Psichologija https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija <p>Founded in 1962 (<em>Psychology</em> – since 1980) and dedicated to publishing articles on the topics of all fields of psychology and interdisciplinary topics.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Psichologija 1392-0359 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/psichologija/journalpolicy">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> The Analysis of the Phenomenon of Reflexivity in Psychotherapy Supervision: A Systematic Literature Review https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/17434 <p><em xml:lang="en-US">Reflexivity&nbsp;</em><span xml:lang="en-US">is a concept that is increasingly gaining prevalence in the literature of professional practice and it has been defined in a variety of ways; however, the differences in definition largerly depend on the context. Therefore, reflexivity development is the main goal of supervision; it is a powerful instrument that can impede the psychotherapist’s connection with his client, but there is no answer on what specifically enhances or decreases reflexivity during the supervision process. In the scientific articles analyzing supervision, there is no clear definition of the phenomenon of reflexivity and there is also a lack of empirical studies of reflexivity in supervision. The aim of this paper is to present our own definition and theoretical model of reflexivity in the psychotherapy supervision process as well as distinguish reflexivity between adjacent concepts like “reflection,” “self-reflection,” and “self-reflexivity.” We carried out a systematic review of literature within three databases and created a theoretical model of reflexivity in psychotherapy supervision. We also discuss the guidelines and methods for further empirical investigations of this phenomenon in psychotherapy supervision.</span></p> Marija Vaštakė Paulius Skruibis Copyright (c) 2021 Marija Vaštakė | Paulius Skruibis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-05 2021-08-05 65 22 39 10.15388/Psichol.2021.35 Change in the Definition of Personality Disorder in Transition to ICD-11: A Look from Clinical and Developmental Perspectives https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/23409 <p>The recent body of research reveals fundamental limitations to the categorical concept of a personality disorder that has led researchers to adopt a new personality disorder concept. During the last decade DSM-5 and ICD-11 diagnostic classifications have accepted the dimensional view towards personality pathology. Despite the differences between the two classifications, the joint aspect of both models is the construct of Levels of personality functioning. The construct of personality functioning involves personality (dys)function in the self and interpersonal domains. This two-step conceptualization includes (a) impairments of self and interpersonal functioning, indicating general signs and severity of personality disorder, and (b) pathological personality traits, reflecting ‘stylistic’ differences in the expression of personality disorder. The new conceptualization of personality disorder reflects the innovative multi-theoretical integration of known, empirically-based personality assessment paradigms. The relationship between personality functioning and interpersonal, psychodynamic, and personological paradigms provides the theoretical integrity and empirically-based structure necessary to understand the overall severity of personality pathology. Many methods (interviews, self-assessment scales, and questionnaires) have already been developed for the assessment of personality functioning, and their development will be encouraged by the ICD-11 classification established in 2022. At present, only one instrument has been developed in Lithuania for assessing the level of personality functioning in young people aged 12–18 (Barkauskienė &amp; Skabeikytė, 2020). The empirical data about the validity of this construct and its capability to differentiate between the normal and impaired personality in adults and adolescents provide promising results, but are still accumulating. Research suggests that adolescence is a stage in development when personality pathology can fully unfold and be validly confirmed, which opens up opportunities for early intervention. Although the dimensional personality disorder model needs to further prove its importance, there is already evidence that it is less stigmatizing and returns psychology and personality into the concept of a personality disorder. This review presents changes in the conceptualization of personality disorders by discussing them from both clinical and developmental perspectives and highlighting the results of key research in recent years.</p> Rasa Barkauskienė Elena Gaudiešiūtė Gabrielė Skabeikytė Copyright (c) 2021 Rasa Barkauskienė | Elena Gaudiešiūtė | Gabrielė Skabeikytė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-05 2021-08-05 65 8 21 10.15388/Psichol.2021.36 Prof. Algirdas Fedoravičius – An Eminent Lithuanian, US Psychologist https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/23998 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Evaldas Kazlauskas Copyright (c) 2021 Evaldas Kazlauskas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 65 165 167 10.15388/Psichol.2021.34 Children’s and Adolescents’ Internet Use: Risks and Opportunities https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/23008 <p>This paper presents the concept of risks and opportunities of children’s and adolescents’ Internet use. The research is a part of the project “Children’s and adolescents’ Internet use in Lithuania: possibilities and risks tendencies in EU context”, which was funded by a grant (No. S-MIP-17-1/LSS-250000-1087) from the Research Council of Lithuania. The main results are presented in comparison with Lithuanian and European studies. Conclusions and recommendations on how to ensure safe children’s Internet use on their own and to avoid potential risks, as well as how to open up the opportunities offered by the Internet are provided.