Respectus Philologicus <p>Founded in 1999. The journal provides a platform for different theoretical and thematic approaches to the following humanitarian research fields: linguistic researches, issues of literary narratives and contexts, influence of advertising discourse, theory and practice of translation, audiovisual research.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Respectus Philologicus 1392-8295 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> Means of Creating the Media Image of a Candidate to the Post of Mayor through Contextual Argumentation (on the materials of the texts about the 2018–2019 elections in Moscow, Vilnius and Belgrade) <p>In political cultures of a number of countries, the creation of a politician’s media image is based on the fundamental principle of his/her work being formulated as the achievement of the goal of ensuring a nation’s well-being and a country’s development. The present article demonstrates concrete similarities and differences discernible in the construction of a politician’s media image in the Russian, Lithuanian and Serbian media discourses from a rhetorical perspective. The methodological basis of the investigation is provided by the ideas of the new rhetoric and Ch. Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca’s assumption concerning the fact that the speaker’s ideas are accepted (or not accepted) by the audience not depending on the degree of the strictness of logical propositions and conclusions, but rather on the fact of whether the hearers have adhered to the grounds given by the speaker. Consequently, a researcher analysing the ways text influences the consciousness of those receiving it may identify shared truths and value judgements. On the basis of the analysis of contextual argumentation used for the creation of the media image of the candidates for the post of mayor in the three media discourses, an attempt to establish shared truths and values as well as certain regularities in the process of media image creation characteristic of the Russian, Lithuanian and Serbian media discourses has been made.</p> Viktorija Makarova Aleksey Shulus Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 22 34 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2019.37.42.36 The Duration of Pauses between Phrases in Reading Language <p>The aim of this research is to determine the duration of the pauses between paragraphs and sentences in reading language and their connection with the length and reading speed of said language units. The research material consists of 48 sound recordings (eight Lithuanian speakers read six texts representing different functional styles). The results show that all readers usually pause between paragraphs and the duration of those pauses depend on the reading speed: faster readers pause for approximately 400–1340 ms, while slower readers pause for 750–1800 ms. Pauses are the shortest after short paragraphs and they are 1.2 times longer after longer paragraphs. All the readers usually pause between sentences as well. Faster readers on average pause for 200–980 ms, slower readers pause for 340–1360 ms. The longer the sentence, the longer the pause after that sentence (up to 1.4 times). However, the pause can be the same duration after both long and medium length sentences.</p> Asta Kazlauskienė Eidmantė Kalašinskaitė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 35 46 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2019.37.42.37 The Anti-language in the English as a Foreign Language Curriculum <p class="ISSN-abst-virsus">The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the significance of slang in educating well-rounded EFL learners. The study, first, uncovers the most salient features of slang, distinguishing it from jargon, argot, cant, etc. It also discusses the reasons why slang springs to life; the users of slang and functions it performs, as well as the word-formation processes employed in its creation.<br>The paper further investigates the familiarity of Macedonian undergraduate students of English with currently relevant English and American slang, the main hypothesis being that they lack knowledge of slang due to insufficient exposure and instruction. The instruments used are a questionnaire and a quiz comprising 60 slang terms, intended to inspect informants’ knowledge of slang.<br>The results obtained from this research confirm that slang is disregarded in EFL acquisition, and that no steady progress is made in the students’ knowledge of slang in the course of their university studies.</p> Silvana Neshkovska Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 47 61 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2020.37.42.38 Acquisition of Noun Inflection in Lithuanian as a Foreign Language: a Qualitative Study <p class="ISSN-abst-virsus">The aim of the research was to investigate how native speakers of Russian, which is a highly complex inflectional language, cope with the acquisition of the similar by structure and complexity Lithuanian language. The subjects were adults of different age and education who learned Lithuanian in Belarus. I analyse errors related to the acquisition of noun case. The errors are divided into formal (acquisition of endings) and conceptual ones (choice of the appropriate case). I shortly compare my results with the results of similar research conducted in Lithuania where the subjects were native speakers of different languages.<br>The results of the study show that similar errors are typical for native speakers of different languages irrespective of their morphological complexity. A complex inflectional system of a native language is not necessarily beneficial, but it seems to give some advantages for the acquisition of semantic (not syntactic) cases.</p> Anzhalika Dubasava Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 62 77 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2020.37.42.39 Provocation as a Genre: Rhetorical Definitions of MeToo Discourse <p>Modern media has led to changes in the scope, intensity and effectiveness of communication. The Internet medium, which offers almost unlimited dialogue and polylogue possibilities, has become an attractive place for provocation to be born and function. The provocative narrative not only inspires these processes, but also becomes as a result of such a genre modification. This article analyzes a provocative discourse, the Lithuanian version of the global movement&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">MeToo</em>, which promotes the publication of cases of sexual harassment: testimonies of women who have been sexually harassed, publications in the media discussing the issue, interviews with discourse participants, another type of comments. The&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">MeToo</em>&nbsp;discourse is characterized by a rhetorical aspect: the concept of provocation as an effective communication strategy is explored; the relationship of the provocative narrative to the genre category is discussed; characteristic rhetorical elements&nbsp;– invention, disposition, elocution&nbsp;– have been distinguished.