Religija ir kultūra <p>Founded in 2004. Publishes articles&nbsp;on the phenomenon of religion and the relationship between religion and culture by integrating religious studies with religious philosophy and other relevant disciplines of the field.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> (Rita Šerpytytė) (Vigintas Stancelis) Fri, 07 Oct 2022 07:45:40 +0000 OJS 60 Paradoxes of an Image: A Pictorial or Postsecular Turn? <p>The article discusses the interaction between religion and art, focusing on contemporary visual theories, especially on the concept of vitality of image, formulated by such authors as David Freedberg, Thomas William Mitchell and Horst Bredekamp. The article states that the aspect of immediate fate (in the sense of pathos), which is emphasized in the concept of vitality of image, opens up the possibility to discuss the postsecular approach of the pictorial turn (Mitchell). The article recalls a recent situation in one of the Vilnius (Lithuania) churches, when the original sculpture of St. Virgin Mary, created by Lithuanian artist Ksenija Jaroševaitė, was replaced by the copy of widely circulated sculpture of St. Mary of Lourdes, originally created in 1864 by French sculptor Joseph-Hugues Fabisch, at the request of the churchgoers. In the article the latter situation also serves as a representative model, revealing the paradoxicality of an image, when the aesthetic judgement is changed by the unreflected recognition of the power of the image. The article discusses the problem of the ontological status of an image, admitting that the condition of emancipation of the image implicated in the concept of its vitality leads to the condition of the uncanny and questions related to such fundamental controversies as distinctions between creator and image or vitality and artefact.</p> Vaiva Daraškevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ideology and Idolatry <p>A series of articles has already been published in recent years by the author on the notion of cosmogony as implied by Lithuanian term for it,&nbsp;<em>sutvėrimas</em>. This polysemous term has at least three gross branches of meanings: not only the most usual ‘fencing (in, off, around)’ but also ‘coagulation, solidifying, hardening’ and ‘catching, clenching (by hand)’, and all of these meanings are reflected in traditional views of creation. However, both the very cosmogony and still more various processes of smaller scale corresponding to different meanings of&nbsp;<em>sutvėrimas</em>&nbsp;(and the verb&nbsp;<em>sutverti</em>) may have also negative sense, that of stagnation, hardening, stiffness, stop of the life flow. Hence the notion of freedom, conversely, as softening, thawing, melting and free flow. Therefore, human being either stays in this definitively hardened world which has become a prison to his soul or begins to loosen his grip on it and to thaw gradually himself. On the cosmic scale, this hope and objective is eschatological, and on the personal scale, soteriological, that is, aimed at deliverance and freedom which in this sense is the opposite of cosmogony. The very ‘createdness’ in its different hues then is conceived negatively, as ‘madeness’ and artificiality, as antithesis of freedom and obstacle to it. And its principal manifestations in the inner world, then, are ideology and idolatry, the two aspects of one and the same phenomenon looked at from slightly different angles. That is exactly the subject of this article (which continues two previous, “Without ground, without support” (Razauskas&nbsp;2022a) and “Ideas, Ideals, and Ideologies” (Razauskas&nbsp;2022b)).</p> Dainius Razauskas Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Return of Religion and the Problem of Radical Evil: A Case Study of Russia’s War in Ukraine <p>The article analyses the case of Russia’s war in Ukraine by focusing on the ambivalent relationship between radical evil and the “return of the religious”. First, the revival of politicised religious fundamentalism in contemporary Russia is examined by discussing the relationship between the state and the church and its concretisation in the field of foreign policy&nbsp;– the “Russian World” teaching. The article shows how the Russian Orthodox Church legitimises a project that pursues geopolitical goals and justifies the started war as a metaphysical fight against evil. Attention is drawn to the fact that in this case we are dealing with a kind of “secular religion” or “inverted secularism”, when ecclesial forms are used to revive the Soviet imperialism, and faith is replaced by beliefs. Next, when considering the analysed case in the context of the “return of the religious” reflected by Jacques Derrida and Gianni Vattimo, the emphasis is not only on the principle of violence (which is born from the fusion of political and religious discourses), but also on the positive possibilities of this return, which aforementioned thinkers elaborated by formulating the concepts of elementary faith and ethics of charity. At the same time, the article shows that these concepts lack an existential focus that would allow the problem of radical evil to be grasped at the level of individual existence. Therefore, to highlight the existential aspect of radical evil, the concepts of the perverse will, “grey zone” and impossible hope are used.