Vilnius University Open Series https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series <p>Established in 2019, this journal contains various selected articles in series.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Vilnius University Open Series 2669-0535 Table of Contents https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24478 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Peter Arkadiev Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 16 1 7 Preface and Tabula gratulatoria https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24479 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Peter Arkadiev Jurgis Pakerys Inesa Šeškauskienė Vaiva Žeimantienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 8 12 List of selected publications by Axel Holvoet https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24480 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Axel Holvoet Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 13 27 Is Lithuanian a polysynthetic language? https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24481 <p>This paper reviews the definitions and operationalisations of the notion of “polysynthesis” proposed in the typological literature and applies them to Lithuanian (verbal) morphology. It is shown that while Lithuanian falls short of polysynthesis in terms of morphemes-to-words ratio and lacks such features as polypersonalism and incorporation, it still possesses certain properties associated with polysynthesis. These include the so-called lexical affixes (it is argued that Lithuanian verbal prefixes are an example of these) and, to a limited extent, “productive non-inflectional concatenation”, i.e. morphemes with a high combinatory potential and compositional meanings, including successively applying verbalisers and nominalisers. These observations not only shed novel light on some well-known facts of Lithuanian grammar, but also further underscore the multifactorial and vague nature of polysynthesis.</p> Peter Arkadiev Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 28 44 10.15388/SBOL.2021.1 Connective negation and negative concord in Balto-Slavic https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24483 <p>With negative indefinite pronouns the Balto-Slavic languages all exhibit strict negative concord. In this study we investigate how negative concord functions in a context in which a connective negator (‘neither ... nor’) combines either phrases or clauses. We show that there are various types of non-concordant patterns.</p> Johan van der Auwera Motoki Nomachi Olga Krasnoukhova Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 45 66 10.15388/SBOL.2021.2 Adjacent vs. separated placement of preposition and noun as a factor in noun inflection: The cases of Bosnian- Croatian-Serbian pazuho ‘armpit’ https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24484 <p>The alternations k~c, g~z, and x~s occurring before i in Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS) noun declension stem from the Second Palatalization of Velars, but are no longer phonologically conditioned. In the dative-locative singular of nouns with nominative in -a, they are favored or hindered by a combination of morphological criteria. In the dative-instrumental-locative plural of masculine nouns, they are almost exceptionless. In the same three cases of neuter nouns they occur more when the noun is directly after a preposition, less when other words intervene between the preposition and the noun, a phenomenon that has not previously been remarked in the literature. We exemplify it with the noun pazuho ‘armpit’.</p> Wayles Browne Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 67 77 10.15388/SBOL.2021.3 Curatives in the Old-Lithuanian Bible translations https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24485 <p>The subject of the paper is curatives, a special type of causative verbs in Lithuanian, in the Bible translations by Johannes Bretke (1579–1590), Samuel Boguslaw Chylinski (1660), Samuel Bythner (1701), Philipp Ruhig (1727) and Juozapas Arnulfas Giedraitis (1816). Curatives are a special type of causation implementing the causee-suppressing valency (CSP) pattern. In the analyzed texts, one can notice several morphological, semantic or syntactic features coinciding with contemporary curative constructions. However, in addition to the morphology and semantics of curatives, the article discusses also some rare and interesting cases that can be interpreted as expressing the causee and includes remarks on the lexicalization processes.</p> Paweł Brudzyński Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 78 96 10.15388/SBOL.2021.4 Towards a source-oriented approach to typological universals https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24486 <p>Typological universals are skewed distributional patterns whereby languages recurrently display certain grammatical patterns as opposed to others. Explanations for these patterns are usually based on their synchronic properties, not actual diachronic processes that shape the pattern cross-linguistically. The paper discusses diachronic evidence about the origins of some typological universals pertaining to word order and aspect/tense conditioned alignment splits. This evidence poses two general challenges for synchronically based explanations of typological universals. First, the relevant patterns do not obviously arise because of the principles postulated to account for these patterns on synchronic grounds. Second, the development of these patterns is a combined result of multiple diachronic processes. These facts point to a new, source-oriented approach to typological universals, one focusing on what source constructions and developmental mechanisms play a role in the shaping of individual patterns, rather than the synchronic properties of the pattern in itself.</p> Sonia Cristofaro Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 97 117 10.15388/SBOL.2021.5 A deontic possibility modal in Latvian: Personal vs. impersonal uses in a corpus https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24487 <p>A corpus-based study of a dedicated deontic possibility modal in Latvian focuses on its impersonal variety with a non-canonical subject in the dative. Normally, drīkstēt ‘may’ and other possibility modals have nominative subjects, while dative subjects are found with expressions of necessity. As distinct from other constructions where non-canonical dative subjects are experiencers, the modals are also used with inanimate subjects.<br>A frequent ellipsis of lexical verbs in the impersonal uses of drīkstēt not only reflects the informal style of the construction but also points to the Russian možno / nel’zja as a possible source, especially when combined with an object in the accusative referring to food. The Russian construction has a meaning of deontic possibility, but its use is restricted to animate subjects. The article claims that the animacy restriction was lifted in Latvian under the influence of the necessity modals in contexts of prohibition.</p> Anna Daugavet Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 118 137 10.15388/SBOL.2021.6 Notes on three Proto-Slavic borrowings https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24488 <p>The Proto-Slavic etyma *dъska, *misa, and *bļudo (*bļudъ), which are semantically related, are generally regarded as borrowings, but there is no consensus on the exact origins of these nouns. Following surveys of the Old Church Slavic and Gothic evidence as well as of the distribution of the etyma in Slavic, the article discusses the merits and drawbacks of the various existing views. It is argued that *dъska, *misa are best regarded as borrowings from Vulgar Latin or Early Romance, while *bļudo (*bļudъ) must have been borrowed from Germanic, but not from Gothic or West Germanic.</p> Rick Derksen Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 138 148 10.15388/SBOL.2021.7 Latvian verbs in -ēt: semantics vs. conjugation https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24489 <p>The conjugation of secondary Latvian verbs is determined with high accuracy by their suffixes. However, verbs with the suffix -ē- are different: they are more or less equally divided between the traditional second and third conjugations. The article sets out to prove or disprove the hypothesis that the assignment of Latvian verbs with the suffix -ē- to a specific conjugation correlates with their semantics. For that purpose, 705 disyllabic verbs ending in -ēt were collected and marked by their origin, transitivity, and conjugation. Verbs that are not obvious borrowings were then divided into semantic classes. As a result of the semantic classification, the working hypothesis was confirmed: second conjugation verbs ending in -ēt predominantly denote agentive actions (creation, destruction, modification, etc.), whereas third conjugation verbs usually denote phenomena, processes, states, and sound production. The results suggest that the Latvian verbal system exhibits a close interrelation between semantics and morphology.</p> Анжелика Дубасова Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 149 170 10.15388/SBOL.2021.8 Realizations of deonticity in Lithuanian: The case of particles https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24490 <p>The present paper focuses on non-epistemic modal particles in contemporary Lithuanian that have received far less attention in the literature than epistemic particles. Based on authentic data drawn from the Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian Language, the study aims to disclose the formal and functional features of the particles tegu(l), te and lai in spoken discourse and fiction. The study has shown that the particles under investigation occur in hortative constructions where they express the speaker’s desire to get a third person or the addressee to carry out some action. Although tegu(l), te and lai share a number of functions (e.g. hortatives, negative or positive performative optatives), functional extension is more typical of tegu(l) than of te and lai. The formal features of the particles (their co-occurrence with indicative or subjunctive forms) provide evidence for their functional variation.</p> Erika Jasionytė-Mikučionienė Anna Ruskan Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 171 188 10.15388/SBOL.2021.9 A note on epistemic and effective meanings of the Polish perfective and imperfective https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24491 <p>The paper offers an analysis of selected uses of the Polish perfective and imperfective in the non-past indicative and in the imperative construction. In uses under consideration, both the perfective and the imperfective refer to a single complete occurrence of a telic process and, hence, the semantic contrast between them is not a matter of distinctions such as boundedness/unboundedness, completion/non-completion, telicity/atelicity, punctuality/durativity, etc. The paper presents a qualitative analysis of selected corpus examples which is aimed at elucidating the nature of the relevant contrast. The claim advocated in the course of the discussion is that the perfective/imperfective contrast may play a role in the system of clausal grounding in Polish, as it may convey the idea of, respectively, epistemic and/or effective non-immediacy/immediacy of the profiled process relative to the ground.</p> Agata Kochańska Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 189 205 10.15388/SBOL.2021.10 Независимо используемый дательный падеж в литовском, русском и словенском языках: некоторые замечания к сопоставительному анализу https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24493 <p>The present article examines independent or non-subcategorized uses of the dative case in three languages: Lithuanian, Russian, and Slovenian. The analysis is based on the classification of the dative functions proposed in the literature on Lithuanian (Holvoet &amp; Čižik-Prokaševa 2005; Rembiałkowska 2007): 1) dativus ethicus, 2) dativus iudicantis; 3) dativus sympatethicus; 4) dativus commodi. The comparative methodology is based on establishing similarities and differences between the examples in each group identified in Lithuanian and their Slavic counterparts. The analysis shows that the first group is represented in all three languages, while in the other three groups considerable differences are observed. In some cases, in the second group, the Lithuanian non-subcategorized dative corresponds to the Russian construction для (‘for’) + GEN, and to the Slovenian construction za (‘for’) + ACC. In the third and fourth groups, the Lithuanian dative case, which usually represents an external possessor, often corresponds to the Slovenian dative, differing nonetheless from Russian where the construction y (‘at’) + GEN is used.</p> Елена Коницкая Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 206 224 10.15388/SBOL.2021.11 Modalities of case assignment: The view from Lithuanian https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24494 <p>This paper assesses two competing modalities for the assignment of morphological case. Arguments are provided from Lithuanian against the configurational strategy of Dependent Case (Marantz 1991, Baker 2015) and in favor of case assignment by functional heads (Chomsky 2000, 2001). The first argument comes from a series of Transitive Impersonal constructions in which accusative appears independently, in the absence of a higher, nominative-marked argument, so long as the predicate is two-place and caused, implicating v-Cause as the source of accusative. Further evidence for this analysis comes from the Inferential Evidential, an oblique-subject construction. While the Dependent Case strategy states that nominative automatically shifts to the object if not assigned to the subject, nominative objects are exceedingly rare in the Inferential Evidential, a fact that is entirely consistent with the local, feature-based theory of case advanced in this paper, which relates the appearance of nominative to the Agree relation with Tense.</p> James E. Lavine Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 225 247 10.15388/SBOL.2021.12 When one is singular: Notes on zero-person constructions in Latvian https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24495 <p>Axel Holvoet has demonstrated that Latvian has two types of zero-person constructions which formally differ in grammatical number, and that the singular type has a parallel in Finnic, but not in Lithuanian. This paper shows that the meanings covered by the two types are distinct and do not overlap. Using the framework proposed by Gast and van der Auwera for the description of human impersonal pronouns, it is shown that the singular type is characterized by non-veridicality and an internal perspective. As in Finnish, but not Estonian, it is used in conditional sentences with all kinds of verbs. The plural type is used in Latvian as well as in Lithuanian with veridical propositions and an external perspective.</p> Nicole Nau Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 248 267 10.15388/SBOL.2021.13 Obligatory features of Lithuanian verbal inflection classes https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24496 <p>Lithuanian verbal inflection classes are defined by tense suffixes, stem‑forming affixes, vowel and consonant alternations, and accentuation patterns. I make a distinction between obligatory features that are relevant for every verb and non‑obligatory features that characterize only part of the verbs. I argue that the obligatory features are the present and the past tense suffixes combined with mobile and immobile accentuation patterns, while the rest of the features are optional. When only the obligatory features are taken into account, three types of the present tense (‑a‑, ‑i‑, ‑o‑) and two types of the past tense (‑ė‑, ‑o‑) suffixes are found in five combinations (‑a‑/‑ė‑, ‑a‑/‑o‑, ‑i‑/‑o‑, ‑o‑/‑ė‑, ‑o‑/‑o‑) with further variants defined by two types of mobile and one type of immobile accentuation, resulting in eighteen suffixal‑accentual combinations in standard Lithuanian. The combinations of features characterizing the present and the past stems support the view of inflection classes as classes of stems rather than of lexemes (Stump 2016).</p> Jurgis Pakerys Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 268 290 10.15388/SBOL.2021.14 A peculiar Lithuanian particle mat or Mat ją bala, irgi mat dalelytė! https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24516 <p>In this paper, we discuss the morphosyntactic properties and the functional contribution of the discourse-structuring element mat in Lithuanian, which was largely overlooked in previous research. We demonstrate that in each function mat is associated with peculiar morphosyntactic behaviour. We argue that it is the construction in which it occurs as a whole that bears meaning, rather than mat as a lexical unit on its own. In our analysis, we invoke insights and some apparatus of Construction Grammar approaches, which fit well with our observations in their focus on non-compositional aspects of linguistic structure.</p> Vladimir Panov Ringailė Trakymaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 291 308 10.15388/SBOL.2021.15 The submerged genitive in Old Prussian https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24517 <p>This paper is devoted to the Old Prussian phrase ʃwaiāʃmu ʃupʃei buttan ‘to his own house’ (Enchiridion, III 876). Far from being simply the result of a syntactic error, the genitive ʃupʃei ‘of oneself’ can be recognized as the reflex of an archaic syntactic pattern, the “submerged genitive”, which has left numerous traces in Baltic and other Indo-European languages (Slavic, Greek, Latin, Old High German).</p> Daniel Petit Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 309 330 10.15388/SBOL.2021.16 Russian čut’: puzzles of grammaticalization https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24518 <p>The paper analyzes some non-trivial properties of the Russian particle čut’ (≈ ‘a little’) as well as its reduplicated counterpart čut’-čut’ used as a discourse marker. The rapid grammaticalization of čut’ started around the 17th century resulted in the coexistence of three types of values: quantitative (‘small quantity’), avertive (followed by negation and often by bylo), and immediate (‘as soon as’). This is a peculiar polysemy; what makes it even more peculiar is the fact that a large part of quantitative values related to nominal quantity is a very recent development and not an early inheritance as one might a priori expect.</p> В. А. Плунгян Е. В. Рахилина М. И. Орехова Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 331 339 10.15388/SBOL.2021.17 The origin of nasality in Macedonian dialects https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24519 <p>There is general consensus that the southern Macedonian dialects have partially retained the Proto-Slavic nasal vowels, and that the preservation was favoured by local Greek phonetics. There was, however, an additional source of (non-etymological) nasality in Macedonian – the Greek pre-nasalisation of stops. In the article, I would like to re-examine this issue in terms of the hypothesis that the source of nasality in Macedonian dialects was not the old nasal vowels, but the Greek pre-nasalisation of stops.</p> Irena Sawicka Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 340 353 10.15388/SBOL.2021.18 Old Lithuanian plęšti https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24520 <p>Old Lithuanian plęšti ‘rejoice, jump in joy, dance’ may be interpreted as a back-formation from *plenšoti, a verb borrowed from Old Polish plęsać.