Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas 2022-12-05T09:43:45+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1997 and dedicated to publishing articles on&nbsp;contemporary social and cultural change, development of social theory and the shifting status of sociology itself.</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2022-12-05T09:43:45+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas <p>-</p> 2022-12-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Vytautas Kavolis’ Cyclical Concept of Postmodernism 2022-11-24T09:43:25+00:00 Alvydas Noreika <p>Straipsnyje aptariama Amerikos lietuvių sociologo Vytauto Kavolio postmodernizmo koncepcija. Jame gilinamasi į šios koncepcijos teorines ištakas, prielaidas ir vietą platesniuose debatuose dėl postmodernizmo. Atsižvelgiant į tai, kad postmodernizmo koncepciją lietuvių išeivių sociologas formuluoja savo modernizacijos teorijos kontekste, pirmosios ištakų ieškoma svarstant klausimą apie antrosios kilmę. Teigiama, jog modernizacijos teoriją, o kartu ir postmodernizmo koncepciją, mokslininkas plėtoja kritiškai reaguodamas į amerikiečių sociologo Alexo Inkeleso modernizacijos teoriją. Svarstant apie Kavolio vietą XX&nbsp;a. antrojoje pusėje Vakarų moksle vykusių diskusijų kontekste, įrodinėjama, kad originaliausias mokslininko indėlis&nbsp;– ciklinė postmodernizmo samprata. Straipsnyje taip pat aptariami Kavolio pateikti postmodernizmo vietos modernizacijos procese apibrėžimai.</p> 2022-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Nationalism, Modernization and the Polylogue of Civilizations 2022-09-26T09:42:21+00:00 Vytautas Kavolis <p>This is a translation of the article “Nationalism, Modernization and the Polylogue of Civilizations” by Lithuanian sociologist Vytautas Kavolis. The original article was published in English in 1991 in the <em>Comparative Civilizations Review</em>, and the Lithuanian translation appeared in 1992 in a journal <em>Proskyna</em> (translated by Saulius Spurga). In this article Kavolis discusses complex relationship of nationalism and cultural configurations of modernity, postmodernity and antimodernist thinking. He considers how different forms of thinking shape the violent and humane manifestations of nationalism, and what opportunities are offered by globalization to the national identity.</p> 2022-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Experiences of Female Political Activists from Eastern and Central Europe in Berlin: An Intersectional Analysis 2022-12-05T04:12:46+00:00 Alisa Sheppental <p>The following article analyzes&nbsp;<span class="Annotation-reference">the e</span>xperiences of female political activists from Eastern and Central Europe in Berlin. Semi-structured interviews with women (aged 20–35) were conducted and analyzed using the intersectional approach originally proposed by N. Degele and G. Winker. Intersectionality is described as a system of interactions between inequality-creating social structures (power relations), symbolic representations, and identity constructions. All the women who participated in this study describe activism as an important aspect of their identities. For non-German citizens, the activist identity is closely related to the migrant identity and is one of the major reasons they decided to move to Germany. Negative experiences in a country of origin were contrasted with a tolerant activist environment in Berlin. However, German citizens with no negative experiences in their countries of origin also implied a contrast between the “less tolerant East” and “more tolerant West”. The distinction was constructed either as a symbolical representation or articulation of experience of intergenerational conflict.</p> 2022-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors A Phenomenological Study of Representations of a Person with Down Syndrome in “Le huitième jour” by Jac van Dormael 2022-08-26T09:41:28+00:00 Dalia Jakaitė <p>The subject of the article is the world of a person with an intellectual disability in the comedy drama of Belgian director Jac von Dormael “Le huitième jour” (1996, “The Eighth Day”). The purpose of the article is phenomenological reading and analysis of the representation of a person with Down syndrome and his living world in the featured film, focusing on the emotional and social representation of the disability phenomenon. The approach of the filmmakers to the issue of disability is examined with the principles of social and film phenomenology, semantics and poetics of the artistic text. The research focuses on two perspectives of the phenomenon: a) the relationship of the main character Georges – a musical, theatrical, positive young man with Down syndrome – with his closest family and b) his dialogue with the wider society, which mainly emerges from the communication with Harry – the family father and a successful career teacher. The article makes analytical conclusions about emotional-social phenomena and their significance for the concept of disability, discussing other feature films of a similar period in the comparison. The research invites us to delve deeper into the representation of the experiences of joy and pain that is characteristic of the film “The Eighth Day” and at the same time provokes broader cultural associations.</p> 2022-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Families of the Past: Was the North-Western European Household System Prevalent in the 19th Century Lithuania? 2022-08-23T09:41:29+00:00 Aušra Maslauskaitė Dalia Leinartė Irma Dirsytė <p>The paper analyzes family and household types in the mid. 19<sup class="char-style-override-2" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup>&nbsp;century Vilnius and Kaunas&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">gubernijy</em>. The research is based on the large-scale dataset composed of the archival census-like listings of individuals by family units and defined as inventories. The dataset covers the inventories from 1847 and it includes around 20 thousand individuals. Based on the Hammel and Laslett (1974) methodology the research identifies nuclear, extended, and multiple-family households. The research is guided by Hajnal’s (1982) theory on the North-Western and Eastern European household systems. The former could be characterized by the dominance of the nuclear family households. Empirical analysis proves that around 40 percent of all households were nuclear family households. On the other hand, multiple-family households were not dominant. Thus, the main findings corroborate the idea that there was a transitional zone between the Eastern and North-Western household systems in the western part of the tsarist Russian empire.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2022-08-23T09:41:30+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas <p>-</p> 2022-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Mortality and Epidemiological Transition of the Lithuanian Population in 1849–1921 2022-06-15T09:38:47+00:00 Dovilė Bugienė <p>With the modernization of societies, mortality is one of the key factors in the process of population change. Mortality since the middle of the 20<sup class="char-style-override-1" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup>&nbsp;century in Lithuania has been widely studied in various aspects. However, the previous historical period in this field is still little studied and data on the changes in the development of Lithuanian mortality are almost unavailable. This article presents a study on the basis of the information from Roman Catholic churches death records books to reconstruct the structure of causes of death in the Lithuanian population in 1849–1921, its differences between urban and rural areas, and the links with A. R. Omran’s theory of epidemiological transition. The data of death records suggests the epi­demiological transition in Lithuania began at the end of the 19<sup class="char-style-override-1" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup>&nbsp;century&nbsp;– the beginning of the 20<sup class="char-style-override-1" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup>&nbsp;century and displays the influence of the type of place of residence on the pace of mortality change.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Creative Activities and Collaboration on Web 2.0: Towards a New Typology of Prosumption 2022-04-29T09:37:20+00:00 Rima Žilinskaitė <p>The concept of prosumption is commonly used to identify and analyse the specificities of activities on Web 2.0. This article provides the minimal and maximal definition of the concept by decomposing available conceptualisations. Including maximal number of mutually consistent attributes, it amounts to the definition of the ideal type of prosumption. The paper critically assesses the existing classifications of prosumption, and proposes a new, more systematic typology. It is designed on the basis of three conceptual dimensions: 1) the nature of the prosumptive activities in collaborative terms (individual/collaborative); 2) the primary reason for engaging in a prosumptive activity (prosumption in order to create/prosumption in order to use); 3) the level of training required from the prosumer (conditionally divided into “specialist” and “amateur”). The eight types formulated cover essentially the whole spectrum of prosumptive activities and direct to the more detailed empirical studies of motivations and intensity of engagement in prosumption.</p> 2022-04-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors The Filipino “Backer System” in the Maritime Industry: The Privileged Access to Seafaring Jobs 2022-04-29T09:37:19+00:00 Marjorie Ablanido Maido <p>Drawing from the narratives of twenty-eight global Filipino seafarers and two Crewing Managers, this paper analyzes how Bourdieu’s notion of social capital is utilized through the Filipino “backer system”. The “backer system” refers to a legitimated practice in the maritime industry where an applicant seeks a backer or a patron to recommend him to a manning agency to launch his seafaring career. This practice, however, is governed by characteristics that define the power relations among the social actors. The backer system emphasizes why strong ties matter – how the utilization of family social capital and ethnic ties mobilizes a jobseeker’s career and how prospective seafarers usually access these ties. As social capital is a network of trust and reciprocity, the Filipino value of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">utang na loob</em>&nbsp;reflects the nature of the transaction enclosed in the “backer system”.&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">Utang na loob</em>&nbsp;refers to debt of goodwill where one who receives favor from another is morally required to return the favor. However, as polarizing as it is, the principle of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">utang na loob</em>&nbsp;is shaped as symbolic capital and symbolic violence. As a capital, it transforms a disadvantaged position into an advantaged one, where economic and instrumental gains are received. When the transaction becomes abusive and exploitative, it becomes symbolic violence. Premised on an unequal endowment of social capital, the “backer system” reproduces inequality, where those with merit and cultural capital fail to advance their careers because their social capital is non-existent or inadequate.</p> 2022-04-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors