Problemos <p>A peer-reviewed journal of philosophy founded in 1968 that publishes research articles, book reviews and an academic chronicle. Indexed in the Scopus database from 2002 and in the Web of Science database from 2005.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Problemos 1392-1126 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Nijolė Radavičienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 1 7 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nijolė Radavičienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 184 188 Why Ethics Needs Metaphysics? <p>The aim of this paper is to show that Ronald Dworkin’s objective to isolate ethics from metaphysics is not sufficiently grounded, and a certain metaphysics is inherent even in his own position of autonomous ethics. While opposing those thinkers who seek to ground ethics by finding an external – neutral and non-evaluative – ground, Dworkin identifies this externality to ethics with metaphysics and aims to show its fallibility. However, such a conception of metaphysics seems to be too narrow and one-sided and leads his own position into contradictions. This paper aims to demonstrate these contradictions and to argue that even the position that is inner to ethics and stems from a first-person agent’s perspective can only be developed while considering such metaphysical ideas as freedom, dignity, person.</p> Aistė Noreikaitė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 8 22 10.15388/Problemos.96.1 The Duty of Knowing Oneself as One Appears: A Response to Kant’s Problem of Moral Self-Knowledge <p>A challenge to Kant’s less known duty of self-knowledge comes from his own firm view that it is impossible to know oneself. This paper resolves this problem by considering the duty of self-knowledge as involving the pursuit of knowledge of oneself as one appears in the empirical world. First, I argue that, although Kant places severe restrictions on the possibility of knowing oneself as one is, he admits the possibility of knowing oneself as one appears using methods from empirical anthropology. Second, I show that empirical knowledge of oneself is fairly reliable and is, in fact, considered as morally significant from Kant’s moral anthropological perspective. Taking these points together, I conclude that Kant’s duty of self-knowledge exclusively entails the pursuit of empirical self-knowledge.</p> Vivek Kumar Radhakrishnan Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 23 35 10.15388/Problemos.96.2 Is R. Rorty’s Moral Philosophy Possible? Antifoundationalism and Kant’s Criticism <p>This article aims to answer the main question raised – is Rorty’s moral philosophy possible? To what extent is it possible to treat it as an authentic theory? Rorty’s criticism of Kant and the Kantians, as one of the key points of contemporary moral philosophy, determines the posture in the moral domain and provides a certain place in discourse. The article states that, despite the fact that Rorty’s moral philosophy is not based on a particular theoretical concept, it can be considered as a fragmented whole consisting of several parts, one of which is the agent’s openness to the choice of moral identity. At the same time, we will critically question the position of Rorty himself – while maintaining the suspicion towards the sources of moral knowledge, he maintains an insufficient distance with one of his own sources of moral knowledge, namely historical progress.</p> Agnė Alijauskaitė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 36 47 10.15388/Problemos.96.3 What is Ancient Political Thinking? <p>This paper examines the origins of ancient political thinking from (roughly) 750 to 348 B.C. The analysis of authors who had been discussing political questions over this period shows that ancient political thinking can be classified into three discourses: political thought, political theory, and political philosophy. The purpose of this paper is to define the characteristics of each discourse and to illustrate them with specific historical examples which show how these discourses interacted with the Greek political experiences and how political thought transformed into a theory and philosophy.</p> Vilius Bartninkas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 48 60 10.15388/Problemos.96.4 The Romanticism of Political Science <p>The aim of the article is to demonstrate the relationship between modern political science and Romanticism. This is done by using Carl Schmitt’s conception of political romanticism and proposing some corrections to it. Schmitt failed to notice important similarities between the scientific concept of&nbsp;<em>causa&nbsp;</em>and the romantic concept of&nbsp;<em>occasio.&nbsp;</em>Modern political science is based on the same assumptions as the modern art of the romantic tradition. The researches of political science are conditioned by an unpolitical relationship with reality.</p> Alvydas Jokubaitis Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 61 70 10.15388/Problemos.96.5 The Subject and the Real: Ethical Implications of A. Badiou’s Philosophy <p>Alain Badiou’s theory of ethics of the subject implies that the individual interpellation of the symbolic plane could be secondary to the truth process, which grounds the formation of the subject. We arrive at the hypothesis that the subject of the interpellation is already a subject of truth when the symbolic interpellation process starts.<br>In the paper, two contemporary ethical orientations are emphasized: democratic materialism, which comprises the idealism created by market laws, and a materialist dialectic, which opens the possibility of the subject’s formation during the struggles. However, Badiou’s attempts to create an alternative symbolic plane&nbsp;– a historical plane&nbsp;– do not seem reassuring; therefore, one must look at the event-producing-history from the psychoanalytical perspective.<br>The theory of drives opens the possibility to relate Badiou’s subject to the repressed real, to show him as immune to the desire, which may be derived from a symbolical plane, and able to ground his struggles with revolutionary jouissance while not allowing history to end too early.</p> Kasparas Pocius Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 71 82 10.15388/Problemos.96.6 Greimas’s Semiotics: Between Structuralism and Phenomenology <p>Greimas’s semiotics is characterized by an inner duality. This is the inner tension between structuralism and phenomenology. The aim of the paper is to reveal the relationship between structuralism and phenomenology in semiotics. Structuralism and phenomenology have a different understanding of the role of the subject in creating and understanding meanings. Early Greimas understood value systems through the linguistic prism and eliminated the discursive system’s subject itself. Late Greimas’s approach to the subject changed and coincided with the subject of daily experience, who was involved in the selection and creation of meanings. Greimas’s semiotics came closer to phenomenology, but only partially. The concept of bodily and sensory experience in Greimas’s semiotics is constructed from objectivistic positions of science. The body and sensual perception are understood as intermediaries between the inner and outer worlds.</p> Dalius Jonkus Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 83 95 10.15388/Problemos.96.7 F. Brentano and K. Twardowski: Some Traces of Their Influence on the Contemporary Ukrainian Scholars <p>n this article, the author considers the particularities of&nbsp;Franz&nbsp;Brentano’s&nbsp;psychognosy&nbsp;(descriptive psychology) in the context of notion of “basic” or “analytic” truths and his methodological approaches to scientific, philosophical investigations as well as his influence upon&nbsp;Kasimir&nbsp;Twardowski, who was the pupil of&nbsp;Brentano&nbsp;and accepted the main points of his methodological program.<br>The author also stresses that the study of&nbsp;Brentano’s and&nbsp;Twardowski’s heritage is important for tracing the origin of scientific/analytic philosophy.&nbsp;It is very important to investigate Brentano-Twardowski relations in the context of the concept of “basic truths” or “analytic truths”. Brentano stresses that “basic truths” can be found thanks to “psychognosy” or “pure psychology”. For Twardowski, psychology is the base for philosophical investigations because it helps to understand the formation of notions and judgements.<br>This article is also dedicated to the inquiries of&nbsp;Brentano’s&nbsp;and&nbsp;Twardowski’s legacy provided by Ukrainian scholars&nbsp;Borys&nbsp;Dombrowskiy&nbsp;and&nbsp;Yanosh&nbsp;Sanotskiy. The reception of Brentano’s theory of judgement in Dombrowskiy’s works and the problem of Brentano’s psychologism in Sanotskiy’s works were examined.</p> Ihor Karivets Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 96 96 106 10.15388/Problemos.96.8