</p> Neringa Grigutytė Saulė Raižienė Vilmantė Pakalniškienė Copyright (c) 2021 Neringa Grigutytė | Saulė Raižienė | Vilmantė Pakalniškienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 65 153 164 10.15388/Psichol.2021.33 Reflections of Wilhelm Wundt’s Lectures in Vytautas Civinskis’ Diary: Application of Introspection to Comprehend Emotional Phenomena https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/22989 <p>The beginning of the 20<span class="char-style-override-4">th</span>&nbsp;century is well known as a time of formation of psychology as an independent scientific discipline. One of the students interested in it was Vytautas Civinskis (1887–1910), who attended Wilhelm Wundt’s Psychology lectures during his agriculture (<em>Landwirtschaft</em>) studies at Leipzig University, in 1904–1906, and led a Diary at that time. This article presents analysis of fragments of Civinskis’ Diary related to psychology. Several artefacts found in it, preliminarily interpreted as the diarist’s introspection data related to emotional phenomena, are being discussed. The analysis verified the initial assumption and helped to understand the essence of the diarist’s research design. It was also deduced that Civinskis proceeded with the introspection at least two years after Wundt’s Psychology lectures, trying to elaborate the method. It was found that some other researchers, e. g. Flügel (1925), Viliūnas, Pacevičius and Stončius (1997) applied similar methods much later. The Civinskis’ research on his own emotional states was amateurish but performed consistently and diligently. It can be considered as one of the earliest cases of empirical research in the history of Lithuanian psychology and adds to our still incomplete knowledge of the latter.</p> Junona S. Almonaitienė Veronika Girininkaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Junona S. Almonaitienė | Veronika Girininkaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 65 137 152 10.15388/Psichol.2021.32 The Links Between Childhood Life Circumstances, Family Persecution and Discrimination Experiences, and Well-Being in Later Life https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/22724 <p>The life course perspective raised many discussions about continuity, types of threads linking different developmental stages, and ways to identify these links. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of childhood family circumstances and family repression / discrimination experiences in predicting psychological well-being in later life. The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) wave 7 data was used; 1985 respondents aged 50+ (<em>M</em>&nbsp;=&nbsp;66.23,&nbsp;<em>SD</em>&nbsp;=&nbsp;10.52) living in Lithuania (63.8 %&nbsp;– female) provided retrospective information on their early life circumstances, including home environment, relationships with family / friends, family persecution. Psychological well-being was assessed with a 12-item Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization, and Pleasure (CASP) scale. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that the inclusion of family persecution and other childhood factors increases the prognostic value of the model by 8 percent. Relationships with mother and friends, self-rated health, perceived abilities, number of books at home, and physical harm by others significantly predicted psychological well-being among older adults, even after controlling pivotal sociodemographic variables. These results suggest that creating a caring, safe, and cognitively stimulating childhood environment can promote better development in early stages and contribute to greater psychological well-being in later life.</p> Jonas Eimontas Albinas Bagdonas Antanas Kairys Olga Zamalijeva Vilmantė Pakalniškienė Raimonda Sadauskaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Jonas Eimontas | Albinas Bagdonas | Antanas Kairys | Olga Zamalijeva | Vilmantė Pakalniškienė | Raimonda Sadauskaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 65 118 136 10.15388/Psichol.2021.31 Environmental Attitudes and Recycling Behaviour in Primary School Age: The Role of School and Parents https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/22570 <p>This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental attitudes and recycling behaviour in primary school age, and to evaluate the role that school and parents play in the prediction of children’s attitudes and behaviour. Primary school pupils aged 8–11 years (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 116), their parents and their class teachers participated in the study. During the structured face-to-face interviews, children answered questions about their recycling behaviour and environmental attitudes (i.e. eco-affinity and eco-awareness). Parents provided answers on their recycling behaviour, verbal modelling of the behaviour, incentives used when a child recycles waste, and environmental attitudes, while class teachers provided information about the recycling in children’s school. Structural equation models were tested with a purpose to evaluate the role of different independent variables, i.e. only school, only parental factors, or both, when predicting child recycling behaviour. Results of the study showed that children’s environmental attitudes had no significant links to their recycling behaviour. The only factor that appeared to be significant in the prediction of child behaviour was parental recycling behaviour. Furthermore, recycling in schools predicted pupils’ eco-awareness. Based on the study findings, it would be worthwhile to promote more practical training of pro-environmental behaviour, and to strengthen children’s eco-affinity.</p> Dovilė Šorytė Vilmantė Pakalniškienė Copyright (c) 2021 Dovilė Šorytė | Vilmantė Pakalniškienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 65 101 117 10.15388/Psichol.2021.30 General Psychosocial Measures are Affected by the Situation Preceding Assessment: The ‘Arbitrary Distinction’ Between State and Trait Measures is Still Unresolved https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/19155 <p>General psychosocial measures are assumed to be stable over time. However, such measures may be affected by the situation preceding assessment. In this study 28 participants completed the WHO-5 Well-Being Index, the Subjective Happiness Scale, and the Life Orientation Test which are general measures, and the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Feeling Scale which are state measures. Subsequently, the first part of ‘<em>Mega Disasters Nagasaki The Forgotten Bomb’</em> documentary was presented to the participants. Following the intervention, they completed the same measures again. State measures of negative affect increased, feeling state decreased as expected, but <em>retrospectively </em>measured well-being as well as the index of optimism also decreased. There were large individual differences. The findings indicate that general measures, assumed to be stable over time, are influenced by the situation. Therefore, there is a need for reporting, as well as controlling, the events preceding their measurement. The implication of these findings is that hundreds of empirical results based on general or trait measures may be invalid if any event preceding their assessment had an emotional impact.</p> Attila Szabo Krisztina Ábel Copyright (c) 2021 Attila Szabo | Krisztina Ábel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 65 86 100 10.15388/Psichol.2021.29 The Influence of Applicant's and Rater’s Sex on Decision Making in Hiring Simulation https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/22605 <p>Gender stereotypes have determined that the concepts of management and leadership are more associated with men than women. There are more men working in management positions than women in various countries, including Lithuania. The most widely discussed cause for that is discrimination against women in the labor market. The aim of the study was to examine evaluation differences between personnel specialists and comparison group, depending on their own and candidate‘s gender. Study was based on quasi-experimental strategy which included a hiring simulation. Participants had to evaluate potential candidates, a man and a woman, seeking for a job in management position. Data was collected from 128 people (age range - 19 to 56 years): 48 personnel specialists (M=29,38; SD=7,48), 49 women, who represented other specialties (M=26,29; SD=7,36) and 31 men, who represented other specialties (M=25,39; SD=5,05). Both personnel specialists and comparison group evaluated man and woman-candidate as similar. There were no significant differences between the two candidates on their hireability, reliability, competence, potential salary and promotability. However, results also indicate that personnel specialists and women, representing other specialties, suggested that man was more capable to work in teams than woman. The study gives an insight about the possibility of gender stereotype change.</p> Justė Norvaišaitė Vita Mikuličiūtė Copyright (c) 2021 Justė Norvaišaitė | Vita Mikuličiūtė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 65 72 85 10.15388/Psichol.2021.27 Testing the Effect of Social Norms Theory-based Interventions: Are they Harmful for University Students who Drink Less than the Peer Norm? https://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/17090 <p><em>Background</em>. Social norms theory-based interventions have been widely used to reduce alcohol consumption among college and university students. Lately, it has been argued that such interventions may actually increase alcohol use among light drinkers. However, little studies have been focused on testing this possible negative effect. <em>Objectives</em>. The aim of this study was to examine possible negative impact of descriptive normative feedback (DNF) on drinking intentions among students whose baseline drinking scores were below the average of a reference group. We also studied the preventive effect of injunctive normative feedback (INF). <em>Methods.</em> Actual descriptive and injunctive norms were collected from 234 university students. From those who reported drinking below the norm, 26 were randomly assigned to a control or intervention condition that received normative feedback via PowerPoint presentations over two meetings. <em>Results.</em> DNF increased students’ intentions of spirits drinking frequency and quantity. Meanwhile intentions to drink beer, cider, wine and cocktails remained the same. Increased intentions to drink spirits were not reduced by INF. <em>Conclusions.</em> Findings suggest that DNF-based interventions might negatively affect the use of spirits among those students who consume less than their peer norm by increasing their intentions to drink spirits more often and in larger quantities. Ways other than the INF to prevent this negative effect need to be further explored.</p> Karina Kravčenko Laura Šeibokaitė Copyright (c) 2021 Karina Kravčenko | Laura Šeibokaitė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 65 56 71 10.15388/Psichol.2021.26