Politologija 2020-06-01T05:27:58+00:00 Justinas Dementavičius Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1989. Publishes articles on political science and international relations. Indexed in the Scopus database since 2012.</p> 45 Ways to Look at Benefits And Risks of Artificial Intelligence: What to Expect? 2020-06-01T05:27:58+00:00 Ieva Skurdauskaitė <p>Recenzijoje aptariamos dvi knygos: Martino Fordo „Architects of Intelligence: The Truth about AI from the People Building it“ ir Johno Brockmano „Possible Minds: Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI“. Analizuojami pateikti požiūriai: dirbtinio intelekto grėsmės, galimybės ir tyrinėjamos temos.&nbsp;</p> 2020-05-29T03:08:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ieva Skurdauskaitė (Author) The Sunset of Social Democracy in East-Central Europe: Case Study of Hungary 2020-05-29T09:04:46+00:00 Liutauras Gudžinskas <p>The article analyzes the reasons of the long-term decay of the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) since 2010. The party ruled the country between 1994–1998 and 2002–2010 and was one of the strongest and most institutionalized political forces not only in Hungary but in the whole East-Central Europe. However, during the parliamentary elections in 2010, it suffered a crushing defeat by their main political opponents – “Fidesz,” led by V.&nbsp;Orbán. The organizational development of these two parties is compared. Collected evidence reveal the significance of centralized party rule and efforts to organize civil society in shaping the intra-competition of the main Hungarian political parties.</p> 2020-05-29T03:02:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Liutauras Gudžinskas (Author) Between Kantian Rationalism and Moral Mysticism: The Search for the Grounding of Morality in the Philosophy of A. Jokubaitis 2020-05-19T09:04:15+00:00 Aistė Noreikaitė <p>Although it is common to associate the thought of A. Jokubaitis with political philosophy, this article argues that his texts also allow us to talk about a specific moral philosophy of A. Jokubaitis. At the center of it we find an attempt to articulate and discuss the grounding ideas of morality. The article argues that the first two ideas&nbsp;– an idea of unconditional character of morality and an idea of ontological grounding&nbsp;– are related to Kant’s influence on A. Jokubaitis philosophy. These two ideas allow us to explain morality as an autonomous part of reality, which is different from the empirical one but nonetheless real. This part of reality is grounded in the first-person perspective of a moral subject and can be characterized by implicit normativity and unconditionality. The first-person perspective structures a radically different relation to our reality, which allows us to be agents, not simply spectators. Such an interpretation of Kant allows to associate A. Jokubaitis with his contemporary Kantians, such as Ch. Korsgaard, B. Herman, O. O’Neill, and A. Reath. However, the third idea, the one of a person, which becomes more visible in his book&nbsp;<em>Politinis idiotas</em>, transcends the Kantian conception of practical reason and encourages to perceive morality and its grounding in a much wider context. The concept of a person allows A. Jokubaitis to distance himself from Kantian rationalism and integrate social and mystical aspects of morality, which he has always found important.</p> 2020-05-19T07:20:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Aistė Noreikaitė (Author) Images of the Lithuanian Political Elite in the Eyes of Citizens 2020-05-19T09:04:15+00:00 Justina Vaičiukynaitė <p>The article aims to reconstruct the concept of the Lithuanian political elite from the citizens’ perspective, focusing on how the concept is perceived, how the political elite is recognized in social life, and what attributes are associated with this particular concept. Applied qualitative in-depth interview data gathering and inductive data analysis approaches demonstrate that the Lithuanian political elite concept consists of two images: legalistic and charismatic. Although these two images are completely divergent, they are intertwined and successfully coexistent in the minds of citizens. The citizens are tending to apply either a legalistic or charismatic image depending on the circumstances: the legalistic image is applied in recognizing and describing the political elite as an externally existing referent; meanwhile, the charismatic image is applied in building up the normative political elite portrait.</p> 2020-05-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Who voted for Whom in the 2019 Lithuanian Presidential Elections? 2020-05-05T09:03:55+00:00 Mažvydas Jastramskis <p>This article investigates voter behavior in the 2019 Lithuanian presidential elections. Even though they appear as first-order (citizens elect an executive that enjoys considerable powers), Lithuanian academic literature has rather neglected this topic in the recent decades. In this article, I employ data from a post-electoral survey conducted after the most recent presidential elections and investigate what kinds of voters and motives were hiding beneath the results of the first and second round in the 2019 presidential elections. Results show that the cleavages that are relevant in the Seimas elections (ethnic and evaluations of Soviet times) also influence the vote choice in the presidential elections. Analysis shows that a ideological cleavage related to social liberalism may becoming important in Lithuania. Lastly, there are signs of retrospective voting, as the voters that evaluate the economy better were more inclined to vote for the presidential candidate of the governing coalition. However, the overall effect is not strong.</p> 2020-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Political Relationship among Monuments: Monuments as the Subject of political Debate 2020-01-25T09:02:30+00:00 Viktorija Rimaitė <p>The aim to identify the types of political relationship among monuments can be defined as the main goal of the article. Regarding the ongoing debate about the politicization of monuments in Lithuania, the article seeks to find out what features and functions of monuments make them the subject of political controversy and political discussion. The analysis starts with theoretical assumptions distinguishing the types of relationship between monuments and politics that dominate the theoretical level. After the review of the theoretical level, the typology of the relationship between politics and monuments in Lithuania is explained highlighting the exceptions of the Lithuanian case by going through the typological analysis of the Lithuanian academic discourse.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors A History and Methodology of Research of the Subnational Topic in Political Science 2020-01-31T09:02:27+00:00 Volodymyr Viktorovych Hnatiuk <p>&nbsp;Subnational topic has come a long way from its inception fifty years ago to formation of an independent research direction. This period consists of three phases. In the first phase (early 1970’s&nbsp;– mid 90’s) scholars start discussing a topic that was still unexplored at the time and examine it as a fragmentary part of whole studies. The second phase (mid 1990’s&nbsp;– first half of 2010’s) sees changes in methodology: studies become more complex, focused solely on subnational phenomena and are carried out using a special tool&nbsp;– the subnational comparative method. A methodological dichotomy is outlined as a model for the analysis of subnational regimes and their types, as well. Finally, the third (current) phase (mid 2010’s&nbsp;– present) is where the key changes take place: formation of independent research direction, overcoming theoretical constructs (whole-national bias and federal monism) and increase of complexity and depth of political studies. These features are entrenched in the form of methodological synthesis as a modern model for the analysis of subnational regimes and their types. The article focuses on the coverage of the classical and the modern foundations of the subnational comparative method. The author notes that modern methodology juxtaposes with ontology in the context of subnational discourse. However, in the process of studying such issues there is an urgent need to clarify, update and supplement some methodological foundations of the method.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2020-01-31T09:02:26+00:00 Lauras Bielinis <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Emphasized, Unspoken, Justified: The “Generational Effect“ in the Soviet Memory of Grandparents, Parents, and Grandchildren 2019-11-29T08:54:42+00:00 Liucija Vervečkienė <p>In order to understand why the Soviet past is remembered differently, 25 narratives of nine Lithuanian families (parents, grandparents, and grandchildren) were analyzed. The applied theoretical assumption about the “generational effect” on memory: an “interpretative framework” gained during adolescence or early adulthood has an impact on the way we think about the past. In order to trace generational “interpretative frameworks” and indicate memory generations (that do not per se represent cohorts), the study was inductively focused on how the relation to the Soviet past is constructed. The narration of life stories and re-narration of grandparents’ life stories (for those with no or very limited Soviet experience) enable us to methodologically approach the “generational effect” in different Soviet narratives. A participation in family conversations about the recent past and the subsequent interpretative analysis demonstrate three key motives&nbsp;– emphasis, silencing, and justification&nbsp;– that are used by different generations in terms with the Soviet past. Preliminary four memory generations are indicated based on the way grandparents, parents, and grandchildren construct their relation to such aspects as participation in ideological organizations, “illegal practices,” personal or organized resistance, transformations after the Restoration of Independence in 1990, and a higher status in the hierarchy of the Soviet system.</p> 2019-11-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Morality and the Nature of Politics 2019-11-29T08:54:42+00:00 Simas Čelutka <p>The aim of the paper is to reconstruct and analyze Alvydas Jokubaitis’s understanding of politics. It is argued that Jokubaitis couples politics with morality in opposition to the liberal project of the autonomy of politics, which seeks to separate these two fields of human activity. According to Jokubaitis, politics is a realm of realization of the spiritual side of human nature. That is the reason why, through morality, he also tries to align politics with other domains of human spirituality, such as religion and metaphysics. What is common to politics, morality, religion, and metaphysics is the sphere of normativity, i.e., that of purposes, principles, and imperatives. At the same time, Jokubaitis attacks those schools of modern thought which interpret politics as corresponding solely to the physical, animal side of human nature. In this regard, positivism and scientism are singled out as the crudest attempts to misconstrue the nature of politics. The paper is based on a conviction that the acknowledgement of the importance of morality allows one to piece together Jokubaitis’s various considerations about the nature and distinctiveness of politics into a coherent whole.</p> 2019-11-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors