Problemos 2022-04-30T09:37:21+00:00 Nijolė Radavičienė Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1968. The journal of Philosophy that publishes academic articles, book reviews and an academic chronicle. Indexed in the <em>Scopus</em> (Q2) database since 2002 and in the <em>Web of Science</em> database since 2005.</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2022-04-30T09:37:21+00:00 Nijolė Radavičienė 2022-04-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Author Guidelines and Bibliographical Data 2022-04-30T09:37:20+00:00 Nijolė Radavičienė <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-04-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Authentic Existence: Bridging Phenomenology and Stoicism 2022-04-28T09:37:29+00:00 Gita Leitlande <p>The aim of this article is to provide comparative research of the concept of authentic existence in Stoicism and Phenomenology. The analysis in the article is carried out by comparing select authors’ understanding of a few key concepts which appear to be the most alike: authentic and inauthentic existence, personal renewal, seeking cosmologic framework for ethics, being part of community, and the role of death in shaping awareness of authentic existence. The analysis concludes that there are various degrees of convergence in all concepts considered in the article, which allows the argument that despite substantial differences between philosophies, concepts of authentic existence of Stoicism and Phenomenology at times have compatible aspects, and even complement each other.</p> 2022-04-27T11:54:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gita Leitlande Valery Podoroga’s Theory of Mimesis: the Sensory Aspects of Text Perception 2022-04-27T09:37:17+00:00 Rytis Juodeika <p>The paper aims to analyse and understand tensions and meanings in the notion of mimesis in the perspective of philosophical anthropology. Classical mimesis theories, which stretch from classical antiquity to modern works by E. Auerbach or P. Ricoeur, are often associated with poetics, narratology or other literature theory studies. V. Podoroga talks about anthropological and phenomenological mimesis, not only about ‘external’, Aristotelian version, but also about internal mimesis. He focuses on the experience of the body as the basis of mimesis. The author explains how mimesis in Podoroga’s version acquires new meanings and demonstrates how Podoroga’s matrixes of anthropograms complement, discuss and transgress hermeneutical models of Ricoeur.<br>The author claims that the method of Podoroga brings us to some kind of a unique ‘system’, that could be compared to the ideas of ‘the death of the author’ (R. Barthes) or ‘the open work’ (U.&nbsp;Eco). Podoroga shows us an alternative, non-semiotic and mimetic approach in contemporary thought, that has not been widely discussed yet in both Russian and English sources.</p> 2022-04-26T12:34:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rytis Juodeika The Ecstasy of Acceleration: the Problem of Capital in the Philosophy of Nick Land 2022-04-27T09:37:18+00:00 Linartas Tuomas <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>In this article, the anti-anthropocentric philosophy of Nick Land is discussed from the perspective of the concept of capital&nbsp;– capital becomes a philosophical problem. The origin of Land’s conception of capital as artificial intelligence alien to humanity is traced from the theory of libidinal materialism, the transcendental philosophy of Kant, and also from the historical and cultural background. The ideas of Deleuze and Guattari let Land think of capital as machinically and cybernetically accelerating techno-capital&nbsp;– Land’s intense relation to the process of acceleration is defined here as ecstasy. Also, the problematic interpretation of Deleuze and Guattari is noted, the processes of automatisation and autonomisation are considered, and Land’s teleological vision of technological singularity is criticised, especially from the point of the threats of the climate crisis. Here is shown that the philosophy of Land affectively follows the relevant and important tendencies of capitalism, but suffers from some inner contradictions and paradoxes, according to which we can reasonably doubt the philosopher’s ecstatic celebration of the abyss between capital and human subjectivity.</p> 2022-04-26T12:15:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Linartas Tuomas Husserl on Impersonal Propositions 2022-04-27T09:37:19+00:00 Thomas Byrne <p>The young Edmund Husserl stressed that the success of his philosophy hinged upon his ability to determine the subject and the predicate of impersonal propositions and their expressions, such as ‘It is raining’. This essay accordingly investigates the tenability of Husserl’s early thought, by executing the first study of his analysis of impersonal propositions from the late 1890s. This examination reshapes our understanding of the inception of phenomenology in two ways. First, Husserl pinpoints the subject by outlining why impersonal expressions are employed during communication. This contravenes interpretations of the early Husserl as uninterested in intersubjectivity. Second, by studying how Husserl determines the predicate by investigating existential propositions, I show that Husserl , in the late 1890s, came to his final view on the concept of being.</p> 2022-04-26T11:42:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Thomas Byrne Wason Selection Task and a Semantics Based on State-descriptions 2022-04-29T17:01:25+00:00 Miguel López-Astorga <p>Peter Wason provided his four-card selection task over five decades ago. It keeps causing difficulties from both the linguistic, the psychological, and the cognitive point of view. Many psychology theories have been proposed in order to remove its problems. This paper tries to offer one more possible account. That account is based on the method of extension and intension presented by Rudolf Carnap. Hence, it resorts to the concept of state-description. The basic ideas of the argumentation are two: 1) people might tend to consider state-descriptions when processing information, and 2) if conditionals are not expressed with a clear contextual framework, they might be interpreted as biconditionals.</p> 2022-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Inferences Between Buridan’s Modal Propositions 2022-04-27T09:37:24+00:00 Jonas Dagys Haroldas Giedra Živilė Pabijutaitė <p>In recent years modal syllogistic provided by 14<sup xml:lang="en-GB">th</sup>&nbsp;century logician John Buridan has attracted increasing attention of historians of medieval logic. The widespread use of quantified modal logic with the apparatus of possible worlds semantics in current analytic philosophy has encouraged the investigation of the relation of Buridan’s theory of modality with the modern developments of symbolic modal logic. We focus on the semantics of and the inferential relations among the propositions that underlie Buridan’s theory of modal syllogism. First, we review all inferences between propositions of necessity, possibility, contingency, and non-contingency, with or without&nbsp;<em>quod est</em>&nbsp;locution, that are valid in Buridan’s semantics, and offer a comprehensive diagrammatic representation that includes them all. We then ask the question if there is a way to model those results in first order modal logic. Three ways of formalizing Buridan’s propositions in quantified modal logic are considered. Comparison of inferences between the quantified formulas and Buridan’s propositions reveals that, when supplied with a suitable formalization, Buridan’s semantics of categorical statements and immediate inferences among them can be fully captured by the quantified modal system T.</p> 2022-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Formulation of Definitions of Consciousness on the Methodological Basis of Realism 2022-04-27T09:37:23+00:00 Adas Diržys <p>In this paper, the traditional question – what is mind? – is suggested to be treated from the metareflective realist stance from which different determinations of consciousness could be apprehended as always instantiated and dependent on their definitions. Methodological differentiation between what is representational and what is non-representational is expressed as a divergence between particular definitions of consciousness and the ontological X, in this context, acting as a universality of consciousness. The derivation of this position is reached through the investigation of François Laruelle’s non-standard philosophy, Wilfrid Sellars’s critique of the myth of the given and Iain Hamilton Grant’s revisionary study of Schelling’s&nbsp;<em>naturphilosophie</em>.</p> 2022-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors On the Charge of Irrelevance against D. Lewis’s Modal Realism 2022-04-27T09:37:22+00:00 Monika Morkūnaitė <p>The article deals with the charge of irrelevance levelled against D. Lewis’s modal realism, notably known as a reductionist account of modality. The charge of irrelevance is apparently one of the most popular objections to modal realism though it often seems that the debate surrounding this charge is not very fruitful since in this context it is common to appeal, implicitly or explicitly, to different criteria for theory choice. As a result, the article deals with the problem in a slightly different manner. The article addresses arguments aimed to show that, contrary to what is often stated, modal realism does not violate our pre-theoretical intuitions, as well as arguments aimed to respond to the charge of irrelevance without appealing to criteria for theory choice at all but providing different reasons instead. However, the aim of this article is to show that all these arguments are rather unconvincing.</p> 2022-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors