relative to its various levels, including the context of use) and also using the procedure “from meaning to form”.<br>In the article, the author presents different types of markers of masculinity and femininity in the Polish language, i.e. lexical, morphological (inflexional and word-formative), textual, and contextual. It has been determined that in the case of concrete instances of language use, one deals with various combinations of the above mentioned indicators.</p> Marta Nowosad-Bakalarczyk Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 209 228 10.15388/VLLP.2020.10 Image of the Man Being in Written Sources of Western Aukštaitian Subdialects of Kaunas Region: Analysis of Systemic and Textal Data <p>The article analyses the image of man in the written sources of the Western Aukštaitian subdialects of Kaunas region. The object of research is the lexeme man. The methodology of the Lublin Ethnolinguistic School and Jerzy Bartmiński was followed in the article; the works of Polish, Russian and Lithuanian ethnolinguists were also drawn on. The work is based on two types of data: systematic (dictionaries of subdialects) and textual (texts in subdialects). The material of the Western Aukštaitian subdialects of Kaunas region reveals the perception of the world by villagers and their worldview of the language. The definitions of lexicographic sources highlight three main aspects of man: physical – adult, no gender distinction; mental – intelligent, pleasant, kind, honest, serious; social – daily life related to work, relationships with other people, various communities.<br>The study is not limited to the definitions of lexemes, but also takes into account all the data in the lexicographic entry of the word: collocations and quotations illustrating the use of the title word.<br>The data of the lexicographic and subdialect corpus allow reconstructing the lexical semantic field of man, reflect the structure of man’s concept in discourse on subdialects, and present those features of the meaning that the representatives of the subdialect have in mind when using the word man in a specific context.<br>According to the data in Lithuanian subdialect texts and lexicographical, man is a being capable of thinking and speaking, physically fit and healthy, honest, an obedient subordinate, working, communicating, dependent on others, his own nation or religion.</p> Vilija Sakalauskienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 229 245 10.15388/VLLP.2020.11 Expression of Man’s Portrait in the Dictionary of the Southern South Aukštaitian Subdialects <p>The article examines the expression of a person living in the area of the Southern South Aukštaitian, describing the appearance and physical characteristics, features of the character and temper, social status and relationships based on the material in the two-volume Comprehensive Dictionary of the Southern South Aukštaitian Subdialects (Vol I published in 2016, Vol II in 2019).<br>To begin with, the study includes all sentences that use the word man. It is also based on the examples where it is replaced by pronouns (I, you, he, she etc.), kinship terms (mother, father, brother, sister, grandson, granddaughter, aunt, uncle etc.), nouns that designate individuals by the gender (boy, girl, woman, woman, man etc.) and other. All the sentences in the dictionary that speak of man are analysed.<br>The lexicographic data show that a person (man, woman, child) is an individual living in the Southern South Aukštaitian area. He/she is a kind-hearted, sincere, open, tolerant, cheerful and witty, hardworking and creative representative of the people and dialect; also energetic and persevering, though not always physically strong and capable.<br>The analysis carried out reveals the genesis of the concept of man, and shows the attitude of several generations to man. The illustrative sentences highlight the stereotypical image of a person living in the Southern South Aukštaitian area (cheerful, generous, and hardworking, believes in God and is superstitious, values the family etc.) and show the new emerging traits (laziness, drinking, stealing, disobeying, immoral and dishonest etc.). The analysis of the dialectical discourse reveals the difference between the archaic and contemporary approaches; the ongoing changes in material and spiritual life are revealed.<br>The material in the dictionary reveals the wonderful harmony of man and nature, which has been formed over several centuries, with the community living in a relatively isolated, closed environment. The worldview of man living in the area of the Southern South Aukštaitian area is interwoven with the old mythological world, the mysteries of the Catholic faith, and the realities of the present. Although the world is changing, old values and customs are disappearing and villages are abandoned, people are optimistic about the world. Work, family, faith in God and man are their greatest values.</p> Vilija Ragaišienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 246 276 10.15388/VLLP.2020.12 The Genesis of the Concept of Land <p>Various sources confirm that a human and the land have been connected through an exceptional link. However, an idealistic image of land has been getting weaker and a present individual has felt a changed connection with the land. The land is not the sole source of livelihood for people any more and its association with pagan rituals, deities and nature has become less and less frequent. The more formal understanding of land (earth) as a planet has prevailed in Lithuanian lexicography, whereas in other sources the land is associated only with hard work. The very concept of land is broad and complex, therefore, it is important to analyse the image that emerges at a subliminal level in the head of a Lithuanian, while he/she is thinking about the land. The whole concept LAND is analysed implementing the project “Bread. Land. Mother” financed by the State Commission of the Lithuanian Language (2018–2020). This article presents the lexicographic analysis and the data of students’ survey. The analysis of questionnaire revealed an obvious fact that the image of land is perceived by every individual in accordance with influence of the surrounding environment and the worldview constructed by an individual himself or herself. The concept is broad and every individual may have a significantly different understanding of it. Some people see it only as a physical plane, whereas others feel the link with land at a spiritual level because it is home or even more than this.</p> Marius Smetona Anželika Smetonienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 277 286 10.15388/VLLP.2020.13 Little Fire, Zygmunt! You are a Guest and I am a Guest… Conceptualization of Fire as a Living Creature in the Polish Folk Culture. An Ethnolinguistic Analysis <p>The analysis is focused on the reconstruction of an image of fire as a living creature, preserved in the Polish folk culture. This image is corroborated by linguistic data, e.g. names, epithets, established connections, riddles, proverbs, formulas of greeting and bidding farewell to a home fire and of obviating fire, as well as by “paralinguistic data” that is beliefs and practices. Conceptualization of natural phenomena (such as fire) in the categories of a living “being” has a general cultural character, corresponds to a vision of the world as an integrated organism whose components are endowed with life and consciousness, and can be a manifestation of the mythical perception of the world. The analysed material has been acquired from dictionaries of dialects, works of folklore collectors and archive resources (i.e. the Ethnolinguistic Archive of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University and the File of the Dictionary of Polish Dialects of the Polish Academy of Sciences).</p> Joanna Szadura Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 287 302 10.15388/VLLP.2020.14 The Metaphors of Rain in Lithuanian and Russian Poetry <p>The current article, which is one of the further researches on the metaphors of natural phenomena in Lithuanian and Russian poetry, discusses the metaphors of rain (based on the works of 45 Lithuanian and 57 Russian poets). They reflect the following aspects of the phenomenon: acoustic, dynamic, temporal, visual, temperature, as well as its intensity, destructive consequences, belonging to a certain season and others. The metaphorical expressions are divided into seven semantic groups: 1) anthropomorphic, 2) zoomorphic, 3) biomorphic (plant), 4) associated with inanimate nature objects and phenomena, 5) ‘material’ (subject), 6) related to abstract concepts, and 7) others. In both languages, the anthropomorphic and subject groups of metaphors have turned out to be the largest, while the smallest groups are zoomorphic, biomorphic (plant) and abstract metaphors. The comparison of the metaphorical expressions that define rain in Lithuanian and Russian poetry showed that there are common metaphorical models, however, there are also differences that are related to the prevalence of certain models, as well as their presence/absence in one of the two languages. Thus, among zoomorphic metaphors, the models rain-bird (with a common wing image), rain-horse and rain-small creature are common, while their difference consists in the fact that the models are used to characterize various properties of rain. For instance, a popular Lithuanian verb metaphor the rain blooms, as well as the comparison of rain with flowers (a biomorphic (plant) group of metaphors), are absent in Russian poetry.<br>The richness and diversity of rain metaphors in Lithuanian and Russian poetry illustrate the authors’ ability to use a number of images that have already existed in the language and their creativity to utilize absolutely new comparisons that are usually fit for the existing metaphorical models.</p> Jelena Konickaja Birutė Jasiūnaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 303 325 10.15388/.VLLP.2020.15 Lithuanian Picture of Mother Based on Questionnaire Data <p>The article performs the analysis of the concept of mother through the cognitive questionnaire methodology developed by Jerzy Bartmiński, pioneer of Polish ethnolinguistics. According to the methodology only one open question is asked to respondents: „What do you think is the essence of the true X?“ The modifier „true“ included in the question directs respondents’ attention specifically to subjective imaginations, rather than to the actual (objectively) existing typical object. Mentioning the „essence“ directs focus to the most important rather than subordinate features.<br>During the study, the students of Vilnius University were questioned – Philology, Philosophy, History, Law, Economics and Business Administration, Medical, Physics, International Relations and Science, Mathematics and Informatics Bachelors and Masters, as well as students from Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Antanas Gustaitis’ Aviation Institute. A total of 100 questionnaires were selected for the study: 48 questionnaires of Science dysciplines (male – 18, female – 30) and 52 questionnaires of the Humanities dysciplines (male – 20, female – 32).<br>As the results of the analysis show, the „true mother“ is characterised in particular by psychosocial and social aspects, less often by mental, biological, household aspects. The least often the mother is characterised by physical, ethnic, religious, ethical and ideological aspects. The most common were descriptions such as: Raises, educates (S); 77, 9.2 %; Loves (A); 70, 8.4 %; Cares about (A); 65, 7.8 %; Sacrifises (A); 38, 4.5 %; Gives birth (G); 28/3.3 %; Childbirth (alone) does not constitute the presence of the mother (G); 26/3.1 %. According to the students’ opinion, it can be said that the maternity still remains a value, and its core consists of a public duty of a mother to bring up a virtuous and worthy citizen. Quite a private link between a mother and a child, which manifests in a provision of warmth and love to one another, remains important, a purely humane relationship is highly valued. Human attention does not deviate completely into sociality, his own hapiness and the happiness of his closest people is important to him.</p> Karolina Slotvinska Kristina Rutkovska Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 326 336 10.15388/VLLP.2020.16 The Concept of Friend in Publicistics <p>This article deals with the contents of friend based on the different forms of the noun friend (Lith. draugas). A balance is drawn between the structural and cognitive approach to its meaning. The study is grounded on 700 publicistics sentences collected in the Corpus of the Modern Lithuanian Language compiled by the Centre for Computational Linguistics at Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas.<br>The study has showed that friend is perceived as a person who acts out of love at a certain place and time.<br>In terms of love, there are friends that are tied (rather) by bonds of fellow-feeling (The Dictionary of the Standard Lithuanian Language – DSLLe friend definition 1, 2) (In the beginning, they were huge friends and liked each other a lot; Friends love you) and those who (rather) share bodily intimacy (DSLLe friend definition 3). On the basis of the criterion of love, the relationship between a person and their friend can revolve in circles: a friend by DSLLe definition 1 or 2 becomes a friend by DSLLe definition 3 (After all, our friends, then families would begin and end in theatre), and vice-versa; a friend by DSLLe definition 2 can become a friend by DSLLe definition 1, and so on. In other words, friendship as fellow-feeling can transform into bodily love, and once bodily love goes away, friends, as husband and wife, can become/remain friends again as very close acquaintances.<br>Someone who loves themselves unconditionally knows how to love another person that way. This kind of friend favours themselves and the other person. Mutual favour unfolds over time spent together, when mutual affinity is found/discovered. That time creates good, real friends that become a value (I treasure good friends the most. We have a bunch of very good mates that we have jolly good time with. We talk, we dance. Or we simply spend time in very comfortable silence).<br>To be a friend, is to become a friend (DSLLe friend definition 1–3 vs. DSLLe friend definition 4). To oneself, first and foremost. The type of friend a person is to themselves is usually revealed through the person’s (myself) relationship with another person they know to a greater or lesser extent. That other person can either be a familiar (DSLLe friend definition 3) or strange (DSLLe friend definition 1, 2) person and/or non-person. Friendship between a person and a thing is a one-way street: it is untrue. What matters in this type of friendship, is not the time spent together, but rather benefit and/or pleasure. In other words, the person (myself) cannot be defined through the understanding of friend, i.e. on the basis of the criterion of similarity: tell me who your friend is, and I will tell you who you are.<br>In terms of time, friends can be defined to a lesser or greater extent (DSLLe friend definition 1, 3 (These friends of father’s go back to Smetona’s era; the friend of my life) resp. DSLLe friend definition 2 (Could it be that she only remained a mere dodgeball friend?)). This is also more or less the case in point when it comes to the aspect of location: well-defined (DSLLe friend definition 3), better-defined (DSLLe friend definition 2; cf.: my roommate) or undefined (DSLLe friend definition 1) friends.<br>The friendship between man and God can be one-way (from God to man) an (become) two-way (between God and man). They both are driven by love, hence are real.