Psichologija <p>A peer-reviewed academic journal founded in 1962 (<em>Psychology</em> – from 1980) and dedicated to publishing articles analyzing all fields of psychology and interdisciplinary research aimed at promoting the development of psychological science in the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) region.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Psichologija 1392-0359 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> The Links Between Childhood Life Circumstances, Family Persecution and Discrimination Experiences, and Well-Being in Later Life <p>The life course perspective raised many discussions about continuity, types of threads linking different developmental stages, and ways to identify these links. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of childhood family circumstances and family repression / discrimination experiences in predicting psychological well-being in later life. The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) wave 7 data was used; 1985 respondents aged 50+ (<em>M</em>&nbsp;=&nbsp;66.23,&nbsp;<em>SD</em>&nbsp;=&nbsp;10.52) living in Lithuania (63.8 %&nbsp;– female) provided retrospective information on their early life circumstances, including home environment, relationships with family / friends, family persecution. Psychological well-being was assessed with a 12-item Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization, and Pleasure (CASP) scale. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that the inclusion of family persecution and other childhood factors increases the prognostic value of the model by 8 percent. Relationships with mother and friends, self-rated health, perceived abilities, number of books at home, and physical harm by others significantly predicted psychological well-being among older adults, even after controlling pivotal sociodemographic variables. These results suggest that creating a caring, safe, and cognitively stimulating childhood environment can promote better development in early stages and contribute to greater psychological well-being in later life.</p> Jonas Eimontas Albinas Bagdonas Antanas Kairys Olga Zamalijeva Vilmantė Pakalniškienė Raimonda Sadauskaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Jonas Eimontas | Albinas Bagdonas | Antanas Kairys | Olga Zamalijeva | Vilmantė Pakalniškienė | Raimonda Sadauskaitė 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 63 118 136 10.15388/Psichol.2021.31 Environmental Attitudes and Recycling Behaviour in Primary School Age: The Role of School and Parents <p>This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental attitudes and recycling behaviour in primary school age, and to evaluate the role that school and parents play in the prediction of children’s attitudes and behaviour. Primary school pupils aged 8–11 years (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 116), their parents and their class teachers participated in the study. During the structured face-to-face interviews, children answered questions about their recycling behaviour and environmental attitudes (i.e. eco-affinity and eco-awareness). Parents provided answers on their recycling behaviour, verbal modelling of the behaviour, incentives used when a child recycles waste, and environmental attitudes, while class teachers provided information about the recycling in children’s school. Structural equation models were tested with a purpose to evaluate the role of different independent variables, i.e. only school, only parental factors, or both, when predicting child recycling behaviour. Results of the study showed that children’s environmental attitudes had no significant links to their recycling behaviour. The only factor that appeared to be significant in the prediction of child behaviour was parental recycling behaviour. Furthermore, recycling in schools predicted pupils’ eco-awareness. Based on the study findings, it would be worthwhile to promote more practical training of pro-environmental behaviour, and to strengthen children’s eco-affinity.</p> Dovilė Šorytė Vilmantė Pakalniškienė Copyright (c) 2021 Dovilė Šorytė | Vilmantė Pakalniškienė 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 63 101 117 10.15388/Psichol.2021.30 General Psychosocial Measures are Affected by the Situation Preceding Assessment: The ‘Arbitrary Distinction’ Between State and Trait Measures is Still Unresolved <p>General psychosocial measures are assumed to be stable over time. However, such measures may be affected by the situation preceding assessment. In this study 28 participants completed the WHO-5 Well-Being Index, the Subjective Happiness Scale, and the Life Orientation Test which are general measures, and the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Feeling Scale which are state measures. Subsequently, the first part of ‘<em>Mega Disasters Nagasaki The Forgotten Bomb’</em> documentary was presented to the participants. Following the intervention, they completed the same measures again. State measures of negative affect increased, feeling state decreased as expected, but <em>retrospectively </em>measured well-being as well as the index of optimism also decreased. There were large individual differences. The findings indicate that general measures, assumed to be stable over time, are influenced by the situation. Therefore, there is a need for reporting, as well as controlling, the events preceding their measurement. The implication of these findings is that hundreds of empirical results based on general or trait measures may be invalid if any event preceding their assessment had an emotional impact.</p> Attila Szabo Krisztina Ábel Copyright (c) 2021 Attila Szabo | Krisztina Ábel 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 63 86 100 10.15388/Psichol.2021.29 The Influence of Applicant's and Rater’s Sex on Decision Making in Hiring Simulation <p>Gender stereotypes have determined that the concepts of management and leadership are more associated with men than women. There are more men working in management positions than women in various countries, including Lithuania. The most widely discussed cause for that is discrimination against women in the labor market. The aim of the study was to examine evaluation differences between personnel specialists and comparison group, depending on their own and candidate‘s gender. Study was based on quasi-experimental strategy which included a hiring simulation. Participants had to evaluate potential candidates, a man and a woman, seeking for a job in management position. Data was collected from 128 people (age range - 19 to 56 years): 48 personnel specialists (M=29,38; SD=7,48), 49 women, who represented other specialties (M=26,29; SD=7,36) and 31 men, who represented other specialties (M=25,39; SD=5,05). Both personnel specialists and comparison group evaluated man and woman-candidate as similar. There were no significant differences between the two candidates on their hireability, reliability, competence, potential salary and promotability. However, results also indicate that personnel specialists and women, representing other specialties, suggested that man was more capable to work in teams than woman. The study gives an insight about the possibility of gender stereotype change.</p> Justė Norvaišaitė Vita Mikuličiūtė Copyright (c) 2021 Justė Norvaišaitė | Vita Mikuličiūtė 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 63 72 85 10.15388/Psichol.2021.27 Testing the Effect of Social Norms Theory-based Interventions: Are they Harmful for University Students who Drink Less than the Peer Norm? <p><em>Background</em>. Social norms theory-based interventions have been widely used to reduce alcohol consumption among college and university students. Lately, it has been argued that such interventions may actually increase alcohol use among light drinkers. However, little studies have been focused on testing this possible negative effect. <em>Objectives</em>. The aim of this study was to examine possible negative impact of descriptive normative feedback (DNF) on drinking intentions among students whose baseline drinking scores were below the average of a reference group. We also studied the preventive effect of injunctive normative feedback (INF). <em>Methods.</em> Actual descriptive and injunctive norms were collected from 234 university students. From those who reported drinking below the norm, 26 were randomly assigned to a control or intervention condition that received normative feedback via PowerPoint presentations over two meetings. <em>Results.</em> DNF increased students’ intentions of spirits drinking frequency and quantity. Meanwhile intentions to drink beer, cider, wine and cocktails remained the same. Increased intentions to drink spirits were not reduced by INF. <em>Conclusions.</em> Findings suggest that DNF-based interventions might negatively affect the use of spirits among those students who consume less than their peer norm by increasing their intentions to drink spirits more often and in larger quantities. Ways other than the INF to prevent this negative effect need to be further explored.</p> Karina Kravčenko Laura Šeibokaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Karina Kravčenko | Laura Šeibokaitė 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 63 56 71 10.15388/Psichol.2021.26 Applying Value-Belief-Norm Theory to Investigate Students' Waste Prevention Behaviour <p>Even though the increasing amount of waste is one of the biggest environmental challenges we currently face, surprisingly little is known about the psychological factors of waste prevention behaviour. The purpose of the study is to examine whether students‘ waste prevention behaviour can be predicted by the Value-Belief-Norm theory. In this paper, we report results from a questionnaire study of 221 students aged from 18 to 26 years. It was found that the Value-Belief-Norm theory could indeed explain students‘ waste prevention behaviour. As expected, findings indicate that high endorsement of biospheric values is associated with a strong ecological worldview, which was related to an increased awareness of environmental consequences. Those beliefs led to stronger personal norms, which were associated with more frequent waste prevention behaviour. Understanding students‘ waste prevention behaviour and the factors predicting it is a key step that could help to reduce the amount of waste that is generated. It is particularly relevant among students&nbsp;because higher education environment could be an effective place to increase students‘ pro-environmental behaviour and connect this behaviour with their values, beliefs and norms.</p> Ernesta Smilingytė Dovilė Šorytė Copyright (c) 2021 Ernesta Smilingytė | Dovilė Šorytė 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 63 40 55 10.15388/Psichol.2021.25 Facial Muscles Reactions to Other Person’s Facial Expressions of Pain <p>The aim of this study was to record facial electromiograms (EMG) while subjects were viewing facial expressions of different pain levels (no-pain, medium pain and very painful) and to find objective criteria for measuring pain expressed in human’s face. The study involved 18 students with age 21 years. The magnitude of the EMG response of m. corrugator supercilii depended on voluntary performed facial pain expression in the subjects. EMG responses of voluntary performed facial pain expressions to mirrored pain reactions were detected at two time span intervals: 200–300 ms after stimulation in m. zygomaticus major, and 400–500 ms after stimulation in m. corrugator supercilii. These differences disappear after 1300 ms. In the second time interval, differences in EMG responses of both muscle groups occur 1600 ms after stimulus presentation, but disappear differently: 3100 ms after stimulation in m. zygomaticus major and 4000 ms in m. corrugator supercilii. Constant responding with “medium pain” expression when recognizing faces of different pain expressions have an effect on the voluntary EMG responses of individual subjects. Images with emotional expression “no pain” reduce m. corrugator supercilii activity and increase m. zygomaticus major activity for those observers.</p> Algimantas Švegžda Rytis Stanikūnas Kristina Augustinaitė Remigijus Bliumas Henrikas Vaitkevičius Copyright (c) 2021 Algimantas Švegžda | Rytis Stanikūnas | Kristina Augustinaitė | Remigijus Bliumas | Henrikas Vaitkevičius 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 63 24 39 10.15388/Psichol.2021.24 Utility of the Rey 15-Item Test for Detecting Memory Malingering <p>People seeking higher privileges or disability benefits are prone to simulate cognitive difficulties (van Oorsouw, Merckelbach, 2010). The most common is the simulation of memory impairment, but there is no adapted test in Lithuania that could identify it. The purpose of this study is to determine Rey Fifteen-Item Test (FIT; Rey, 1964; Lezak, Howieson, Bigler, Tranel, 2012) sensitivity and specificity by comparing three groups of subjects: healthy responders, who perform tests, as usual, healthy responders, who were instructed to simulate memory impairments and patients with traumatic brain injuries. The study included 91 subjects aged 18 to 86 years (M=42.04 SD=13.5). The study used the “Short Term Memory Test” (STMT; Vasserman, Dorofeeva, Meyerson, 1997), the FIT, socio-demographic questions. The results of the study revealed that the malingerers and nonmalingerers did not differ in the STMA scores. Whereas in patients with traumatic brain injuries STMA scores were significantly lower. Nonmalingerers and patients with traumatic brain injuries performed better on FIT than malingerers. The probability that the malingerers score lower than people with memory difficulties is 62 up to 78 percent; FIT sensitivity ranges between 73 and 90 percent, specificity between 41 and 72 percent, depending on the RPOT cut-off score.</p> Jovita Janavičiūtė Inesa Lelytė Algirdas Žukevičius Rimantas Vilcinis Aistė Pranckevičienė Copyright (c) 2021 Jovita Janavičiūtė | Inesa Lelytė | Algirdas Žukevičius | Rimantas Vilcinis | Aistė Pranckevičienė 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 63 8 23 10.15388/Psichol.2021.23 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jurgita Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 63 1 5 Eight Forms of Abuse: The Validation and Reliability of Two Multidimensional Instruments of Intimate Partner Violence <p>Many researchers are still relying on older and more rigid instruments focusing mostly on the physical aspect of intimate partner violence (IPV). This way multidimensionality of IPV and complex experiences of IPV survivors’ are overlooked by many researchers, practitioners and decision-makers. Therefore, our study aimed to adopt to Lithuanian two multidimensional scales: the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) and the Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA). As well as confirm its validity and reliability for the use for determining the experiences of Lithuanian women in intimate partner relationships. Through various channels 311 women, survivors of IPV were recruited. The structure of both measurements was validated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and internal consistency using McDonald’s omega coefficient. Relying on the newest research we confirmed a five-factor structure for the CAS with the five factors being: Severe Combined Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Emotional Abuse, Physical Abuse, and Harassment. We also confirmed the three-factor structure for the SEA, resulting in Economic Control, Economic Exploitation, and Employment Sabotage. The instruments demonstrated high internal consistency. The validated instruments that measure multidimensionality of IPV will allow a more comprehensive data and knowledge collection of women’s experiences in abusive relationships.</p> Zuzana Vasiliauskaitė Robert Geffner Copyright (c) 2020 Zuzana Vasiliauskaitė | Robert Geffner 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 63 56 68 10.15388/Psichol.2020.21