Psichologija 2020-02-04T09:02:51+00:00 Antanas Kairys Open Journal Systems <p>A peer-reviewed journal founded in 1962 (<em>Psychology</em> – from 1980) and dedicated to publishing articles analyzing all fields of psychology and interdisciplinary research.</p> Beyond the Moral Domain: The Normative Sense Among the Chinese 2020-02-04T09:02:46+00:00 Renatas Berniūnas Vytis Silius Vilius Dranseika <p><span xml:lang="en-US">In this paper we report a study on how different types of normatively relevant transgressions are&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">evaluated</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;by Chinese participants. We hypothesized that, given the continuing influences of Confucian worldview on contemporary Chinese societies, the Chinese will not make a distinction between moral (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">daode</em><span xml:lang="en-US">) and conventional norms of cultured behavior (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">wenming</em><span xml:lang="en-US">). Our results indicate that Chinese participants expressed a strong normative conviction not only towards harmful and unfair actions, usually subsumed under the&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">moral</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;domain in Western literature, but also towards violations of what would be widely accepted as conventional (or cultural) norms. Similarly, Chinese participants expressed a strong normative conviction towards violations of the traditional Chinese value of family reverence (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">xiao</em><span xml:lang="en-US">), thus further supporting our general thesis. Moreover,&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="de-DE">r</span><span xml:lang="en-US">esults indicate that, overall, explicit consi­derations of&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">wenming</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;(unculturedness) emerged as the best predictor of a normative conviction response among the Chinese. Though considerations of harm and fairness also emerged as significant predictors of normative conviction response. The results are discussed in the light of recent debates about the moral/conventional distinction and the scope of morality.</span></p> 2020-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Nuteistųjų adaptaciją pataisos įstaigose prognozuojantys veiksniai 2019-12-31T08:59:31+00:00 Viktorija Mikalauskienė Alfredas Laurinavičius <p>Adaptacija pataisos įstaigoje – tai įkalinto asmens psichologinis ir elgesinis atsakas į pataisos įstaigos aplinką ir įkalinimo situaciją (Fedock, 2017). Sėkmingai adaptavęsi nuteistieji geba patenkinti savo pagrindinius poreikius, nekonfliktuoja nei su pataisos įstaigos administracija, nei su kitais nuteistaisiais, nepatiria stiprių neigiamų emocijų ir t.t. Manoma, kad nesėkminga adaptacija pataisos įstaigoje siejasi su mažesne motyvacija keisti savo nusikalstamą elgesį ir recidyvu (Loper, 2002; Zamble &amp; Porporino, 1988). Nors nuteistųjų adaptacija pataisos įstaigose ir ją prognozuojančiais veiksniais užsienio mokslininkai domisi jau kelis dešimtmečius, Lietuvoje tokių tyrimų ypač trūksta. Šio tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti laisvės atėmimo bausmę atliekančių nuteistųjų adaptaciją Lietuvos pataisos įstaigose prognozuojančius veiksnius. Tyrime dalyvavo nuteistieji vyrai (<em>N</em> = 331) iš 5 Lietuvos pataisos įstaigų, jų amžius svyravo nuo nuo 18 iki 68 metų (<em>M</em> = 35,17, <em>SD</em> = 10,75). Adaptacijai įvertinti buvo naudojama Kalėjimo problemų skalė (Zamble &amp; Porporino, 1988), Beck depresijos klausimyno antroji leidimo versija (Beck, Steer, &amp; Brown, 1996) ir Beck nerimo klausimynas (Beck, Epstein, Brown,&nbsp; &amp; Steer, 1988). Adaptacijos veiksniai buvo įvertinti demografinių duomenų anketa bei Kriminalinių nuostatų modifikuota skale (Simourd, 1997). Nustatyta, jog adaptaciją geriausiai prognozuoja kriminalinės nuostatos ir bendravimas su draugais arba partnere. Tirti veiksniai paaiškino iki 16 % adaptaciją vertinančių kintamųjų sklaidos.</p> 2019-12-30T15:22:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Bilingual Access of Single and Paired Words in the Context of Episodic Memory 2020-01-09T09:16:52+00:00 Algis Norvilas <p>In a series of four experiments, the cued-recall task was used to explore bilingual word representation in episodic memory. When target words were encoded singly, their recall to same-language and to crossed-language extralist cues was found not to be different. These results appear to support a language independent view of bilingual word representation in which words of different languages are mutually accessible. When target words were encoded in a cue-target relational fashion, recall of target words was much higher to original-language than to translated-language intralist cues, thus supporting a language dependent view. In this case information seems to be bound by the language in which it was originally encountered. This difference in results of cross-language cuing of singly and relationally encoded words was assumed to result from shifts in meaning brought about by contrasting word experiences. More broadly, the findings were interpreted within the context of Don Dulany’s (1997) mentalistic theory of evocative versus deliberative processing of words.</p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Psychometric Properties of the Revised Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire 2020-01-09T09:39:23+00:00 Dalia Bagdžiūnienė Jurgita Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė Ieva Urbanavičiūtė <p>Organizational citizenship behaviour is defined as “individual behaviour that is discretionary and not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization” (Organ, Podsakoff, &amp; MacKenzie, 2006). Nowadays it is one of the most widely studied phenomena in the field of organizational science (Podsakoff, Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Maynes, &amp; Spoelma, 2014). Employee citizenship behaviour generates additional value for the organization by creating a positive social environment, improving the use of resources, coordinating activities within and between working groups, enhancing<br>the organization’s ability to attract and retain the best employees, maintaining organizational stability and adaptability<br>to environmental changes. Meanwhile, citizenship behaviour is not widely studied in Lithuania and one of<br>the reasons may be a lack of reliable and valid instruments that would correspond to the country’s cultural context.<br>The first version of the Lithuanian twenty-nine items Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) questionnaire<br>included dimensions of altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and was developed in 2013 (Bagdžiūnienė,<br>Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė ir Urbanavičiūtė, 2013). Later, in 2014–2016, two studies were carried out with the aim to<br>revise and confirm the structure of the OCB questionnaire and to re-evaluate its psychometric properties.