Socialiniai tyrimai <p>Founded in 2002. The uniqueness of the scientific journal <em>Socialiniai tyrimai</em> (Eng. <em>Social Research</em>) among other periodicals of similar or related topics is the orientation towards the results of original social research.</p> en-US (Teodoras Tamošiūnas) (Vigintas Stancelis) Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Table of Contents <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 “Parallel reforms and double efforts”: Latvia`s experience reforming administration <p>The public administration reform process in Latvia from the beginning of the 1990s was separated into two parts - national administrative reform and administrative territorial reform – both with their own unique goals and implementation mechanisms. The divided coordination and management of the reforms have resulted in the two administrative subsystems. The paper’s aim is to explore the links between reforms in the national level and local level after 2004 by analyzing the main reform documents determining all reform activities at that time. The results will demonstrate the complexity of the reform management process, as the coordination of reforms is essential regarding all of its levels and sectors.</p> Iveta Reinholde Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Municipal Development Strategy as an Instrument of Local Economic Development Policy <p>The main objective of this paper is to determine the importance of local development strategies for formulating and implementing local economic development policies by local authorities. In particular, an attempt is made to answer the question of whether local authorities properly and effectively use public management tools (i.e. a development strategy) to promote economic development in their area. Furthermore, the aim of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland.</p> Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Citizen-oriented Local Governance: the Correlation between Subjective Well-being and Citizen Participation in the Salaspils Municipality (Latvia) Case <ol> <li class="show">The aim of the paper is to present a possible citizen- oriented governance model and discuss the outcomes of empirical research, which are targeted to municipalities and are based on the approbation of a subjective well-being methodology.</li> </ol> <p>The main findings of the study show that citizen participation in decision-making processes is crucial in order to improve the well-being in the municipality. The empirical research of the Salaspils municipality and comparisons with several other municipalities in Latvia and other countries demonstrated that the citizen-oriented local governance model provides wide opportunities for improved dialogue between the municipality and society, which in turn promotes the development of a co-responsibility approach in resolving different issues within the municipality.</p> Inga Jēkabsone | Biruta Sloka Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The public procurement system in Belarus: a regional aspect <p>The paper presented here is the country research and has an analytical character concerning a regional aspect of the public procurement system in Belarus. Stages of the public procurements system’s formation and its legislative base and the development of the electronicization of purchases are considered. The public procurement system at the sub- national level is analyzed and weak points are emphasized. Corruption aspects and ways of their minimization in the public procurement activity are showed. Debatable issues and ways of procurement activity improvement in Belarus regions are presented.</p> <p>The methodology of research is based on the analysis of a series of data on public procurements in the regions of Belarus, including budgetary expenditures on public procurement in the local governments of the Belarus regions and the e-auctions procurement at the Universal Commodity Exchange. Statistical data for analysis was obtained from official sources, such as the State Statistics Committees, Ministry of Finance, Open Joint Stock Company (OJSC) Belarusian Universal Commodity Exchange, and on-line databases of analytical centres working in this field, etc.</p> Yuri Krivorotko Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The Singleness of Increasing the Involvement of the Deaf into Decision-Making in Municipalities in the Republic of Lithuania <p>Surveys implemented in the municipalities of the biggest Lithuanian cities in 2013-2014 have indicated the main reasons for the insufficient inclusion of the deaf into the decision-making in municipalities in the Republic of Lithuania. The singleness for the improvement of the situation in municipalities has been modelled on the base of the mentioned results by activating all budgetary and public organisations operating under the Board of Municipality as well as Administration.</p> Laima Liukinevičienė | Evelina Kvietkienė Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Social Responsibility Initiative Implementation in the Public Sector in Latvia <p>The public sector provides many different jobs in Latvia; however, the number of people employed in the public sector is small. Sometimes private sector organisations with a socially responsible culture are more attractive for specialists. The authors propose to evaluate Social Responsibility’s (SR) importance, benefits, and ways of possible implementation for several types of public sector organisations.</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to enquire what kind of activities organisations need to carry out to be included in the Sustainability Index rating and overview the possible reasons of difficulties encountered by public organisations.</p> <p>The authors describe the structure of the public sector and the Sustainability Index (SI) mechanism in Latvia and evaluate public organisations included in the SI rating by their activities directed to sustainable development; i.e.,&nbsp;socially responsible (SR) activities.</p> Inesa Voronchuk | Olga Stariņeca Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Current Issues of the Development of Employee Intercultural Competency in a Work Environment (a case-study of small municipalities of Lithuania) <p>Due to increasing migration, the development of intercultural competency has become more important in the work environment of organizations. Recently, interest in the topic of interculturalism among scientists has increased significantly - there is no doubt that employees of international organizations need to acquire intercultural competency, but this competency of employees in small municipalities of Lithuania has not been studied yet. This study relies on a designed questionnaire which provides for the evaluation of the intercultural competency of employees of small municipalities, as well as the need for its development, and the evaluation of their opinion on the impact of intercultural competency on their career.</p> Vladimiras Gražulis | Elžbieta Markuckienė Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of leadership relationships on organizational innovativeness: comparison between bureaucratic and creative organizations <p>The paper presents empirical findings of a study on the impact of leadership relationship on different forms of organizational innovativeness in bureaucratic and creative public sector organizations. The data were collected by a questionnaire survey (respectively, n=747 and n=225) in Lithuania in 2013-2014. The results of linear regression analysis indicate a tendency of a stronger effect of leadership relationship on all forms of organizational innovativeness in creative organizations.</p> Raminta Pučėtaitė | Aurelija Novelskaitė | Laura Markūnaitė Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Women’s participation and the Incumbency Advantage in Slovak Cities: the Case Study of the Mayoral elections in Slovakia <p>The article focuses on the mayoral elections in all cities (138) in Slovakia. This analysis presents how the positions of mayors are distributed between men and women. Specific and detailed electoral data from the 2006 and 2010 mayoral elections allows for presuming whether the current distribution is caused by the electoral preferences of voters (demand) or by the supply of candidates. According to theoretical literature, mayors who are running for second term may have an advantage over their opponents. Data shows us how big this incumbency effect is in Slovak cities.</p> Matúš Sloboda Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Relations between Ethical Climate and Job Satisfaction: The Case of the Siauliai County State Tax Inspectorate <p>This article deals with the significance and importance of ethical climate in an organization. The typology of ethical climate is pointed out; the main aspects related to ethical climate are discussed, such as ethical behaviour, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. Different Lithuanian and foreign scholars’ research papers and research carried out on the subject of ethical climate have been analysed and systematized. In applying theoretical knowledge and practical methodology, the research has been carried out on ethical climate in the Siauliai County State Tax Inspectorate. The research revealed the existing types of ethical climate in the organization, the external influential factors, and their relationship with the ethical climate on the employees’ job satisfaction in the organization. After summarizing the results of the research the following conclusions have been drawn up: the type of ethical climate of public interests is dominated in the Siauliai County State Tax Inspectorate, the office employees are concerned about the society welfare and try not to violate its interests. It has been concluded that the employees of the organization are most satisfied with their relationship with executives. The conclusions of scholars have been confirmed that caring, law and rules, independence, efficiency, public interest ethical climate types, and staff’s job satisfaction correlate and are related among themselves.</p> Rita Toleikienė | Kristina Slaboševičiūtė | Lina Sapiegienė Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the determinants of growing current account deficit <p>The objective of the paper is to identify and generalize the factors determining the growth of current account deficit and select the periods of growing current account deficit and evaluate their determinants. The results of the analysis confirmed the growing current account deficit reaching from 3% to 30% of GDP in different developing and developed countries. The results showed that growing current account deficit is strongly determined by domestic demand and market prices; however, other factors such as national openness, international movement of capital, and the condition of world market have no significant impact.</p> Lina Garšvienė | Mindaugas Butkus Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Total quality management in municipalities of the Klaipeda region <p>The modern world obliges us to develop sustainably. Regions need to turn to sustainability by using all the available tools. Many authors emphasize total quality management (TQM) as a very important tool for the sustainable functioning of the public sector. But analyses show that public organizations are not keen to introduce TQM.</p> <p>This paper reveals the TQM spectrum in Klaipeda county (region) municipalities. Research disclosed that municipalities are not willing to implement TQM if it is not imperative. The paper argues that improving managerialism and common understanding can increase the willingness for TQM.</p> Valentina Burkšienė Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Young People with Physical Disabilities at Work in Lithuania: Experiences and Attitudes <p>The aim of this paper is to disclose the experiences and attitudes of young people with disabilities towards their professional activities and finding a job and to discover what the main opportunities and obstacles are for the integration of young disabled people into the Lithuanian labour market. The empirical basis of this research consists of 18 in-depth interviews with 18-35 year old young people with physical disabilities. In-depth interviews with young people with physical disabilities disclosed that a successful transition into the labour market first of all depends on the educational level (especially tertiary education) of a person, acquired appropriate employability skills, etc. Young disabled people experienced stigmatized attitudes by employers and a lack of interest to employ a disabled person. It is emphasized that employers in Lithuania are unwilling to employ a disabled person due to some special requirements (e.g., work assistant services, special requirements for the workplace, shorter working hours, etc.). In the high number of cases young people with disabilities face a double stigma, e.g., young and disabled, lack of working experience, etc.</p> Ruta Braziene | Ugne Zalkauskaite Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Ethical and Socially Responsible Behaviour of Tax Advisers: The Case of Moral Beliefs <p>Financial crisis and corporate scandals have turned the spotlight on the role played by tax advisors in the creation and development of tax minimization schemes. This paper explores whether society is entitled to expect tax advisors to behave in an ethical and socially responsible manner and to have general moral obligations. A modern contradictory role of tax advisors has been analyzed, influencing a predatory entrepreneurial culture, and the conflicting mental attitude of society and clients have been investigated. The study concludes that significant differences in tax advisors’ ethical sensitivity and personal moral beliefs have been insurmountable obstacles to meeting these expectations thus far.</p> Artūrs Prauliņš | Valda Bratka Copyright (c) 2014 Authors Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000