</p> Loreta Vaičiulytė-Semėnienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 337 365 10.15388/VLLP.2020.17 Conceptualisation of Nation within Polish Modern Public Discourse <p>While attempting to reconstruct the Polish understanding of the word “nation”, the author applies three different data types, however complementary to one another (i.e. systemic, questionnaire and text data). By referring to the word etymology and dictionary definitions, the author portrays a multifaceted model of nation as the community of people (the psychosocial aspect) who live within a particular territory, speak one common language, have common cultural background (the cultural aspect), similar world view (the ideological aspect), pursue common economic (the living-standard aspect) and political interests.<br>The analysis of the quoted texts, the questionnaires collected among the students in the years 1990, 2000 and 2010 shows certain significant differences that mainly concern the political and ideological spheres. It is noticeable that in 1990 the desire for independence was stronger among the young people than it was among their peers twenty years later and was connected with the political transformation that Poland underwent in 1989 when after years spent behind the “Iron Curtain” the nation could finally openly realise the ideals of freedom and enjoy life in the state that is independent, autonomous and democratic.<br>The Polish contemporary journalistic texts accompanied by the scientific considerations and discussions present the nation in three categories: the political, territorial and cultural, biological. The nation seen from the political perspective is a collective of individuals having political rights, common laws and bound with one another by mutual duties, and by residing on a particular geographical territory they can form a state. In the press articles as well as certain Catholic church representatives’ statements, there appears a cultural concept of the nation seen as the community formed by the individuals and groups that are bound by common culture (language, traditions, customs), history, religion and pursued values. The biological concept of the nation refers to the principle of consanguinity. It relies on the assumption that strong blood ties constitute the basis for nation’s existence and one of the significant components of national consciousness.</p> Beata Żywicka Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 366 388 10.15388/VLLP.2020.18 Pole Image in the Light of Media Texts Created in the Internet Space by Residents of Neighbouring Countries <p>The issue of national stereotypes requires, in the situation of dynamic changes in Europe and in the world, to update and consider new sources. A new area for tracking changes in the mutual perception of neighbouring nations are the texts of media culture, combining verbal and visual code. In the article, I elaborate on the legitimacy of using such intersemiotic messages, such as memes, demotivators, posters, advertisements, to study stereotypes. The Internet stereotype of a Pole functions on two levels, language and imagination, therefore it is a continuation of the national stereotype in a changed form.</p> Marta Hartenberger Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 389 403 10.15388/VLLP.2020.19 Between Shame and Fear. Review of Selected Cognitive Models of Shame in Lithuanian (On the Basis of Text and Lexicographic Data) <p>Linguistic and cultural research of concepts of emotional states and values finds its place among the most frequently chosen research directions in contemporary linguistics. Such popularity could be determined, on the one hand, by the desire to penetrate the complicated mental structure of human consciousness and its cognitive and cultural determinants. On the other hand, it is due to the belief in close links between language, human cognitive abilities and culture, resulting from cognitive sciences, as well as treating the research on linguistic structures and semantics of language as a tool for reaching the way of understanding and evaluating the world (cf. Bartmiński 2007; Geeraerts 2006, Evans, Green 2006). This conviction is of particular importance in the study of the lexicalization of objects and abstracts invisible to the naked eye, including emotional states.<br>One of the main goals of the analysis of the names of emotions is revealing the way of understanding and evaluating the underlying emotional states and the experiences associated with them. In order to achieve this goal, conceptual representations of individual categories of feelings are reconstructed on the basis of the American cognitive models proposed by cognitive scientists or the base image profiles proposed by J. Bartmiński. The aim of this article is to present cognitive models and lexical units related to them, which constitute a specific borderline of emotional states of SHAME and FEAR, e. g. shame as fear of rejection, fear as a consequence of shame, etc. Thus, these are cases of linguistically certified transmissions of certain aspects of the feeling of shame and fear and their mutual convergence. The analysis presents a linguistic image of the areas of emotional experiences that constitute the periphery of the category of feelings from the family of SHAME, but not yet included in the category of feelings of FEAR in its basic sense.