<br>In the first study, a total of 1985 employees from one Lithuanian public sector organization were surveyed online. Ninety-two percent of the respondents were female, the average age of respondents was 45.13 (SD = 10.3) years, with an average of 12.34 (SD = 7.74) years of working experience in the organization. Thirteen percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) confirmed the five factor structure of the questionnaire; however, nine items with the lowest loadings were removed. The shortened version of the OCB questionnaire consists of five dimensions with four items in each scale. Cronbach’s alphas confirmed the reliability of each scale, the discriminant validity was confirmed by positive correlations between OCB dimensions and inrole behaviour, affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction and negative correlations with the intention to quit. In the second study, 647 employees from different organizations were surveyed online. Seventy-four percent of them were female, the average age of respondents was 30.64 (SD = 10.08) years, with an average of 4.45 (SD = 6.19) years of working experience in the organization. Sixteen percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Thirty-two percent of the respondents were from public and sixty-eight percent from private sector organizations. The five-factor structure was additionally approved by applying CFA in this sample, the invariance of the structure regarding gender, age, and status was also confirmed. Conclusion: The revised OCB questionnaire is a reliable and valid twenty-items multidimensional instrument and is congruent with the classical concept of OCB. It includes five dimensions of employee citizenship behaviour, namely altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and initiative. Limitations and practical applications are discussed.</p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2020-02-04T09:02:51+00:00 Gintautas Valickas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2020-02-04T09:02:50+00:00 Gintautas Valickas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Effects of a Perpetrator’s Physical Attractiveness, Socioeconomic Status and Gender on Behaviour Perception of the Participants of Sexual Harassment Situations 2020-02-04T09:02:49+00:00 Gabija Petrauskaitė Ksenija Čunichina <p><span xml:lang="en-US">Sexual harassment is still a widespread problem in today’s modern society. Therefore, it is important to identify extralegal factors that shape society’s attitudes towards sexual harassment cases and why, sometimes, the victim of sexual harassment is being blamed for the situation. Most of the previous studies do not explore the causal relationship between the characteristics of the accused and the attitudes towards the cases. Moreover, the results of many existing studies are contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the impact of sex, physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status (SES) of the perpetrator on the attitudes towards sexual harassment situations. A hundred seventy-nine respondents participated in the study. During the research, a fictional news report and situation assessment scale were used. It was found that only a perpetrator’s physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status had a statistically significant impact on the appraisal of the perpetrator and victim’s behavior in the situation. The physical attractiveness of the perpetrator resulted in a statistically significant positive appraisal of his behavior and a more negative appraisal of the victim’s behavior. SES only had a statistically significant impact on the appraisal of perpetrator’s behavior: when the perpetrator was of high SES, his behavior in a sexual harassment situation was perceived more negatively than that of low SES.</span>&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">Results of this research not only emphasize the importance of extralegal factors on the attitudes toward the sexual harassment victims and perpetrators among younger adults, but also indicates possible societal changes – diminished gender and opposite SES effects on the attitudes toward the aforementioned situations.</span></p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Children’s (Non-)Participation in Cyberbullying and Emotional, Behavioural Problems 2020-02-04T09:02:49+00:00 Saulė Raižienė Vilmantė Pakalniškienė <p>Technological changes are making the Internet more accessible and interactive. The opportunities offered by the Internet, Internet use (time, frequency, accessibility, social networks, activities, etc.), and threats are changing as well. Cyberbullying is identified as one of the main threats on the Internet that has the most serious consequences. Research has found that cyberbullying is the most frustrating Internet threat for children (Haddon &amp; Livingstone, 2012). Considering that children do not live without the Internet, and that the opportunities and threats of the Internet change all the time, the impact on emotional and behavioural problems of children has not been fully explored. This study is part of the Lithuanian Science Council funded project “Children’s and adolescents’ Internet use in Lithuania: possibilities and risks tendencies in EU context” (No. S-MIP-17-1/LSS-250000-1087). It aims to compare emotional and behavioural problems of children who have been victims of different forms of bullying and/or bullied themselves. During the data collection in 2018, 1012 children aged 9 to 17 years were interviewed; 161 (15.9%) children reported being bullied over the last year (61.5% of them in cyber space), and 65 (6.4%) children bullied others over the last year (52.3% of them in cyber space). The results show that cyberbullying is more often related to traditional and other forms of bullying than it takes place separately. However, there is an overlap in bullying environments: children who have experienced traditional bullying, bully others in a traditional way; and children who have experienced cyberbullying, bully others in the cyber space. The results confirm that the experience of bullying is related to poor psychological functioning, but the most emotional and behavioural problems are experienced by those kids who participated in or experienced traditional bullying. According to the results of this study, the harm caused by a traditional bullying is greater than cyberbullying.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors News 2020-02-04T09:02:48+00:00 Gintautas Valickas Gintautas Valickas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Manuscript reviewers 2020-02-04T09:02:47+00:00 Gintautas Valickas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors