Respectus Philologicus 2020-10-20T09:42:34+00:00 Gabija Bankauskaitė Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1999. The journal provides a platform for different theoretical and thematic approaches to the following humanitarian research fields: linguistic researches, issues of literary narratives and contexts, influence of advertising discourse, theory and practice of translation, audiovisual research.</p> “The Bravo Boys” Band versus Mozart: the Issue of Cultural Message in Contemporary German Language Textbooks 2020-10-20T09:42:01+00:00 Beata Głowińska <p>Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart had to give way to&nbsp;<em>The Bravo Boys</em>&nbsp;music band. This is what the authors of the textbook entitled&nbsp;<em>Ping Pong 1</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Ping Pong neu 2</em>&nbsp;have decided to do in the current edition of their book. So, they decided to replace its contents concerning the Composer himself and other representatives of classical music with the report from the concert of the BB. The article attempts to determine who, what characters from the real world populate in contemporary German textbooks, what cultural content it has and whether or not it conforms with the core curriculum standards of the Polish education system. To this end, selected German language textbooks have been analyzed along with the practice material offered by them. The authors of examined textbooks have almost completely abandoned depicting representatives of high culture, of German culture. They have been replaced with representatives of mass culture: mainly models, actors, athletes as well as politicians.&nbsp;Their common feature is the fact that they are universally known: the majority are celebrities while some of them are scandalists.&nbsp;The fact that these persons can be easily recognized seems to increase the students’ learning involvement, but it cannot constitute the only criterion of such selection. The article stresses the responsibility of textbook authors for the quality of cultural message addressed to children and teenagers.</p> 2020-10-19T10:11:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Beata Głowińska Lip Synchrony of Rounded and Protruded Vowels and Diphthongs in the Lithuanian-Dubbed Animated Film “Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs 2” 2020-10-20T09:42:04+00:00 Indrė Koverienė Kristina Čeidaitė <p>In this article, the problems of dubbing, especially related to lip synchrony as one of the most challenging aspects of audiovisual translation, are scrutinised. Contrarily to the traditional focus on bilabials and open vowels, the object of this research is lip synchrony of both rounded and protruded vowels and diphthongs since lip rounding is a visibly marked feature, which cannot be neglected especially in close-ups. The study aims at determining the inaccuracies in lip synchrony of the mentioned phonemic group in the dubbed animated feature film&nbsp;<em>Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs 2</em>&nbsp;from English to Lithuanian. Qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out by employing a comparative method. The research methodology is based on the theoretical insights and assumptions provided by Frederic Chaume (2004, 2006, 2012), Richard Barsam &amp; Dave Monahan (2010), and Indrė Koverienė (2015). The research findings demonstrate the main issues of lip synchrony a translator might face while adapting a piece of audiovisual material for the target language audience. Also, it provides insights into the quality of the overall translation of the chosen film.</p> 2020-10-19T10:02:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Indrė Koverienė | Kristina Čeidaitė Lost in Translation: Narrative Perspective Silenced by the Voice of the Translator 2020-10-20T09:42:07+00:00 Lindita Tahiri <p>This study compares passages from four novels by the renowned Albanian author Ismail Kadare with their English translations:&nbsp;<em>Prilli i thyer</em>&nbsp;(<em>Broken April,</em>&nbsp;1990 [1980]),&nbsp;<em>Kronika në gur</em>&nbsp;(<em>Chronicle in Stone,</em>&nbsp;2007 [1971]),<em>&nbsp;Vajza e Agamemnonit&nbsp;</em>(<em>The Daughter of Agamemnon,</em>&nbsp;2006 [2003])<em>&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>Pallati i ëndrrave</em>&nbsp;(<em>The Palace of Dreams,</em>&nbsp;2011 [1999]). It uses the linguistic analysis of style in the source and the target languages aiming to identify the modification of narrative perspectives during the translation process. The stylistic comparison of the original with translated versions demonstrates the shift from the internal perspective to the narratorial perspective of narration, which may be the result of the translator’s inclination to explain. In Kadare’s novels which have been translated from French, the tendency to make a clear borderline between narrative voices is evident. The translator’s lack of ability to pick out stylistic features indicating the internal perspective of the character impacts the mental representation produced by the reader of the translated text. The shift from the character’s to the narrator’s perspective influences not only the reader’s attitude towards the culture narrated in the text but also the way how the identity of the narrator is construted. Consequently, the imposed narratorial voice in the translated Kadare’s novels gives a different impression from the non-intrusive narration that the author managed to create in the communist regime.</p> 2020-10-19T09:56:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lindita Tahiri The Doomsday Scenario Depicted by Frau Ava: The Question of Sources 2020-10-20T09:42:10+00:00 Aleksej Burov <p>The present article explores an excerpt depicting the scenario of the last days in the poem&nbsp;<em>Das Jüngste Gericht&nbsp;</em>(Eng.&nbsp;<em>The Last Judgement</em>), written by the first-named German female writer Frau Ava (circa 1060–1127). The study addresses the question of sources used in the depiction of the end times in the excerpt under consideration (lines 1–160). The study does not question the affinity between the scenes of the last days illustrated in the excerpt and the apocalyptic plot of the Latin texts of Pseudo-Beda (the turn of the 12th century) and Petrus Daminanus (1006–1072); however, it is assumed that Frau Ava may have drawn not only on the aforementioned Latin sources but also on the apocalyptic song&nbsp;<em>Muspilli</em>, written by an anonymous author circa 870. The analysis of the excerpt suggests that the apocalyptic narrative of&nbsp;<em>Muspilli&nbsp;</em>may have shaped the scene of the fifteenth day illustrated in the poem&nbsp;<em>The Last Judgement</em>. Moreover, Frau Ava, unlike Pseudo-Beda and Petrus Daminanus, does not refer to St. Jerome as a source of information but to&nbsp;<em>wisten</em>&nbsp;(Eng.&nbsp;<em>wise men</em>). As no evidence of other German apocalyptic texts referring to wise men, except for&nbsp;<em>Muspilli</em>, can be found, the study concludes that depicting the scenario of the last days in her poem, in addition to the Latin texts, Frau Ava used the song<em>&nbsp;Muspilli&nbsp;</em>as her source.</p> 2020-10-19T09:47:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Aleksej Burov A Poem as a Communiqué: the Communicativeness of Poetry of Onė Baliukonė 2020-10-20T09:42:14+00:00 Skaistė Barkutė <p>This article presents the creation of art&nbsp;– a poesy&nbsp;– in the context of the theory of communication. Multimeaning of the concept of communication supposes plenty of attitudes and considerations and complexity of definition. There exist two different schools of communication studies, one being the process school and the other being the semiotic school. The process school is cantered on the transmission of messages and understanding the effects of it. The semiotic school focuses on communication being a production and exchanging of meanings. It researches how messages and texts interact with people. Since the creation of art is considered as communiqué, so its conveying content relates with, a spiritual link a creator and a perceiver. The article discusses a poem as a communiqué, its place in the structure of the process and semiotic communication models. The article also discusses poesy as a message and its communicativeness, informativeness, and importance. O. Baliukonė’s poetry was taken to implement this aim. The fulfilled research demonstrated that O. Baliukonė actively communicates with a reader through her poems. Decoding is the same creative process as encoding; thus, in this article, attention is paid to the poet’s and also to a reader’s creation of the meaning of a message.</p> 2020-10-19T09:32:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Skaistė Barkutė “Apple Blossoms” and “The Apple Tree”: Two Perspectives Typological and Ideological Similarities in Short Stories by Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky and John Galsworthy 2020-10-20T09:42:17+00:00 Oksana Halchuk <p>The article<em>&nbsp;</em>provides comparative analysis of&nbsp;<em>Apple Blossoms</em>&nbsp;by Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky and&nbsp;<em>The Apple Tree</em>&nbsp;by John Galsworthy. Both authors explore human morality in a crisis of confrontation between sensuality and death, the beauty of life and the beauty of art. At the structural level, the works share an element of paratext, novelistic nature, polysemic images-landscapes, and methods of psychologization. Galsworthy engages the antinomy of the&nbsp;<em>city&nbsp;– province</em>, resorts to irony, and combines elements of impressionist writing with the traditions of realistic socio-psychological prose. In contrast, Kotsiubynsky systematically implements the impressionist fragmentary nature of the composition, symbolism of visual and auditory images, in-depth psychoanalysis, and the conventionality of the chronotope.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus">The issues of short stories are diversified and aesthetic&nbsp;– as is distinct for modernist literature&nbsp;– implicitly in Kotsiubynsky’s work, and most explicitly through the connections with the Antiquity and English intertext in Galsworthy’s prose.</p> 2020-10-19T09:27:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Oksana Halchuk The Changes of Cultural Memory in a Liquid Modern World 2020-10-20T09:42:21+00:00 Aurelija Mykolaitytė <p>Based on the insights of modern philosophers, particularly Zygmunt Bauman, the work examines how cultural memory can be affected by globalisation and what kind of challenges arise when collective truths are passed on from generation to generation. The sources selected for the analysis are modern dystopias that design possible versions of cultural response. Other subjects significant to the research include phenomena of modern culture that help to uncover the latest trends and the views on cultural heritage held by people of the 21st century. The article comes to the conclusion that the changes of cultural memory in a fluid modern world can be affected deeply by factors such as the ideology of consumerism and the insularity of a web community, but this is only a possibility. Western authors Aldous Huxley and Michel Houellebecq place a stronger emphasis on determinism, whereas Lithuanian writer Jaroslavas Melnikas highlights the possibility of freedom. Nevertheless, notably, all of these texts are projections that primarily encourage critical thinking and demonstrate the ambivalence of the current situation. Contemporary culture is likely at a turning point, but the results of the transformation are still unclear.</p> 2020-10-19T09:17:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Aurelija Mykolaitytė The Cartography of Love in Doris Lessing’s “love, again” 2020-10-20T09:42:26+00:00 Lilia Miroshnychenko <p>In her late novel,&nbsp;<em>love, again</em>&nbsp;(1996), Doris Lessing represents a penetrative insight of love, providing the widest perspective of love than in any of her previous work. The abundance and variety of plausible&nbsp;<em>les affaires d’amour</em>, which transgress the boundaries of gender, age, geography, and social status, make&nbsp;<em>love, again</em>&nbsp;Lessing’s most “loveful” novel. The narrative responds to this multiplicity accordingly. The essay explores the theme of romantic love of the central female character, Sarah Durham, who is at the centre of the narrative and whose emotional landscape is meticulously mapped. It also aims to unveil the ways Doris Lessing exploits a longstanding tradition of interpreting love in Western philosophy and culture&nbsp;– from Plato to contemporary theorists, including Alain Badiou. Special attention is paid to the interweaving of love and friendship in the relationship of woman and man as well as friendship’s “healing” power for unrequited love encapsulated in the character of Stephen Ellington-Smith. Also, by tracing the transformative impulse of love, the essay tries to bring light on the constructive (in the case of Sarah) and problematic (Stephen) consequences of love.</p> 2020-10-19T09:13:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lilia Miroshnychenko Expression of Conflict Communication in the Discourse of Presidential Election in Lithuania (2019) 2020-10-20T09:42:30+00:00 Vilma Linkevičiūtė <p>The subject matter of the article is different linguistic means of political conflict communication proper to the presidential discourse in Lithuania (2019). The research deals with the conflict communication of the three most popular candidates (according to sociological surveys)&nbsp;– G. Nausėda, S. Skvernelis, and I.&nbsp;Šimonytė. The political discourse of all three candidates is aimed at а positive self-representation; direct or indirect imputations of lack of sustained political commitment from the former president or their political opponents; accusation of pursuing their personal interests, or even making detrimental actions to the state and the society. The most prevalent meaning field in Nausėda’s discourse is&nbsp;<em>welfare&nbsp;</em>–<em>&nbsp;detriment</em>&nbsp;where THEY (former presidents, political parties and their representatives) are granted negative nominations, which are contrasted to positive nominations related to the latter candidate. The most prevailing meaning field in Skvernelis’s discourse is&nbsp;<em>active and responsible state&nbsp;</em>–<em>&nbsp;inactive and irresponsible state</em>&nbsp;which is expressed with the help of two sets of oppositions I&nbsp;– SHE (Grybauskaitė) and I&nbsp;– THEY (Parliamentary opposition and former political majority). The most popular meaning field in Šimonytė’s discourse is&nbsp;<em>welfare&nbsp;</em>–<em>&nbsp;detriment,&nbsp;</em>expressed with the help of I&nbsp;– THEY (members of the Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union) opposition.</p> 2020-10-19T09:05:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Vilma Linkevičiūtė “Fat Cats on Golden Parachutes” – about an Idiom Derived from the Language of Politics and its Modifications 2020-10-20T09:42:34+00:00 Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek Agnieszka Rosińska-Mamej <p>Due to the influence of the language of politics, the noun phrase,&nbsp;<em>tłuste koty</em>, has become established in modern Polish language. As the research material proves, the idiom&nbsp;<em>fat cats</em>&nbsp;has a negative connotation in the Polish language. Most often, it refers to rich people associated with business, as well as politicians and people in power, such as legislative, executive and judicial. The analysed texts provide many modifications of the expression under analysis, e.g.,&nbsp;<em>wypasione pisowskie</em><em>&nbsp;tłuste koty, tłuste koty</em>&nbsp;<em>w sutannach,&nbsp;</em><em>tłuste koty&nbsp;</em><em>nadziane ośmiorniczkami</em><em>, tłuste koty&nbsp;</em><em>na złotych spadochronach</em>,&nbsp;<em>lejące krokodyle łzy podczas ucieczki z pogromu kociego na Wall Street,&nbsp;</em><em>najtłustszy&nbsp;</em><em>i wredny&nbsp;</em><em>kot,&nbsp;</em><em>okrąglutki, milutki, taki kotek tłuściutki.&nbsp;</em>The most important function of modification is to express a critical opinion about people in the category of fatty cats. Through modifications, it is emphasized that the earnings of fatty cats are indecently high, often unreasonable and undeserved. Sharp social opposition causes financiers and politicians to avoid being responsible for their mistakes, for dishonesty.&nbsp;<em>Fat cats</em>&nbsp;are also accused of greed.</p> 2020-10-19T08:58:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dorota Połowniak - Wawrzonek | Agnieszka Rosińska-Mamej