</p> Monika Bogdzevič Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 404 415 10.15388/VLLP.2020.20 Truth in Language: Textual Data Analysis <p>The article presents Lithuanian linguistic cultural image of truth reconstructed from textual data. Textual data consists of contemporary and archaic (folklore and paremia) texts. The picture of truth distinguished from the textual data is highly philosophical, what proves the opinion that language is the reflection of a nation’s philosophy and worldview. Contemporary Lithuanian language reflects two main semantic aspects of truth: absolutism and relativism. Absolutism views truth as eternal and unique, forming the background of peoples’ lives. This type of truth usually has its source in religion. Subjectivism views truth as subjective and relative, depending on time, circumstances and opinions. The boundary between subjective truth and lie is very vague. This type of truth is never unique and has a pragmatic aspect which is either collective or individual. However, the dialogue of different sides is very important as it can help to achieve the final, objective truth. Epistemological aspect of truth is also salient. Two main aspects concerning truth cognition are scepticism and dogmatism. Cognition and knowledge is seen as the way to achieve the truth; however, sceptical question is raised whether truth cognition is possible at all. Dogmatism accepts certain facts or dogmas as naturally true. Truth is usually presented as unpleasant, painful, dangerous and unclear; however, it is highly important. Textual data also reflect a lot of opposites of truth: lie, unknown, myth, bluff, artificiality, half-truth, benefit.</p> Irena Snukiškienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 416 432 10.15388/VLLP.2020.21 Memory Lingualized in the of People in the Period of Middle Adulthood <p>In my article, I analyze the way people in their middle adulthood (35–65 years old) talk about their own biographical experience. By comparing the relations selected from my own collection, I try to indicate what the ways of linguistic expression are used to build a biographical narrative and a conversation with the researcher. The aim of the article is to show how non-linguistic factors (profession, social status, education, experience or gender) influence the structure of the story, the choice of the narrative schemes and the ways of linguistic expression. In the analyzed texts clearly shows the structuring of the narrative by means of images, scenes and narrative sequences. They allow for the reconstruction of the narrative schemes in the mostly statements related to the talking about maturation.</p> Damian Gocół Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 433 445 10.15388/VLLP.2020.22 The Pankisi Valley and Its Values in Reportage All Lara’s Wars by Wojciech Jagielski <p>The aim of the article is to analyse values connected with a particular space, presented in the reportage All Lara’s wars by Wojciech Jagielski. Jagielski is one of the most well-known Polish reporters, author of eight reportage books and a large number of news reportages. He worked as a war correspondent for twenty-one years and travelled to many countries in Europe, Asia and Africa.<br>In the introduction part, there has been referred chosen literature on space and values (works of such experts as Janusz Sławiński, Mieczysław Porębski and Jadwiga Puzynina). There are two basic types of space in general human experience – physical and symbolic. Humans have no influence over the first one, but they are able to create their symbolic spaces, using values which are important to them. In European culture value means something perceived as good by a particular subject. Values determine the way of human lives, their decisions and actions.<br>The Pankisi Valley is both a physical and symbolic space. It lies within Georgia, right beside the border with Chechnya (today Russia). Inhabitants of this valley are called Kists and the main character of the book – Lara – is one of them. The Valley is presented as isolated from the rest of the country, because it is surrounded by Caucasus mountains. Thus it is perceived as microcosmos, completely sufficient for people living there, without a need of change. The most important value in Kists’ life is tradition, which meaning has been referred in works of Jerzy Szacki and Kazimierz Dobrowolski. Tradition inherited after ancestors includes such elements as: values, laws, customs and it has determined the rules of coexistence in the valley. Tradition has been accepted by Kists unconditionally, treated almost as something sacred, so it has become a deciding power in their lives. One of its elements is social hierarchy, which puts the elders on the top – everyone else has to respect their decisions.<br>Another important value is stability of reality and events – Kists choose to be subordinated to fate, so they never have to make a single change on their own. Being passive and accepting what comes forward is a way of keeping peace and order in life and guaranteeing security. It also takes off the responsibility of making individual choices as well as their consequences. Thanks to that, every person lives the same life, follows the identical ways in which everything happens. It is worth to emphasize that Kists always perceive such way of life as something positive.<br>Everlasting tradition shapes the constant pace of Kists’ lives and so their axiological space. The Pankisi Valley is perceived mainly as home and community, not only in the meaning of family, but everyone living in the valley. Pankisi is also described as destiny – a place where particular things are destined to happen and cannot be changed.</p> Sara Akram Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 5 446 460 10.15388/VLLP.2020.23