Psichologija <p>A peer-reviewed journal founded in 1962 (<em>Psychology</em> – from 1980) and dedicated to publishing articles analyzing all fields of psychology and interdisciplinary research.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Psichologija 1392-0359 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Colour Preference for Two-Colour Combinations <p><span xml:lang="en-US">What determines which colour combinations will be attractive to a person and which will not? Is colour attractiveness only a subjective human experience, or can we predict it based on physical colour parameters? One of the pioneers of the attraction of colour theories was Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786–1889). He distinguished two types of colour harmony&nbsp;– analog colour and contrast&nbsp;– and tried to describe what harmonics are based on physical colour parameters. This was later done by other scientists. Later, semantic evaluation of colours was introduced and factor analysis attempted to identify emotions caused by colours or combinations of colours.&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">The aim&nbsp;</em><span xml:lang="en-US">of this research is to test whether there is a consistent pattern of judgments of colour combinations under controlled conditions and, if so, to what extent they are influenced by the objective physical characteristics of those combinations.&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">Subjects</em><span xml:lang="en-US">. The study involved 40 students (20 men, 20 women). All subjects had normal colour vision and were not related to fine art.&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">Research tools</em><span xml:lang="en-US">. The study used 8 colours: 4 opponent (green, red, yellow and blue) and 4 additional (orange, lettuce, blue and purple). The 28 colour combinations (made up of two different colours) were composed of those 8 colours and printed onto cardboard card where each colour had area of 80 mm x 80 mm. Questionnaire of 40 adjectives consisting of 20 pairs of antonyms were used for semantic colour assessment.&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">Procedure</em><span xml:lang="en-US">. The investigation was conducted in a dark room. Initially, all 28 cards with colour combinations were placed randomly on a desk lit by a 40 cm high fluorescent lamp (4000K correlated colour temperature). The subject was asked to select one of the cards with the most preferable colour combination, to write its code on the questionnaire and to mark all the epithets in the questionnaire which suits this colour combination. The same procedure was applied to the all other cards. One experiment lasted 35–50 minutes.&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">Results and conclusions</em><span xml:lang="en-US">. Independent component analysis distinguished 4 dimensions describing colours: pleasure, energy, purple color and strength. Logistic regression analysis was run on colour factor loadings to discriminate colour combinations into two groups: liked and disliked colour combinations. It shows that that colour combination could be predicted as being liked or disliked with 85% probability. Adding physical colour parameters to the regression increases prognostic probability to 92 %. Also a relationship between subjective factors and physical characteristics of colour combinations was found. Pleasure correlates with hue contrast and strength with saturation contrast. It can be argued that the reliability of colour combinations is determined by both subjective and physical factors.</span></p> Rytis Stanikūnas Laimonas Puišys Aldona Radzevičienė Henrikas Vaitkevičius Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-07-07 2020-07-07 61 8 20 10.15388/Psichol.2020.12 Boundary Extension Effect Remembering Different Content Pictures <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus"><span xml:lang="en-US">The goal of this study was to investigate in which cases boundary extension occurs when repainting visual images with different content from your memory. The method that was used in this study is based on a meta-analysis conducted by Hubbard et al. (2010). The method consists of 12 stimuli (dimensions 10x15 cm), which show a photographic image or sketch of a painting. Presented stimuli contain images with different content – finished object, object with its corners removed, emotionally neutral, positive and negative object, moving object; 120 respondents participated in the study, their age ranged from 14 to 45 years old (average age – 25,6).</span></p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus"><em xml:lang="en-US">The first hypothesis</em><span xml:lang="en-US">, stating that boundary extension is more frequent with images of objects with removed corners than those of finished objects repainted from memory, was confirmed.&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">The second hypothesis</em><span xml:lang="en-US">, stating that boundary extension is more frequent with images of emotionally neutral objects than those of emotionally positive or intense objects repainted from memory, was confirmed.&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">The third hypothesis</em><span xml:lang="en-US">, stating that boundary extension while repainting images that contain containing moving objects, form memory, unfolds from the expected direction of object movement – the left side, was not confirmed. It was found that boundary extension unfolded at the top of a painting (bird) and at the bottom of a painting (vehicle).&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">The fourth hypothesis</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;was partly confirmed – that boundary extension while repainting images from memory with different content stimuli is more likely to happen among teenagers (years 14–19). The central tendency is more likely among younger adults (20–30), and boundary restriction – among older adults (31–45).&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">The fifth hypothesis</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;was confirmed. As expected, boundary extension when repainting images of different content from memory more often occurrs with women than men.&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">The sixth</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">hypothesis</em><span xml:lang="en-US">, stating that boundary extensions are more often when repainting images from memory that were painted and are not photographical images, was not confirmed.</span></p> Aldona Radzevičienė Jurgita Jankūnaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 61 21 32 10.15388/Psichol.2020.13 Factors Associated with Depression in Middle-Aged and Elderly People in Romania <p><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">The objectives of this study were</span><strong xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;</strong><span xml:lang="en-US">t</span><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">he determination of the prevalence of&nbsp;</span><span class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">self-reported depressive symp</span><span class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">toms</span><span class="tlid-translation char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">by the&nbsp;</span><span class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">Geriatric Depression Scale</span><span class="tlid-translation char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;and the influences of variable income, physical activity, socialization and sexual activity. A total of 601 patients aged 55–93 years with a mean age of 67.32 years and a median age of 67 years participated in this study between 2016 and 2017.&nbsp;</span><span class="short-text char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">N</span><span xml:lang="en-US">on-cooperative people and individuals with strong auditory or visual sensory deficits, severe cognitive deficits, or disorders accompanied by psychotic elements with serious somatic pathology were excluded from the interviews. Employing the SPSS&nbsp;</span><span class="char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">GENLIN procedure, an ordinal logistic model was used.&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">Over ½ of the respondents&nbsp;</span><span class="alt-edited char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">are within the categories of moderate and severe depression</span><span class="tlid-translation char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">,&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">almost half of the respondents feel that their family incomes are not enough or make it hard to meet their needs, approximately 10% think they are sedentary, over ½ participate in no sexual activity, and over ¼ do not frequently respond with pleasure to partner-initiated sexual relationships. Those who were in the&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="en-US">higher depression category&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">perceived their income to be&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="en-US">extremely low (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">p&nbsp;</em><span xml:lang="en-US">= .001),&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">perceived&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="en-US">themselves as sedentary (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">p&nbsp;</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&lt; .001), infrequently met with&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation char-style-override-5" xml:lang="en-US">friends or neighbours</span><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;in their leisure time&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">(</span><em xml:lang="en-US">p&nbsp;</em><span xml:lang="en-US">= .002), and&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">had</span><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;lower sexual interest (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">p&nbsp;</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&lt; .001).&nbsp;</span><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">Middle-aged adults and older adults should learn about the health benefits of physical activity, socialization and sexual activity.</span><em xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;</em><span class="tlid-translation" xml:lang="en-US">Social policies must take into account this low-income segment. Poverty itself can be a contributor to depressive states, and additionally, due to their low incomes, elderly people are at risk of benefiting less from pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.