Psichologija https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija <p>Founded in 1962 (<em>Psychology</em> – since 1980) and dedicated to publishing articles on the topics of all fields of psychology and interdisciplinary topics.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Psichologija 1392-0359 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/psichologija/journalpolicy">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> The Usage of Terms “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” in the Scientific Publications of Lithuanian Authors, and Analysis of Meaningful Differences of the Words https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/26543 <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The Lithuanian scientific community has not yet reached a decision&nbsp;<span xml:lang="en-US">which Lithuanian word, “kūrybiškumas” or “kūrybingumas” (both translated into English as “creativity“), is more suitable for use in the creative psychology, educology and other domains. This article defines the words “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” as the acquired abilities of the creative subject to manifest new material and ideal objects. In addition, the two words are described as a property or characteristic of the product of activity and of the environment.</span></p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The author reviews the usage of terms “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” in the scientific publications of Lithuanian authors, and analyzes meaningful differences of the words. The quantitative research assesses all the publications in Lithuanian language which contain at least one of the terms in their titles and which were published between 1979 and 2019. During this period, 400 scientists submitted 426 publications which meet the previously mentioned criteria.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">It was found that the term “kūrybiškumas” is accepted by the majority of the Lithuanian researchers (80.75%). This word is found in 76.76% of publication titles and 68.08% of texts.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The analysis of publications revealed that the meaningful difference between the words “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” can be doubted, therefore the meaning of the two terms is the same. Both words (“kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas”) can be used to describe the creator, the creation process, the work or the result, and the environment. The term “kūrybiškumas” is broader and the meaning is somewhat wider than that of the term “kūrybingumas”.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">In order to avoid the confusion related to the use of the two terms, the author suggests to use only the word “kūrybiškumas”. Alternatively, the terms “kūrybiškumas” and “kūrybingumas” should be considered as synonyms.</p> Gediminas Beresnevičius Copyright (c) 2022 Gediminas Beresnevičius https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 66 8 20 10.15388/Psichol.2022.48 Fear of Cancer Recurrence: Lived Experiences of Cancer Survivors’ Spouses https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/26521 <p>Fear of cancer recurrence is the most prevalent and burdensome emotional concern among cancer survivors’ spouses after treatment. This qualitative study aimed to disclose, what are cancer survivors’ spouses lived experiences of fear of cancer recurrence. Seven adult spouses were explored. Data were obtained using a semi-structured interview and analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that fear of cancer recurrence is interpersonal experience and fear transmits in a couple. The spouses associate cancer recurrence with death and risk of losing their spouse. The threat of cancer recurrence triggers not only the feelings of insecurity, uncertainty about the future and loss of control, but also appreciation of life. Planning and control, religiosity, avoidance and awareness of fear helped spouses to reduce concerns about relapse. Interventions for spouses should focus on promotion of emotional expression of cancer recurrence concerns, also learning to accept and tolerate uncertainty.</p> Eglė Urbutienė Rūta Pukinskaitė Copyright (c) 2022 Eglė Urbutienė | Rūta Pukinskaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 66 33 46 10.15388/Psichol.2022.50 Wilhelm Wundt through the Eyes of a Student from Lithuania: Records in the Diary of Vytautas Civinskis Related to Psychology Lectures at Leipzig in 1905 https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/27533 <p><span xml:lang="en-US">The article addresses aspects of the connections between Wilhelm Wundt and Lithuania. It is introduced by briefly mentioning facts known from previous research about Lithuanians who studied at Wundt’s Institute of Experimental Psychology at Leipzig, and those who chose Wundt’s work as the object of their research. In the main part of the article, for the first time, excerpts from a manuscript with Lithuanian student’s impressions about Wundt’s psychology lectures he attended are published in Lithuanian and in original multilingual text. It was written by Vytautas Civinskis (Polish&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">Witold Cywiński</em><span xml:lang="en-US">, 1887–1910), the student of agricultural sciences at Leipzig University, in his Diary in 1905. Although small in volume and written by a very young person, these recordings are interesting as an authentic testimony. According to the available data, this is the only surviving archival document of such kind written by a student from Lithuania. From the document, it is possible to deduce how the student evaluated Wundt as a lecturer, what were the content and form of his lectures, as well as the physical, social and intellectual environment at Leipzig, and what opportunities all that provided for students. The mentioned aspects are discussed in the comments of the archival materials. It is concluded that bringing to awareness the fact of existence of the student’s&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">Diary</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;entries related to Wundt’s lectures complements the Lithuanian psychology history quite significantly, and their content reveals Wundt’s attention to the philosophical basis of experimental psychology, psychophysiology, the details of several experiments he demonstrated.</span></p> Junona S. Almonaitienė Veronika Girininkaitė Copyright (c) 2022 Junona S. Almonaitienė | Veronika Girininkaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 66 21 32 10.15388/Psichol.2022.49 Editorial Board and Table of Contents https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/26469 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jurgita Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 66 1 7 Perceived Career Barriers Scale: Validation for a Lithuanian Sample https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/25335 <p><strong xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;</strong><span xml:lang="en-US">Career is undoubtedly an essential part of people</span><strong class="char-style-override-3" xml:lang="en-US">’</strong><span xml:lang="en-US">s lives. Unfortunately, career development does not necessarily go smoothly because various circumstances, such as career barriers, might constrain career development. Therefore, it is important to have valid and reliable instruments that help evaluate and understand this phenomenon. The current study aimed to test the validity of the Lithuanian version of the</span><strong class="char-style-override-3" xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;</strong><span xml:lang="en-US">Perceived career barriers scale.</span><strong xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;</strong><span xml:lang="en-US">The sample included 382 participants aged from 18 to 63 years (</span><em xml:lang="en-US">M</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;=&nbsp;37.5 years,&nbsp;</span><em xml:lang="en-US">SD</em><span xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;=&nbsp;13.6). Two hundred twenty-six of the participants were females, 155 were males, and one did not disclose their gender. The Perceived&nbsp;Career Barriers&nbsp;Scale was translated from the German language using the back translation technique. Its construct validity was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results also showed that the scale is reliable. Convergent validity of the scale was also confirmed – perceived&nbsp;career barriers&nbsp;correlated with career self-efficacy,&nbsp;</span><span xml:lang="en-US">Past Negative time perspective, Present Fatalistic time perspective, and Future Negative time perspective. The Perceived Career Barriers Scale may be used for further research, although it is recommended to conduct a more comprehensive validity evaluation.</span></p> Raimonda Sadauskaitė Antanas Kairys Copyright (c) 2021 Raimonda Sadauskaitė | Antanas Kairys https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 66 56 63 10.15388/Psichol.2021.46 The well-being of older age Lithuanians: Policy implications https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/25344 <p><span class="jlqj4b" xml:lang="en-US">Many countries of the world consider the well-being of citizens to be one of their most important goals. Nowadays there is a growing concern about the well-being of older people. Considering the aging population, there is a call for social policies aimed at strengthening the well-being of older people. Therefore, recommendations were prepared for policymakers on possible ways to strengthen the well-being of the older age Lithuanian population. The recommendations are based on data from the 7</span><sup class="char-style-override-3" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup><span class="jlqj4b" xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;wave of the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). There were 2014 persons aged 50 and older interviewed in Lithuania in the 7</span><sup class="char-style-override-3" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup><span class="jlqj4b" xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;wave of the SHARE survey. Data on various aspects of well-being, health, work and economic situation, childhood circumstances, experiences of discrimination were analyzed. Based on different aspects of well-being it was found, that respondents can be grouped into high, low, and medium well-being clusters, moreover the analysis showed that the Lithuanian population has relatively low well-being compared to other countries. Recommendations were formulated covering possible measures for chronic diseases, co-morbid mental health disorders, work, economic situation, childhood environment, and personal life history. The recommendations are addressed to health, social and employment, education, and science policymakers.</span></p> Antanas Kairys Olga Zamalijeva Albinas Bagdonas Jonas Eimontas Vilmantė Pakalniškienė Raimonda Sadauskaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Antanas Kairys | Olga Zamalijeva | Albinas Bagdonas | Jonas Eimontas | Vilmantė Pakalniškienė | Raimonda Sadauskaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 66 64 79 10.15388/Psichol.2021.47 The importance of perceived school climate and personal strengths use for psychological functioning among high school students https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/24306 <p>The aim of this study was to determine the importance of high school students’ personal strengths use and the perceived school climate on their psychological functioning. The sample of 258 students from a gymnasium filled in measures for adolescent psychological functioning, strengths use and perceived school climate. Contrary to what was expected, the results revealed that personal strengths use did not moderate the relationship between students’ perceived school climate and their psychological functioning. However, both factors – perceived school climate and strengths use – independently of each other, significantly predicted students’ psychological functioning. Therefore, in order to achieve more positive developmental outcomes, it is not enough to create a good climate at school, it is also important to create opportunities for students to use their personal strengths.&nbsp;</p> Virginija Rekienė Rytis Pakrosnis Copyright (c) 2021 Virginija Rekienė | Rytis Pakrosnis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 66 40 55 10.15388/Psichol.2021.45 Reconciling home and work during lockdown: The role of organisational segmentation supplies for psychological detachment and work-home conflict https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/24346 <p>When the lockdown was introduced to limit the spread of the coronavirus, many employees were forced to work from home, thus facing challenges to detach from work and balance work and home responsibilities. As physical boundaries between work and non-work became non-existent, organisational norms supporting segmentation between the two domains became more important than ever before. This study aimed to examine the effect of organisational segmentation supplies for psychological detachment and work-home conflict among employees with different boundary management preferences. A sample of 172 employees from one private sector organisation responded to a questionnaire measuring segmentation supplies, segmentation preferences, psychological detachment and work-home conflict. Moderated mediation analysis revealed that segmentation supplies had a protective effect on the work-home conflict, which was partly mediated by psychological detachment. Employees’ segmentation preferences did not moderate this effect. Results show segmentation supplies by the organisation to be a valuable resource when working from home that helps to psychologically detach from work and balance work and home responsibilities even for employees who prefer to integrate work and home life.</p> Arūnas Žiedelis Jurgita Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė Ieva Urbanavičiūtė Copyright (c) 2021 Arūnas Žiedelis | Jurgita Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė | Ieva Urbanavičiūtė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 66 86 93 10.15388/Psichol.2021.44 Risk of behavioural and emotional disorders in Lithuanian school aged children as assessed with SDQ during the second lockdown due to COVID-19 https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/24133 <p>As a result of the outbreak of COVID-19 and consequent restrictions, the distance education was introduced in Lithuania in 2020 spring (the first lockdown, lasted for around 3 months) and 2020 autumn (the second lockdown, still lasting, June 2021). The prevalence of children’s mental health problems during the first lockdown was similar to pre-epidemic rates in Lithuania, but the prolonged lockdown (and therefore school closure) might have more negative consequences on children’s mental health. This study aimed to reveal the incidence of mental health problems as rated by parents with a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire during the second lockdown in school aged children. This research sample included data of 514 children (46% girls), aged 7 to 14 years old (mean age 10.15 years,&nbsp;<em>SD</em>&nbsp;=&nbsp;3.47). The children’s mental health problems were assessed using a Lithuanian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parental form, in April–May 2021. Results revealed that 29.6% of Lithuanian children had scores in the clinical (abnormal) range of emotional problems and 21.6% – of conduct problems. Based on total difficulties score, 31.6% of children get in clinical range of emotional and behavioural problems, as rated by parents by the end of the second lockdown. The results are compared to pre-pandemic epidemiological rates of emotional and behavioural problems reported and those documented after the first quarantine in Lithuania and highlight important findings for professionals and policy makers about the detrimental effects of prolonged lockdown and school closure on children’s mental health.</p> Roma Jusienė Edita Baukienė Rima Breidokienė Copyright (c) 2021 Roma Jusienė | Edita Baukienė | Rima Breidokienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 66 77 85 10.15388/Psichol.2021.43 Associations between COVID-19 difficulties, well-being, and personality traits https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/24352 <p>During the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, everyday life has changed; people faced various difficulties and overcame them differently. This study aimed to identify how subjectively named difficulties, the ability to cope with these difficulties, and psychological well-being reported by individuals during the first quarantine of COVID-19 in Lithuania were related to gender, age, and personality traits. Three hundred fifty-one participants aged 18 to 70 years completed an online questionnaire. Results revealed that half of the respondents reported various difficulties, classified into six categories, related to the first COVID-19 quarantine. Furthermore, 51% of the participants indicated poor well-being; the well-being of women and young adults (aged 18–29) was significantly lower compared to the other groups. Those who indicated COVID-19 pandemic difficulties showed higher levels of Neuroticism, and Neuroticism was positively related to the severity of the difficulties. Coping with these difficulties and well-being were positively related to Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, and negatively associated with Neuroticism. The manifestation of the particular personality traits in different groups of indicated difficulties is discussed in the article.</p> Neringa Grigutytė Kristina Engesser Karolina Petraškaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Neringa Grigutytė | Kristina Engesser | Karolina Petraškaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 66 69 76 10.15388/Psichol.2021.42