</p> Wojciech Smoczyński Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 354 357 10.15388/SBOL.2021.19 Lithuanian reflexive-based impersonals with accusative objects https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24521 <p>This paper surveys Lithuanian impersonal constructions with predicative present passive participles containing non-promoted accusative objects. It is shown that the construction, hitherto considered very rare, is well-attested and productive with one verb class, namely, transitive reflexives. In terms of semantics, transitive reflexives in Lithuanian may be classified as autobenefactives. Autobenefactive reflexives do not exhibit a change in argument structure with respect to their non-reflexive counterparts. In the case of autobenefactives, the morpheme -si- attached to the verb adds the meaning that the subject, which mostly has the semantic role of an agent, benefits from the event expressed by the predicate. On the basis of corpus data, we have analysed how widespread impersonal constructions with accusative objects are within the domain of transitive reflexives and which pattern—the accusative or the nominative—is dominant when both are attested. Lastly, we briefly discuss the temporal-aspectual meaning of reflexive-based impersonals as well as the referential properties of implied agents</p> Birutė Spraunienė Vaiva Žeimantienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 358 380 10.15388/SBOL.2021.20 Louis Hjelmslev and the Baltic countries https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24522 <p>This paper deals with texts by Louis Hjelmslev on Baltic topics, in particular an article from 1946 in which he defended the right of the Baltic countries to independence.</p> Bohumil Vykypěl Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 381 386 10.15388/SBOL.2021.21 On the relation between present and future tense in Lithuanian: Preliminary considerations in the domain of non-deictic tense use https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24523 <p>The article examines non-deictic uses of present and future tense in Lithuanian. Narrative use, in which reference intervals match with singular events, is distinguished from suspended propositions characterized by lack of such reference intervals (habitual, dispositional and circumstantial modal, and conditional meanings). Present tense is frequently involved in both usage domains, while the future is rare in narrative use, but overlaps with present tense in certain types of suspended propositions. Moreover, its temporal-deictic use is inherently associated with suspended propositions and “linked” to them via epistemic implicatures. This, in contrast to the present, makes the future more likely to be employed in predictions which entail an observer.<br>The analysis is supplemented by a brief comparison with non-deictic tense use in the nonpast-domain of Slavic languages, yielding a grid of criteria that should be used in crosslinguistic studies on tense-aspect systems based on stem derivation and the feature [±bounded].</p> Björn Wiemer Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 387 415 10.15388/SBOL.2021.22 Differential Source Marking in the languages of Europe https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24524 <p>The article deals with encoding Source arguments of the predicate ‘take’ in the languages of Europe and identifies factors involved in Differential Source Marking. Animacy turns out to play the crucial role in this respect: while the encoding of animate Sources is rather homogeneous, inanimate Sources are encoded in different ways depending on the localization. The encoding of animate source can coincide with that of one of the two (or both) basic localizations: IN or ON or be different from it. Differential Marking of animate Sources is attested in Central Europe and implies recipient-like vs. ablative-like alternation where the encoding depends on whether something is taken for good or not and whether some extra force is applied or not. Differential Marking of inanimate Sources occurs in quite a number of European languages with different localizations; it is not always symmetrical to Differential Translocation Marking and can depend on the topicality on the argument or its semantic type.</p> Natalia M. Zaika Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 416 432 10.15388/SBOL.2021.23 When the search domain is back region in Baltic: The Latvian aiz as compared to the Lithuanian už https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24525 <p>The paper sets out to examine prepositional polysemy in the Baltic languages. More precisely, the investigation focuses on the semantic structure of the Latvian preposition aiz + Gen. ‘behind, beyond’ as compared to the Lithuanian už + Gen. / Acc. ‘behind, beyond, for’ discussed in our previous paper (Šeškauskienė &amp; Žilinskaitė-Šinkūnienė 2015). The methodology of research relies on the cognitive linguistic framework, mainly on the principle of motivated polysemy. Its key idea is that in the semantic network of the preposition all senses are seen as directly or indirectly linked to the central sense. In the case of aiz and už, the central sense encodes information about spatial configuration of Figure and Ground with the former located in the back region of the latter. A number of other senses, mostly concrete, derived from the central sense, overlap in Latvian and Lithuanian but demonstrate a differing degree of entrenchment. The most distinct differences are identifiable in the abstract senses.</p> Eglė Žilinskaitė-Šinkūnienė Inesa Šeškauskienė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 433 466 10.15388/SBOL.2021.24 Bibliographic Data https://www.journals.vu.lt/open-series/article/view/24515 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Peter Arkadiev Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 16 467 467