</p> Danutė Bacevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Board and Table of Contents <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> Copyright (c) 2019 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press Mon, 07 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data <p>[text in Lithuanian]</p> Copyright (c) 2019 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press Mon, 07 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 On the Ontology of Law and the Oblivion of Being <p>This article hypothetically puts forth the idea of the ontology of Law as the “First Philosophy”. The presentation and justification of this idea is linked with the rethinking of the approach to examining law. This approach seeks to investigate law neither as the object of jurisprudence, legal theory, nor even, and this is especially crucial, legal philosophy; it rather consists in justifying the possibility of looking at the law from an ontological philosophical perspective, revealing the fundamental link between law and being. In contrast, by treating law as a given and not raising the question of its emergence as such, by searching for “right” laws “in accordance with nature”, even when ontological terms are being used, the ontological context of law’s emergence is not revealed; rather, only ontological pretentions to existing laws are asserted. This article discusses the work of the Ancient philosophy scholar Werner Jaeger, which allows one to rethink the idea of the ontology of law and to outline the direction for “resetting” the notion of law.</p> Rita Šerpytytė Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Spirit of Legality: Hegel’s Critique of Law and Turn to Ontology in the Frankfurt Fragments <p>This paper is an attempt to investigate the relation between George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s critique of law in his early Frankfurt fragments, most notably in the treatise&nbsp;<em>Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate</em>&nbsp;and his turn towards an ontological conception of the unity of life and love as its modification. It will be argued that Hegel’s ontological turn can only be understood in light of his rejection of law as the form of absolute opposition. The form of law, moreover, will be treated as the thread to understand the initial movement of Hegel’s profound rejection of Kantian morality. Nevertheless, in following the Christian concept of&nbsp;<em>pleroma</em>&nbsp;that promises to fulfil law and proposing to think unification ontologically, Hegel discovers that law cannot be simply rejected, but pertains or arises out of the very unity that was said to surmount it. If Hegel begins from an opposition of law and being, these fragments reveal the extent to which he will have to think their relationship dialectically, as a contradiction pertaining to the Absolute.</p> Povilas Dumbliauskas Copyright (c) 2018 Authors Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Critical Remarks on Schmitt’s Political Realism <p>According to a widely accepted line of interpretation, Carl Schmitt’s political philosophy is a classic example of political realism. In this article I propose, starting with an analysis of some themes from the essay published in 1923&nbsp;<em>Die geistesgeschichtliche Lage des heutigen Parlamentarismus</em>, to challenge this interpretation. An in-depth analysis of Schmitt’s critique of parliamentarism and identitarian democracy may, in fact, suggest that his proposal is a normative theory of political enmity.</p> Ernesto C. Sferrazza Papa Copyright (c) 2018 Authors Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Problem of Representation of Religious in Contemporary Art. Secular and Postsecular Perspectives <p>The article deals with the relationship between religion and contemporary art, discussing their configurations from two different perspectives – the one of secularization and the postsecular one. The author mantains that in the perspective of secularization the fields of religion and art are treated as autonomous and separate, therefore the passage to postsecular condition implicates the destruction of principle law of autonomy, by this opening the possibility of the interlaying of the contexts of religion and art. The article comes to the conclusion that postsecular approach supposes that the relationship between religion and contemporary art becomes possible only by accepting the refusal of the direct representation and this means that religious implications can be recognised not as the representations of religious contents, but rather as the track of them, which can assume the forms of profanation or reflection on the experience of secularization.</p> Vaiva Daraškevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2017 Authors Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Reception of Heidegger’s Notion of the Essence of Technology in the “Empirical Turn” Philosophy of Technology <p>In<strong xml:lang="en-US">&nbsp;</strong>this article some important aspects of Heidegger’s philosophy of technology is addressed. It is argued against Don Ihde’s observation that Heidegger’s philosophy of technology mostly concerns the large scale technological phenomena of industrial revolution – actually in Heidegger’s oeuvre we can find reflection on such micro-scale post-industrial technologies as cybernetics, biotechnologies etc. The critique of the essentialism of Heideggerian philosophy of technology by such authors as Andrew Feenberg, Don Ihde and Peter-Paul Verbeek is presented. It is suggested that earlier Heidegger’s concept of the essence of technology as&nbsp;<span class="Strong">“</span>machination<span class="Strong">”</span>&nbsp;(Machenschaft) is less susceptible to such criticism: whether technologies are exploitative and turning nature into&nbsp;<span class="Strong">“</span>standing reserve<span class="Strong">”</span>, or whether they are ecological and nature-friendly, whether they are understood as autonomous force, or democratically controlled process – it could be said that through contemporary technologies reality is increasingly turned into artifice and entities are revealed as makeable and producible.</p> Tomas Nemunas Mickevičius Copyright (c) 2017 Authors Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000