Psichologija 2022-11-15T09:43:11+00:00 Antanas Kairys Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1962 (<em>Psychology</em> – since 1980) and dedicated to publishing articles on the topics of all fields of psychology and interdisciplinary topics.</p> Stress Factors Among Grade 2 Teachers: Links to Classroom Activities and Teacher Interaction Styles 2022-11-15T09:43:11+00:00 Gintautas Šilinskas Saulė Raižienė <p>This study involved a comparison of the prevalence of two work-related stressors (job-related issues and information and communications technology [ICT] use) and three situational stress factors (COVID-19, geopolitical concerns, and economic conditions) among 40 Grade 2 teachers in Lithuania. Also investigated were associations between the stress factors, the frequency of classroom activities (literacy and mathematics), and teacher interaction styles (affection, behavioral, and psychological control). A total of 40 Grade 2 teachers answered online questionnaires in April–May 2022, a period defined by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the recent (2–3 months prior) start of the Russo–Ukrainian war. The results showed that, of the five stress factors examined, the highest levels of stress expressed by teachers were related to the geopolitical situation, which scored significantly higher than work-related stress factors (job-related issues and ICT use). The results also indicated that all stress factors except geopolitical situation were associated with behavioral and psychological control, suggesting that teachers who report higher levels of stress apply more controlling interaction styles when teaching their second graders. Moreover, the findings revealed that the frequency of classroom activities and the positive dimension of the interaction style of teaching (i.e., affection) were not related to any of the stress factors.</p> 2022-11-14T10:11:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gintautas Šilinskas | Saulė Raižienė Psychometric Properties of Work–Family Enrichment Self-Efficacy Scale: Lithuanian Version 2022-10-25T07:09:51+00:00 Tadas Vadvilavičius Aurelija Stelmokienė <p>Valid and reliable research methods are needed to assess the work–family enrichment self-efficacy. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to test the psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent and/or structural validity) of the Lithuanian version of the work–family enrichment self-efficacy scale. Results revealed that the Lithuanian version of the work–family enrichment self-efficacy scale had high internal consistency. Adequate convergent validity was confirmed by statistically significant positive relationships between work–family enrichment and its dimensions, job satisfaction, and general self-efficacy. Finally, structural validity was confirmed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, that revealed that one factor explained data well. The results of the research confirmed that the Lithuanian version of the work-family enrichment self-efficacy scale was suitable for further research.</p> 2022-10-17T09:49:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tadas Vadvilavičius | Aurelija Stelmokienė Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2022-10-17T09:42:37+00:00 Antanas Kairys <p>-</p> 2022-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Without Straying from Philosophical Origins and the Reality of Life. Interview with Eglė Rimkutė 2022-10-06T08:09:42+00:00 Junona S. Almonaitienė <p>Interview of Junona Almonaitienė, a graduate of Vilnius University, with associate professor Eglė Rimkutė, a teacher and researcher at the same university from 1966 till 2006, who’s carrier was mainly related to cognitive psychology and methodology of psychology. The interview reveals her subjective approach to various methodological problems of psychology, the nature and shifts of the approach, and her personal efforts to develop a more comprehensive, realistic, sociocultural psychology. As the interlocutors practically collaborated in planning and discussing research during one of the time periods covered here, the subjective experiences of both, related to local as well as more general methodological problems in psychology, are analyzed retrospectively. The entire interview can be seen as a practical effort of writing a microhistory.</p> 2022-10-04T06:21:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Junona S. Almonaitienė Engaged, Exhausted or Indifferent? Study Environment Factors and Doctoral Students’ Well-being 2022-10-04T09:42:25+00:00 Arūnas Žiedelis <p>Creating decent conditions for doctoral students is a challenge that higher education institutions do not always manage to cope with. This tendency is also indirectly seen in the indicators of the well-being of doctoral students. The purpose of this study was to distinguish different well-being groups of doctoral students and to identify predictors of belonging to them. 633 doctoral students from various fields of science participated in the study, and were asked to answer questions about their study engagement, exhaustion, and the main study environment characteristics (demands and resources). The applied cluster analysis revealed that according to study engagement and burnout, four groups of doctoral students’ well-being can be distinguished, i.e., successful, exhausted, burned-out and indifferent doctoral students. Regression analysis made it possible to distinguish four study environmental characteristics that differentiate different groups of doctoral students’ well-being. Fewer opportunities for development, lack of support from the dissertation supervisor, higher study load, and more frequent encounters with conflicting expectations were associated with a lower probability of belonging to the group of doctoral students of the highest well-being. The results show that the antecedents for the well-being of doctoral students should be sought in the institutional environment, which facilitates or complicates the implementation of the tasks. The article also discusses suggestions based on the research results to improve the process of training doctoral students.</p> 2022-10-04T06:08:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arūnas Žiedelis “What do you Mean by Masculinity?”: Comparison of Answers of Men with and without Suicidal Thoughts 2022-10-04T09:42:25+00:00 Dovilė Grigienė Greta Guogaitė Said Dadašev Jurgita Rimkevičienė Paulius Skruibis Danutė Gailienė <p>Male suicides are often associated with masculinity norms that encourage certain behaviours that increase the risk of suicide. For example, research shows that restricted emotionality, avoidance of seeking help and self-reliance are associated with higher suicide risk. However, these pre-formulated aspects of masculinity do not necessarily reflect men’s subjective opinions of what masculinity is to them. Researchers argue that it is important to consider personal views about what masculinity is, not only stereotypes about masculinity. The aim of this study is to reveal and compare the subjective opinions about the masculinity of men with and without suicidal ideation. 281 men answered the open-ended question during the survey: “What does masculinity mean to you?”. The answers were analyzed using a content analysis method. We transformed qualitative data into quantitative and compared them statistically between two groups: men with and without suicidal ideation. It turned out that men with suicidal thoughts were more likely to mention that masculinity is the control of emotions, intelligence, and decision-making. Men without suicidal thoughts were more likely to mention family and caring for it as essential aspects of masculinity. The results showed that certain aspects of masculinity might be related to higher risk for suicide, but the study also revealed the masculinity that might be a source of coping.</p> 2022-10-04T06:01:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dovilė Grigienė | Greta Guogaitė | Said Dadašev | Jurgita Rimkevičienė | Paulius Skruibis | Danutė Gailienė Towards the Effective Motivation: Adaptation of the Situations in School Questionnaire (SISQ) to Lithuanian Educational Context 2022-10-04T09:42:27+00:00 Ingrida Gabrialavičiūtė Saulė Raižienė Renata Garckija <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus"><span class="normaltextrun" xml:lang="en-GB">To help teachers understand their role in students’ motivation and well-being, the researchers within SDT (Aelterman et al., 2019) have recently proposed a Circumplex model – the integrative and fine-grained approach to analyze the variety and interactions of (de)motivating teaching styles. The purpose of the current study is to adapt the student version of the Situations in School Questionnaire based on the Circumplex model for Lithuanian educational context. 715 seventh- and eighth-grade students (50.9% girls, M</span><sub class="char-style-override-4" xml:lang="en-GB">age</sub><span class="normaltextrun" xml:lang="en-GB">=13.42 years) from ten Lithuanian schools participated in the study. The SISQ was used to measure (de)motivating teaching styles, also behavioral and cognitive engagement in learning as well as well-being (positive and negative emotions, satisfaction with math classes) were assessed as indicators of students’ functioning.&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus"><span class="normaltextrun" xml:lang="en-GB">Multidimensional scaling, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlational analysis showed the match of the SISQ structure to the Circumplex model. (De)motivating teaching can be best graphically represented by a two-dimensional configuration that differed in terms of need support and directiveness. Correlations between eight subareas and indicators of students’ functioning followed a systematic sinusoid pattern, suggesting a gradual effect of teaching on students’ outcomes. With the adaptation being successful, student version of the SISQ can be used in Lithuanian educational context.&nbsp;</span></p> 2022-10-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ingrida Gabrialavičiūtė | Saulė Raižienė | Renata Garckija The Usage of Terms “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” in the Scientific Publications of Lithuanian Authors, and Analysis of Meaningful Differences of the Words 2022-06-10T09:38:32+00:00 Gediminas Beresnevičius <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The Lithuanian scientific community has not yet reached a decision&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">which Lithuanian word, “kūrybiškumas” or “kūrybingumas” (both translated into English as “creativity“), is more suitable for use in the creative psychology, educology and other domains. This article defines the words “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” as the acquired abilities of the creative subject to manifest new material and ideal objects. In addition, the two words are described as a property or characteristic of the product of activity and of the environment.</span></p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The author reviews the usage of terms “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” in the scientific publications of Lithuanian authors, and analyzes meaningful differences of the words. The quantitative research assesses all the publications in Lithuanian language which contain at least one of the terms in their titles and which were published between 1979 and 2019. During this period, 400 scientists submitted 426 publications which meet the previously mentioned criteria.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">It was found that the term “kūrybiškumas” is accepted by the majority of the Lithuanian researchers (80.75%). This word is found in 76.76% of publication titles and 68.08% of texts.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The analysis of publications revealed that the meaningful difference between the words “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” can be doubted, therefore the meaning of the two terms is the same. Both words (“kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas”) can be used to describe the creator, the creation process, the work or the result, and the environment. The term “kūrybiškumas” is broader and the meaning is somewhat wider than that of the term “kūrybingumas”.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">In order to avoid the confusion related to the use of the two terms, the author suggests to use only the word “kūrybiškumas”. Alternatively, the terms “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” should be considered as synonyms.</p> 2022-06-10T05:18:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gediminas Beresnevičius Fear of Cancer Recurrence: Lived Experiences of Cancer Survivors’ Spouses 2022-06-10T09:38:33+00:00 Eglė Urbutienė Rūta Pukinskaitė <p>Fear of cancer recurrence is the most prevalent and burdensome emotional concern among cancer survivors’ spouses after treatment. This qualitative study aimed to disclose, what are cancer survivors’ spouses lived experiences of fear of cancer recurrence. Seven adult spouses were explored. Data were obtained using a semi-structured interview and analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that fear of cancer recurrence is interpersonal experience and fear transmits in a couple. The spouses associate cancer recurrence with death and risk of losing their spouse. The threat of cancer recurrence triggers not only the feelings of insecurity, uncertainty about the future and loss of control, but also appreciation of life. Planning and control, religiosity, avoidance and awareness of fear helped spouses to reduce concerns about relapse. Interventions for spouses should focus on promotion of emotional expression of cancer recurrence concerns, also learning to accept and tolerate uncertainty.</p> 2022-06-10T05:16:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eglė Urbutienė | Rūta Pukinskaitė Wilhelm Wundt through the Eyes of a Student from Lithuania: Records in the Diary of Vytautas Civinskis Related to Psychology Lectures at Leipzig in 1905 2022-06-10T09:38:34+00:00 Junona S. Almonaitienė Veronika Girininkaitė <p><span xml:lang="en-US">The article addresses aspects of the connections between Wilhelm Wundt and Lithuania. It is introduced by briefly mentioning facts known from previous research about Lithuanians who studied at Wundt’s Institute of Experimental Psychology at Leipzig, and those who chose Wundt’s work as the object of their research. In the main part of the article, for the first time, excerpts from a manuscript with Lithuanian student’s impressions about Wundt’s psychology lectures he attended are published in Lithuanian and in original multilingual text. It was written by Vytautas Civinskis (Polish&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">Witold Cywiński</em><span xml:lang="en-US">, 1887–1910), the student of agricultural sciences at Leipzig University, in his Diary in 1905. Although small in volume and written by a very young person, these recordings are interesting as an authentic testimony. According to the available data, this is the only surviving archival document of such kind written by a student from Lithuania. From the document, it is possible to deduce how the student evaluated Wundt as a lecturer, what were the content and form of his lectures, as well as the physical, social and intellectual environment at Leipzig, and what opportunities all that provided for students. The mentioned aspects are discussed in the comments of the archival materials. It is concluded that bringing to awareness the fact of existence of the student’s&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">Diary</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;entries related to Wundt’s lectures complements the Lithuanian psychology history quite significantly, and their content reveals Wundt’s attention to the philosophical basis of experimental psychology, psychophysiology, the details of several experiments he demonstrated.</span></p> 2022-06-10T05:06:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Junona S. Almonaitienė | Veronika Girininkaitė