</p> Eglė Gabrėnaitė Monika Triaušytė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 78 90 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2020.37.42.40 Quantitative Data Analysis of Water Concept in English Water Management Metadiscourse <p>This paper deals with the comparative analysis of the possibility to apply both linguo-cognitive and quantitative methods in the study of structure of mental units, e.g. concepts. The current research continues our overall and integrated study of English ecological discourse and is the next in a number of logical research series of this scientific challenge (Ковалик 2017; Ковалик, Тимочко 2018). The study object of this paper is&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">WATER</em>&nbsp;concept in English water management metadiscourse. The research is carried out on the basis of the original text of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">the EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60 / EC</em>. The aim of the paper is not only to conduct a frame-based analysis of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">WATER</em>&nbsp;concept using Svitlana Zhabotynska’s methodology of conceptual analysis (Жаботинська 1999) but also to analyse the concept occurrences in the researchable metadiscourse. In the present investigation, the conceptual structure of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">WATER</em>&nbsp;concept is modelled through basic frame schemas and is considered as an open system. The research takes a new look at the application of linguo-cognitive and quantitative data analyses in the study of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">WATER</em>&nbsp;concept in English water management metadiscourse.</p> Nataliia Kovalyk Lesia Tymochko Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 91 103 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2020.37.42.41 Silence as a Specific Kind of Communication in Legal Discourse <p>The article is devoted to the description of modifying reality through non-verbal speech acts. The subject of the study are non-verbal signs referring to the category of legal communication. This study included acts of legal communication that are expressed or can be expressed using various forms of silence. The first aim of the study was to determine whether silence can be classified as a speech act in the strict sense. The secondary aim was to determine the usefulness of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">silence</em>&nbsp;in legal communication. The methodological basis of the analysis was the assumptions of pragmatism in the approach of W.&nbsp;James and the concept of performative acts of speech by J.&nbsp;L.&nbsp;Austin.</p> Joanna Kowalczyk Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 104 113 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2020.37.42.42 An Image of a Person with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in Popular Literature (on the Example of the Hero of Jodi Picoult's Novel “House Rules”) <p>In this article, the case of&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation">eighteen-year-old&nbsp;</span>Jacob Hunt, the main character of Jodi Picoult’s book entitled&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">House Rules</em>&nbsp;(<em xml:lang="en-US">W naszym domu</em>&nbsp;in Polish translation) is discussed.&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation">Jacob is an example of a literary character with features similar to those of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). He&nbsp;</span>suffers from Asperger syndrome, which belongs to ASD (autism spectrum disorder). That is why he finds it difficult to develop communication skills, which translates into disturbed communication. The disturbances involve difficulties in acquiring and applying social rules as well as having specific narrow interests.<span class="tlid-translation">&nbsp;The author of this article points out the linguistic, as well as non-linguistic behaviour of the protagonist, which are specific for&nbsp;</span>autism spectrum disorder.&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation">She also draws attention to the role that popular literature plays in creating the image of people with ASD and in popularizing information about this disorder.</span></p> Joanna Senderska Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 114 126 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2020.37.42.43 Nostalgia and National Identity: Idea of Revisiting the Past in Latvian Fiction <p>One of the most popular themes in Latvian literature which has regularly arisen at different stages of its development since the 19th century is the idea of returning to the roots, the depiction of a mythological world scene when people lived according to the rhythms of nature, in full harmony with themselves and the world. Ancient times are depicted as a time when Latvians felt free living at their farms and followed the rules of the mythical time. This peculiar feature which we analyse on the basis of literary works, describes vividly the nation’s collective consciousness, desires, and needs. The need for emphasizing the idealised ancient times in the nation’s consciousness is related to the most significant transitional stages in the development of the country, which are characterised by the increased attention to the issues of national identity. During difficult stages in history, nosta lgia is a security mechanism which looks for stability in the past which we do not have in the present. The aim of the paper is to see how the nostalgic reflection on the idealized ancient times in the Latvian literature is related to the pivotal stages in the country’s history when special attention was paid to the national awareness and identity issues.</p> Alina Romanovska Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 127 136 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2020.37.42.44 Oral Narrative Genres as Communicative Dialogic Resources and their Correlation to African Short Fiction <p class="ISSN-abst-virsus">Oral and written storytelling traditions in Africa developed at the same time and influenced each other in many ways. In the twentieth century, the relation between the deeply rooted oral tradition and literary traditions intensified.<br>We aim to reveal literary analysis tools that help to trace ways how oral narrative genres found reflection in African short fiction under analysis. A case study is based on two short stories by women writers,&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">The Rain Came</em>&nbsp;by Grace Ogot and&nbsp;<em xml:lang="en-US">The Lovers&nbsp;</em>by Bessie Head. Images and symbols both, in oral and written traditions in Africa, as well as the way they evolved and extended in a literary genre of short fiction are considered within the framework of hermeneutics, reader reception theory and feminist literary criticism.<br>The results obtained in the study prove that oral narrative genres interact with literary genres, though most importantly, women’s writing as a literary category and images embodied in the short stories play a decisive role and deviation from the images embodied in African oral tradition.</p> Loreta Huber Evelina Jonaitytė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 37(42) 137 146 10.15388/RESPECTUS.2020.37.42.45