</span></p> Cornelia Rada Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 61 33 50 10.15388/Psichol.2020.14 Beyond the Moral Domain: The Normative Sense Among the Chinese <p><span xml:lang="en-US">In this paper we report a study on how different types of normatively relevant transgressions are&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">evaluated</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;by Chinese participants. We hypothesized that, given the continuing influences of Confucian worldview on contemporary Chinese societies, the Chinese will not make a distinction between moral (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">daode</em><span xml:lang="en-US">) and conventional norms of cultured behavior (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">wenming</em><span xml:lang="en-US">). Our results indicate that Chinese participants expressed a strong normative conviction not only towards harmful and unfair actions, usually subsumed under the&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">moral</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;domain in Western literature, but also towards violations of what would be widely accepted as conventional (or cultural) norms. Similarly, Chinese participants expressed a strong normative conviction towards violations of the traditional Chinese value of family reverence (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">xiao</em><span xml:lang="en-US">), thus further supporting our general thesis. Moreover,&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="de-DE">r</span><span xml:lang="en-US">esults indicate that, overall, explicit consi­derations of&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">wenming</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;(unculturedness) emerged as the best predictor of a normative conviction response among the Chinese. Though considerations of harm and fairness also emerged as significant predictors of normative conviction response. The results are discussed in the light of recent debates about the moral/conventional distinction and the scope of morality.</span></p> Renatas Berniūnas Vytis Silius Vilius Dranseika Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2020-02-03 2020-02-03 61 86 105 10.15388/Psichol.2019.11 Nuteistųjų adaptaciją pataisos įstaigose prognozuojantys veiksniai <p>Adaptacija pataisos įstaigoje – tai įkalinto asmens psichologinis ir elgesinis atsakas į pataisos įstaigos aplinką ir įkalinimo situaciją (Fedock, 2017). Sėkmingai adaptavęsi nuteistieji geba patenkinti savo pagrindinius poreikius, nekonfliktuoja nei su pataisos įstaigos administracija, nei su kitais nuteistaisiais, nepatiria stiprių neigiamų emocijų ir t.t. Manoma, kad nesėkminga adaptacija pataisos įstaigoje siejasi su mažesne motyvacija keisti savo nusikalstamą elgesį ir recidyvu (Loper, 2002; Zamble &amp; Porporino, 1988). Nors nuteistųjų adaptacija pataisos įstaigose ir ją prognozuojančiais veiksniais užsienio mokslininkai domisi jau kelis dešimtmečius, Lietuvoje tokių tyrimų ypač trūksta. Šio tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti laisvės atėmimo bausmę atliekančių nuteistųjų adaptaciją Lietuvos pataisos įstaigose prognozuojančius veiksnius. Tyrime dalyvavo nuteistieji vyrai (<em>N</em> = 331) iš 5 Lietuvos pataisos įstaigų, jų amžius svyravo nuo nuo 18 iki 68 metų (<em>M</em> = 35,17, <em>SD</em> = 10,75). Adaptacijai įvertinti buvo naudojama Kalėjimo problemų skalė (Zamble &amp; Porporino, 1988), Beck depresijos klausimyno antroji leidimo versija (Beck, Steer, &amp; Brown, 1996) ir Beck nerimo klausimynas (Beck, Epstein, Brown,&nbsp; &amp; Steer, 1988). Adaptacijos veiksniai buvo įvertinti demografinių duomenų anketa bei Kriminalinių nuostatų modifikuota skale (Simourd, 1997). Nustatyta, jog adaptaciją geriausiai prognozuoja kriminalinės nuostatos ir bendravimas su draugais arba partnere. Tirti veiksniai paaiškino iki 16 % adaptaciją vertinančių kintamųjų sklaidos.</p> Viktorija Mikalauskienė Alfredas Laurinavičius Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 61 46 57 10.15388/Psichol.2019.8 Bilingual Access of Single and Paired Words in the Context of Episodic Memory <p>In a series of four experiments, the cued-recall task was used to explore bilingual word representation in episodic memory. When target words were encoded singly, their recall to same-language and to crossed-language extralist cues was found not to be different. These results appear to support a language independent view of bilingual word representation in which words of different languages are mutually accessible. When target words were encoded in a cue-target relational fashion, recall of target words was much higher to original-language than to translated-language intralist cues, thus supporting a language dependent view. In this case information seems to be bound by the language in which it was originally encountered. This difference in results of cross-language cuing of singly and relationally encoded words was assumed to result from shifts in meaning brought about by contrasting word experiences. More broadly, the findings were interpreted within the context of Don Dulany’s (1997) mentalistic theory of evocative versus deliberative processing of words.</p> Algis Norvilas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 61 8 26 10.15388/Psichol.2019.6 Psychometric Properties of the Revised Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire <p>Organizational citizenship behaviour is defined as “individual behaviour that is discretionary and not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization” (Organ, Podsakoff, &amp; MacKenzie, 2006). Nowadays it is one of the most widely studied phenomena in the field of organizational science (Podsakoff, Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Maynes, &amp; Spoelma, 2014). Employee citizenship behaviour generates additional value for the organization by creating a positive social environment, improving the use of resources, coordinating activities within and between working groups, enhancing<br>the organization’s ability to attract and retain the best employees, maintaining organizational stability and adaptability<br>to environmental changes. Meanwhile, citizenship behaviour is not widely studied in Lithuania and one of<br>the reasons may be a lack of reliable and valid instruments that would correspond to the country’s cultural context.<br>The first version of the Lithuanian twenty-nine items Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) questionnaire<br>included dimensions of altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and was developed in 2013 (Bagdžiūnienė,<br>Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė ir Urbanavičiūtė, 2013). Later, in 2014–2016, two studies were carried out with the aim to<br>revise and confirm the structure of the OCB questionnaire and to re-evaluate its psychometric properties.<br>In the first study, a total of 1985 employees from one Lithuanian public sector organization were surveyed online. Ninety-two percent of the respondents were female, the average age of respondents was 45.13 (SD = 10.3) years, with an average of 12.34 (SD = 7.74) years of working experience in the organization. Thirteen percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) confirmed the five factor structure of the questionnaire; however, nine items with the lowest loadings were removed. The shortened version of the OCB questionnaire consists of five dimensions with four items in each scale. Cronbach’s alphas confirmed the reliability of each scale, the discriminant validity was confirmed by positive correlations between OCB dimensions and inrole behaviour, affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction and negative correlations with the intention to quit. In the second study, 647 employees from different organizations were surveyed online. Seventy-four percent of them were female, the average age of respondents was 30.64 (SD = 10.08) years, with an average of 4.45 (SD = 6.19) years of working experience in the organization. Sixteen percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Thirty-two percent of the respondents were from public and sixty-eight percent from private sector organizations. The five-factor structure was additionally approved by applying CFA in this sample, the invariance of the structure regarding gender, age, and status was also confirmed. Conclusion: The revised OCB questionnaire is a reliable and valid twenty-items multidimensional instrument and is congruent with the classical concept of OCB. It includes five dimensions of employee citizenship behaviour, namely altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and initiative. Limitations and practical applications are discussed.</p> Dalia Bagdžiūnienė Jurgita Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė Ieva Urbanavičiūtė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 61 27 45 10.15388/Psichol.2019.7 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Gintautas Valickas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 61 1 7 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Gintautas Valickas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 61 109 119 Effects of a Perpetrator’s Physical Attractiveness, Socioeconomic Status and Gender on Behaviour Perception of the Participants of Sexual Harassment Situations <p><span xml:lang="en-US">Sexual harassment is still a widespread problem in today’s modern society. Therefore, it is important to identify extralegal factors that shape society’s attitudes towards sexual harassment cases and why, sometimes, the victim of sexual harassment is being blamed for the situation. Most of the previous studies do not explore the causal relationship between the characteristics of the accused and the attitudes towards the cases. Moreover, the results of many existing studies are contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the impact of sex, physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status (SES) of the perpetrator on the attitudes towards sexual harassment situations. A hundred seventy-nine respondents participated in the study. During the research, a fictional news report and situation assessment scale were used. It was found that only a perpetrator’s physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status had a statistically significant impact on the appraisal of the perpetrator and victim’s behavior in the situation. The physical attractiveness of the perpetrator resulted in a statistically significant positive appraisal of his behavior and a more negative appraisal of the victim’s behavior. SES only had a statistically significant impact on the appraisal of perpetrator’s behavior: when the perpetrator was of high SES, his behavior in a sexual harassment situation was perceived more negatively than that of low SES.</span>&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">Results of this research not only emphasize the importance of extralegal factors on the attitudes toward the sexual harassment victims and perpetrators among younger adults, but also indicates possible societal changes – diminished gender and opposite SES effects on the attitudes toward the aforementioned situations.</span></p> Gabija Petrauskaitė Ksenija Čunichina Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 61 58 71 10.15388/Psichol.2019.9