Vilnius University Open Series <p>Established in 2019 and dedicated to publishing occasional collections of articles on different topics.</p> en-US (Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press) (Vigintas Stancelis) Thu, 24 Nov 2022 03:29:36 +0000 OJS 60 Baltìstikos platýbėse. Baltų kalbotyros straipsnių rinkinys, skirtas prof. Bonifaco Stundžios 70 metų jubiliejui <p>-</p> Agnė Navickaitė-Klišauskienė | Vytautas Rinkevičius | Daiva Sinkevičiūtė | Miguel Villanueva Svensson Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Table of Contents and Foreword <p>-</p> Agnė Navickaitė-Klišauskienė | Vytautas Rinkevičius | Daiva Sinkevičiūtė | Miguel Villanueva Svensson Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Lithuanian priegaidė: a syllable or a word feature? <p>The place of <em>priegaidė</em> ‘syllable intonation’ in the phonological system of Lithuanian remains uncertain; so does its typological peculiarity. The article aims to discover the specific nature of this phonological feature taking into consideration the opposition between phonemic (inflectional) and syllabemic (isolating) language types. Phonetically similar prosodic means in these languages show noticeable functional differences determined by the structure of the meaningful units they belong to. Inflectional languages develop a system of suprasegmental phonological features, which integrate parts of their normally composite units, whereas isolating languages usually do with monosyllabic words (naturally, without stress) and monolithic morphemes with tones as distinctive features. Standard Lithuanian has <em>priegaidė</em> only on the stressed syllables, therefore its system can be called polyaccentual (not polytonic), i.&nbsp;e. possessing several types of accent. The dialects, however, show examples of relevant <em>priegaidė</em> besides syllables with primary stress. In this, more general, system <em>priegaidė</em> functions as a suprasegmental feature of a morpheme (exposed to fading in weak positions). The traditional differentiation of syllables according to <em>priegaidė</em> is secondary: a syllable provides conditions for the realization of <em>priegaidė</em>, but being part of the plane of expression, not connected with meaning, the syllable itself does not need differentiation.</p> Aleksey Andronov Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Trends in the choice of personal names in Latvia and other Baltic countries: a comparative aspect <p>The article deals with the recent tendencies of the names given to new-borns in Latvia during the last 18 years. This study provides a short comparison between the contemporary anthroponymic stock and the historical data, i.e., with the most popular names 100 years ago&nbsp;– at the beginning of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. Nowadays newborns are given two or even three names. An inherited name in the family has often been chosen as a second name, even more frequently the second name reflects national identity&nbsp;– especially in mixed families. More and more parents choose international, easily pronounced, short names, preferably without diacritical marks. The number of new borrowed foreign first names increased rapidly not only in Latvia, but in all Baltic countries. One of the motivations for the newborn’s name&nbsp;is originality: a lot of neologisms based on Latvian/Lithuanian/Estonian appellatives, mostly with the primary semantics of nature, have been coined. Quite often the names change their gender. Whereas the diminutive forms as official names in Latvia and Lithuania are not popular anymore. It is rather fashionable to give the first names of toponymic origin. The article also presents public attitudes towards these changes.&nbsp;A short overview on the comparison of the latest tendencies in the neighbouring countries&nbsp;– Lithuania, Estonia and Finland&nbsp;– is given as well.&nbsp;</p> Laimute Balode Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Baltic *kalu̯ā “hill” <p>The purpose of this contribution is to separate Baltic <em>*kalu̯ā</em> “hill” from Baltic <em>*kalnas</em> “mountain” and to connect it with Indo-Aryan <em>*kū́lva-</em>, Iranian <em>*karu̯a- </em>„thin-haired“; Greek *κόλϝος “docked, hornless”; Italic <em>*kalau̯o- &amp; *kalau̯ā </em>“bald (head)”, and the Pre-Romance oronym <em>*kalauos</em>, besides the Gaulish cognomen<em> calaua</em>. The semantic shift from “bald” to “hill” is supported by numerous examples of “bald hills”.</p> Václav Blažek Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 What has not yet been said about Prussian proper names in Polish lands <p>The research of historical proper names reveals the necessity to emphasize and link the cultural, social and political aspects that play a role in the development of onyms. It should be noted that the language and the names of inhabited settlements reflecting it developed within a certain single system of life, which can be divided only hypothetically. The oikonymy of the extinct language, when viewed as the development of linguistic phenomena, should be addressed from a systematic perspective. It is impossible to draw the line that would divide the starting point and the end point of the development of historical proper names. The rich empirical data, mostly coming from historical manuscript sources, show an ongoing process. We cannot tell the exact date when the Old Prussian language became extinct. However, it is clear that the Old Prussian names of inhabited settlements outlived the language and were more resistant to the processes of Germanization and Polonization than it has been thought to this day. Linguistic, social and cultural phenomena occur in the same domain and are mutually dependent. Politics has the power to change the name. The replacement of some of East Prussia’s native toponyms with Russian ones is a sad proof of that power put into practice. Nevertheless, some indigenous toponyms had enough strength to survive. The dimension of historical time has been introduced to the research and the significance of change for the survival of Old Prussian proper names in the processes of Germanization and Polonization has been highlighted. Polish onomasticians also study the extralinguistic meaning of onyms through the heritage of the Teutonic Order, as onyms are the witnesses of history in the environment of language contacts. The monumental work of Polish researchers <em>Nazwy miejscowe Polski</em> (Eng. <em>Polish Place Names</em>) is also noteworthy, however, the material that is included or excluded occasionally poses quite a few questions for the researchers of Old Prussian proper names. The article discusses more interesting cases of Old Prussian oikonymy on the territory of present-day Poland.</p> Grasilda Blažienė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The role of frequency in language acquisition: input-output relationship <p>Children acquire the language system very fast and rather easily due to their sensitivity to lexical and grammatical structures and their distribution. Additionally, a stable distribution of linguistic structures in the input could help children to recognize these structures. We are aware of the fact that in many languages children start with nouns followed by verbs, therefore the distribution of the main parts of speech could signal important information about the syntactic structure of the early child speech.</p> <p>The primary aim of this study is to investigate the frequency distribution of parts of speech in child speech and input in Lithuanian. The analysis focuses on nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns, as these are the main elements constructing the syntactic relations of the utterance. The Lithuanian corpora have been studied that included the data of two children of different sex and their input. The main findings come from the analysis of the data of approximately one year (from the age of 1;7 to 2;8) and demonstrate an interesting result: a high degree of stability in the distribution of the target categories in the input data and a close correlation between input and output in later stages of children’s language development.</p> Ineta Dabašinskienė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 On OPr. 119.13 ʃubban Aʃman (and OLith. patį aʃchmą) as a collective number <p>The aim of this paper is to discuss the OPr. construction <em>ʃubban Aʃman</em> (cf. German <em>selb acht</em>, OLith. <em>patį aʃchmą</em>) attested in the liturgical supplement of the <em>Baptism Booklet</em> of Martin Luther’s <em>Enchiridion</em> (1561). The two terms are mostly traditionally considered as not related to one another. A new interpretation of this construction is given in this paper, based on a newly accomplished comparative and philological analysis of the passage involved. It is possible to say that we are dealing with a collective numeral, which was known also in Middle Europe-linguistic-context (examples from Middle Latin, Middle German, and West-Slavic are given). During the process of translation both an iconic imitation of the model and a servile calque played a major role for the emergence of OPr. <em>ʃubban Aʃman</em> (and OLith. <em>patį aʃchmą</em>). Despite the traditional interpretations, my conclusion is that the two terms are related indeed.</p> Pietro U. Dini Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The dative and instrumental dual in East Baltic <p>The paper deals with two case-forms of East Baltic nominals, the dative and the instrumental dual. It summarises what is already known about these case-forms from Lithuanian and Latvian dialects as well as from Old Lithuanian sources. It is demonstrated that these data imply a particular reconstruction of the dual inflectional endings in these cases for Proto-Baltic. Subsequently, the paper shows that etymological matches of the reconstructed Proto-Baltic endings of the dative and instrumental dual may be attested in two further branches of Indo-European. Such endings are found in Gaulish, which is a member of the Celtic branch, and in Ancient Greek.</p> Eugen Hill Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Derivation of nomina qualitatis on borrowed stems <p>This paper investigates the derivation of hybrid derivatives, such as <em>banal-um-as </em>‘banality’ <em>← banal-us, -i </em>‘banal’, that belong to the derivational category of <em>nomina qualitatis</em>. The aim is to find out how different <em>nomina qualitatis</em> with the borrowed stems are from the perspective of derivation, how many derivation steps they consist of. Special attention is paid to the functions of indigenous and borrowed suffixes in the borrowed bases of hybrid derivatives. The study was carried out using the <em>Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian Language</em> and the <em>Corpus of Academic Lithuanian</em>. The analysis shows that <em>nomina qualitatis</em> with borrowed stems are not very diverse in terms of derivation, as they are formed with only three indigenous suffixes, i.e. <em>-umas, -ybė</em> and -<em>ystė</em>. The hybrid suffixed -<em>umas</em> and -<em>ybė</em> derivatives are usually derived from adjectives, whereas the suffixed -<em>ystė </em>derivatives are usually derived from nouns<em>. </em>Derivatives with borrowed stems commonly consist of two derivation steps. In morphologically decomposable correlative derivatives borrowed suffixes are suggested to be synchronically regarded as derivational (<em>form-al-us, -i </em>‘formal’ ⇠ <em>form-a</em> ‘form’).</p> Lina Inčiuraitė-Noreikienė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Lithuanian equivalents of German nominal compounds in an anonymous German-Lithuanian manuscript from the 17th century Lexicon Lithuanicum <p>This paper analyses Lithuanian equivalents of German nominal compounds in an anonymous bilingual dictionary of the 17th century Lexicon Lithuanicum. 1208 words translated into Lithuanian were used for the analysis of the German compounds. Firstly, the article focuses on the Lithuanian equivalents, which are simple words (simplicias) and word phrases (syntagms), then the German words translated into Lithuanian as derivatives and compound nouns are described. The presented data are compared with the research results of other manuscripts (bilingual dictionaries C and B) from the 17th–18th centuries.</p> <p>According to the research data, the majority of the German nominal compounds recorded in the dictionary were translated into Lithuanian by simple words or syntagms. Almost a half of the German compounds were rendered into Lithuanian as derivatives, very often represented by suffixation. Lithuanian compound nouns, which serve as equivalents of German compounds make up only about 10 percent of the analyzed words, and are usually represented by N+N word-formation type.</p> Dalius Jarmalavičius Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Diminutive epithets of animals in folklore <p>This paper deals with derivational and semantic problems of diminutive epithets of animals. Such words are usually used in Lithuanian folk songs for domestic or wild animals, first of all, for a horse and a hare. They have been produced with nine different diminutive suffixes, most popular among them&nbsp;were -elis and -ėlis. In most cases diminutive epithets of animals have been produced from suffixal derivatives or compound words (jautelis baubuolėlis, gegutytė pilkuolytė, kurmelis žemrausėlis, ančiukai raibaplunksnėliai). The most common motivation features of such words&nbsp;was the color of the animal (kiškelis baltužėlis, žirgelis sartonėlis), its body parts (ožkutė rudakutė, zuikelis statausėlis), its typical actions (katinėlis repečkėlis, laputė čiuženutė).</p> Birutė Jasiūnaitė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A few observations about the links between Lithuanian Calvinist texts and Prussian Lithuania <p>This article continues the research of the 19th-century Lithuanian Calvinist texts. A hypothesis was raised regarding the unusual structure of Mykolas Cerauskas Seanas katechismas (1803), i.e. the sequence of parts of the catechesis. This sequence could have been determined by the 18th-century catechism compiler (whose work was taken over by Cerauskas) relying on the first catechism of Jan Seklucjan, published in East Prussia, or perhaps the traditional structure of early German catechisms (the works of Georg Major), which was closely related to the education of children in the late Middle Ages. Another Calvinist work is even more closely related to Prussian Lithuania and children’s education&nbsp;– the primer ABC knigeła (1861). It was detected that it was not an original work, but a text (a small fragment) taken from Friedrich Kurschat’s (1841) publication&nbsp;of the translation of the catechism and its comments prepared by Johann Gottlieb Weiß. The primer cannot be considered solely borrowed from the Prussian Lithuanian Lutheran writings, because the Calvinist editor made numerous spelling and lexical corrections, which brought it very close to the Calvinist writing tradition. In the middle of the 19th century, there were more Calvinist publications, whose authors included the texts of the Lutherans of Prussian Lithuania that were rearranged in their own way.</p> Birutė Kabašinskaitė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Syllabification of Standard Lithuanian in terms of the sonority theory <p>The article discusses the research which aims to ascertain whether the sonority of sounds could be used to determine boundaries of syllables in consonant clusters and if this principle is commonly employed by a sample of language users. The research consists of a) the overview of more significant foreign authors’ works, which is then used to identify the theoretic hierarchy of consonant clusters in Lithuanian, b) the exploratory analysis of consonant sonority, c) the investigation of sonority in consonant clusters, d) the research of tendencies in language users’ syllabification. The results have revealed that after establishing the hierarchy of consonant clusters in Lithuanian and applying the principle of syllabification by sonority, one fifth of the consonant clusters in the empirical data base is impossible to syllabify. Neither predicted phonetic syllable, nor the phonological syllable is commonly employed by the language users. The users are likely to assign at least one consonant of a cluster to a preceding syllable, while only the last consonant of polynomial clusters is assigned to the onset of a later syllable. Fricative consonants in consonant clusters are assigned to the coda of a previous syllable.</p> Asta Kazlauskienė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Personal and impersonal sentences in Lithuanian and Proto-Indo-European <p>The dative subject construction of the historical languages is the continuation of the Proto-Indo-European thematic present. It was largely replaced by the construction with a nominative subject that continued the athematic present as well as the aorist, where the ergative was reinterpreted as a nominative.</p> Frederik Kortlandt Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 About time and language <p>The paper presents the former etymologies of the heterosemantic cognates Lith.&nbsp;valanda and La.&nbsp;valoda with a special focus on their relation and origin from the motion verbs described by Edīte Hauzenberga-Šturma. On the basis of the old writings and corpora we provide additional arguments to show that both time and language can be conceptualized as (cyclically) moving phenomena.</p> Agnė Navickaitė-Klišauskienė | Eglė Žilinskaitė-Šinkūnienė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Lithuanian dabar̃ ‘now’ and the Baltic *-ā́-illative <p>Lithuanian dabar̃ ‘now’ comes from the illative of the continuative adverb dãbar ‘still, yet’; schematically: dãbar ‘still, yet’ → illative *dabar-ā́ &gt; *dabarà &gt; dabar̃ ‘now’. Change in accentuation visible in dãbar ‘still, yet’ vs. dabar̃&nbsp; ‘now’ brings to mind a similar process in illative forms, e.g. *mìškan → *miškan-ā́ &gt; dial. miškanà &gt; miškañ. The primary illative *dabar- ā́ is preserved in the dialectal dabarõs ‘now’, which is traced back to a contraction of *dabar-à-es. The postposition *-es is a mark of the enclitic verb esti ‘is’. The shift of accent like between dãbar ‘still, yet’ and dial. dabarõs ‘now’ can also be observed in a few other adverbs, e.g. *pa gãli (cf. OLith. ik’ gâli ‘to the end’) → pagaliõs ‘in the end’.</p> Norbert Ostrowski Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Some Lithuanian suffixed verbs derived from the present stems with -n- <p>The paper discusses suffixed Lithuanian verbs derived from the bases with infixal or suffixal -n-. The most solid examples are the ones containing šąl- ‘get chilly, cool off’ with former infix (*ša-n-l-), e.g., šą́l-au-ti, šąl-én-ti ‘get chilly little by little’, and suffix -n-, e.g., at-ein-inė́-ti ‘come (iterative/imperfective)’ ←&nbsp; at-eĩ-n-a ‘come(s)’. The infix of the base can be also seen in brand-ìn-ti ‘make ford’, -bund-in-ti ‘awaken (tr.)’, (pra-si-)bund-inė́-ti ‘wake up from time to time’ &nbsp;← bre-ñ-d-a ‘ford(s)’, -bu-ñ-d-a ‘wake(s) up (itr.)’. However, there are cases when /n/ may be occasionally inserted before /d/ (= Dzūkian /d͡z/) that is followed by a suffixal syllable containing /n/, as in (pra-)bu-n-dinė́-ti ‘subsist, live’ and -važiuo-n-dinė́-ti ‘drive from time to time’ found alongside the main variants without n-insertion: bū-dinė́-ti, važiuo-dinė́-ti.</p> Jurgis Pakerys Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The apudessive in Lithuanian <p>The paper describes the rise of the apudessive preposition pàs in Lithuanian. The apudessive meaning (‘at someone’s home’) was rare in Old Lithuanian, where pàs denoted spatial proximity in competition with priẽ. The preposition pàs underwent a multi-stage evolution [behind] &gt; [adessive] (first only directional) &gt;&nbsp;[adessive] (both directional and positional) &gt; [apudessive] (both directional and positional).</p> Daniel Petit Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prosody of F. W. Haack’s dictionary <p>The article deals with the notation of prosodic features of Lithuanian words in F.&nbsp;W.&nbsp;Haack’s Lithuanian-German and German-Lithuanian dictionary (1730). First, the place of stress (in some cases also tone) is shown by Haack’s diacritical marks. Second, in some cases the place of stress is indirectly reflected by orthographic devices used to mark vowel quantity, e.g., the use of two different letters &lt;i&gt; and &lt;y&gt; for the long vowel y or the use of double consonants to mark the brevity of the preceding vowel. Finally, a separate valuable source of data for Lithuanian historical accentology is constituted by hand-written diacritical marks placed above some words in the copy of the dictionary held at Vilnius University Library.</p> Vytautas Rinkevičius Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 New compound names in Lithuanian: diversity and formation peculiarities (the 2nd decade of the 21st century) <p>In the 2nd decade of the 21st century the Lithuanian stock of proper names is enriched with new compound names. They are formed in the following ways: a) from ordinary compound names, either changing or adding a new termination or altering the stems, e.g. Jo-gaĩl-is beside Jo-gáil-a, Dei-mant-ė́ja beside Deĩ-mant-ė, Ei-výl-ė beside Ei-vìl-ė; b) adding to a new name a stem used in other compound names, e.g. Ner-mìl-ė, Man-gìr-is; c) from Lithuanian stems of different origin (appellatives, hypocoristics, borrowings) added to the stem of other compound names, e.g. Bang-ì-mant-as: bang- &lt; bangà ‘wave’, Jó-vyt-ė: vyt- &lt; Výta, Výtė, Výtautė, Teo-mìl-ė: teo- &lt; Teo, Teodorà; d) combining two new expansive stems, e.g. Ad-vità ← ad- &lt; Adà, Adèlė + -vita &lt; Vità, Jovità, Oks-mind-à ← oks- &lt; Oksanà + mind- &lt; Mìnda, Mìndaugė. These names continue the tendencies of the formation of names of the previous period. Most names are made without taking semantics into consideration. The stems are taken from popular names. The first stems are more diverse than the second, which coincide with frequent stems from the previous century. New stems are more frequent as first members of the compound. They are more often made from borrowings than from inherited lexicon. Some of them became stable new stems, etc. All this shows that the creation of new compound names remains an ongoing process.</p> Daiva Sinkevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Terrestrial Lords? An onomastic view on Zemopacios in Lasitius <p>The present paper presents evidence for treating the expression Zemopacios in Lasitius’ De diis samagitarum […] as referring to the totality of divinities enumerated in the text’s catalogue of gods. Such an extension of reference was made possible by secondarily motivating the name as if connected with žemas “low”. Consequently, Zemopacios adopted traits of an appellativum.</p> Florian Sommer Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The phonetic interaction of stress and intonation: a study of Standard Lithuanian <p>It is commonly accepted, that word stress in Standard Lithuanian has a complex phonetic nature. However, empirical data do not support such a view. The functional importance of acoustic parameters can only be proven relying on their “relations of relations” between stressed and unstressed syllables. To put it simply, we cannot state for sure that in all cases stressed syllables are superior in acoustical means. We can rely on intersyllabic relation of some sort only. If this is true, word stress is no more recognizable from a sintagmatic point of view. In addition, such interpretation presupposes a very complex mechanism of stress perception that is difficult to verify by experimental means. This article highlights the phonetic interaction of prosodic elements in the hope that more invariant features of acoustic stress structure can be captured from this perspective. The analyzed data show that prosodic elements selectively regulate the amount of acoustic energy, its degree of variation and dynamics. The first two are the prerogative of the phrasal intonation and the third is determined by the stress. The latter prosodic element, to put it more simply, is a factor that determines the control of acoustic energy distribution at the intersyllabic level.</p> Evaldas Švageris Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 From gaspaža to kundze: female honorifics in Latvian in the 16th–19th centuries <p>This article focuses on those modern and historical Latvian words that, in addition to the main component of the meaning ‘adult woman’, also include the components of respect and/or social status, namely, gaspaža, madama, dāma, and kundze. The article discusses the emergence and change of use of these lexemes in the 16th–19th century with a special focus on the processes of the middle and second half of the 19th century.</p> <p>In less than a century, the semantic field of the honorific female designations in the Latvian language has undergone significant changes. From one word gaspaža to four in the 1870s, but the most significant changes took place in the last twenty years of the century. In formal and neutral use, kundze and dāma were strengthened, each occupying a different part of the semantic field, competing synonymously only in the general sense of ‘honorable woman’, as well as in the function of address. However, even in this case, kundze is more often used in the context of the singular and dāma in the plural. In turn, lexemes gaspaža and madama have become characteristic of colloquial language and fiction; they often have an ironic or negative connotation.</p> Pēteris Vanags Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The ā-stem genitive singular in Old Prussian <p>Root stress in the Old Prussian ā-stem gen. sg. ālg-as was taken from the homonymous o-stem gen. sg. deiw-as (Lith. lángo, Sl. *vȏrna). This analogy took place after the reshuffling of the Balto-Slavic o-stem gen. sg. *-ā as *-ās in the prehistory of Old Prussian. The shortening *-ās &gt; -as was most probably conditioned by the fact that this ending was always unstressed.</p> Miguel Villanueva Svensson Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bibliographic Data <p>-</p> Agnė Navickaitė-Klišauskienė | Vytautas Rinkevičius | Daiva Sinkevičiūtė | Miguel Villanueva Svensson Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000