Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas 2022-06-15T09:38:47+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1997 and dedicated to publishing articles on&nbsp;contemporary social and cultural change, development of social theory and the shifting status of sociology itself.</p> Mortality and Epidemiological Transition of the Lithuanian Population in 1849–1921 2022-06-15T09:38:47+00:00 Dovilė Bugienė <p>With the modernization of societies, mortality is one of the key factors in the process of population change. Mortality since the middle of the 20<sup class="char-style-override-1" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup>&nbsp;century in Lithuania has been widely studied in various aspects. However, the previous historical period in this field is still little studied and data on the changes in the development of Lithuanian mortality are almost unavailable. This article presents a study on the basis of the information from Roman Catholic churches death records books to reconstruct the structure of causes of death in the Lithuanian population in 1849–1921, its differences between urban and rural areas, and the links with A. R. Omran’s theory of epidemiological transition. The data of death records suggests the epi­demiological transition in Lithuania began at the end of the 19<sup class="char-style-override-1" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup>&nbsp;century&nbsp;– the beginning of the 20<sup class="char-style-override-1" xml:lang="en-US">th</sup>&nbsp;century and displays the influence of the type of place of residence on the pace of mortality change.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Creative Activities and Collaboration on Web 2.0: Towards a New Typology of Prosumption 2022-04-29T09:37:20+00:00 Rima Žilinskaitė <p>The concept of prosumption is commonly used to identify and analyse the specificities of activities on Web 2.0. This article provides the minimal and maximal definition of the concept by decomposing available conceptualisations. Including maximal number of mutually consistent attributes, it amounts to the definition of the ideal type of prosumption. The paper critically assesses the existing classifications of prosumption, and proposes a new, more systematic typology. It is designed on the basis of three conceptual dimensions: 1) the nature of the prosumptive activities in collaborative terms (individual/collaborative); 2) the primary reason for engaging in a prosumptive activity (prosumption in order to create/prosumption in order to use); 3) the level of training required from the prosumer (conditionally divided into “specialist” and “amateur”). The eight types formulated cover essentially the whole spectrum of prosumptive activities and direct to the more detailed empirical studies of motivations and intensity of engagement in prosumption.</p> 2022-04-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors The Filipino “Backer System” in the Maritime Industry: The Privileged Access to Seafaring Jobs 2022-04-29T09:37:19+00:00 Marjorie Ablanido Maido <p>Drawing from the narratives of twenty-eight global Filipino seafarers and two Crewing Managers, this paper analyzes how Bourdieu’s notion of social capital is utilized through the Filipino “backer system”. The “backer system” refers to a legitimated practice in the maritime industry where an applicant seeks a backer or a patron to recommend him to a manning agency to launch his seafaring career. This practice, however, is governed by characteristics that define the power relations among the social actors. The backer system emphasizes why strong ties matter – how the utilization of family social capital and ethnic ties mobilizes a jobseeker’s career and how prospective seafarers usually access these ties. As social capital is a network of trust and reciprocity, the Filipino value of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">utang na loob</em>&nbsp;reflects the nature of the transaction enclosed in the “backer system”.&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">Utang na loob</em>&nbsp;refers to debt of goodwill where one who receives favor from another is morally required to return the favor. However, as polarizing as it is, the principle of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">utang na loob</em>&nbsp;is shaped as symbolic capital and symbolic violence. As a capital, it transforms a disadvantaged position into an advantaged one, where economic and instrumental gains are received. When the transaction becomes abusive and exploitative, it becomes symbolic violence. Premised on an unequal endowment of social capital, the “backer system” reproduces inequality, where those with merit and cultural capital fail to advance their careers because their social capital is non-existent or inadequate.</p> 2022-04-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2022-03-30T09:36:23+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Authors Book Publishing Patterns in Social Sciences and Humanities in Lithuania: Analysing Trends in DB “Lituanistika” 2022-03-30T09:36:23+00:00 Aldis Gedutis Kęstutis Kirtiklis Liutauras Kraniauskas <p>The aim of this article is to reconstruct and analyse scholarly book (or monograph) publication patterns in Lithuanian Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH) registered in national database “Lituanistika”. Database “Lituanistika” provides a good starting point and repository of empirical data as it indexes and abstracts different types of scholarly publications in SSH, monographs included. The empirical part of the research consists of finding registered monographs, attributing them to the individual SSH disciplines, comparing the number of monographs and scholarly articles in various SSH, and retracing the timeline of registered monographs across different disciplines etc. The analytical approach of our research is based on an idea of (social) constructivism. We aim at reconstructing the motives behind the publishing of scholarly books or abstaining from such practice. In this article we argue that the motives to publish (or not to publish) a scholarly book are a product of a broader Lithuanian social, institutional and disciplinary context, which influences and regulates the actions of individual SSH researchers.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authors The Crisis of the Political. Polis and an Individual 2022-02-08T09:34:24+00:00 Raimondas Kazlauskas <p>The article discusses the crisis of the political, treating this phenomenon as an interactive constellation of political, over-political and apolitical factors. The aim is to reconstruct the assumptions of the crisis and highlight its main features in the context of ancient Greece. Under the influence of Dionysian religion, theater was established as a compelling and universally accessible authority to legitimize democracy. Therefore my analysis focuses on the social change after which democracy was no longer perceived as a form of governance but as a form of collective ownership. The article explains how the unbridled demonstration of power quickly erased the long-cherished principle of verbal argumentation and pushed Greeks to practice of power politics. It is shown how, with the establishment of autocracy, parallel interchange between political and anti-political institutions emerged in the Greek polis.</p> 2022-02-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2022-02-08T09:34:23+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas 2022-02-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Authors “There is a Time for Departure Even when There’s no Certain Place to Go”: the Twisting Path to Selfhood and Adulthood 2021-09-06T09:28:22+00:00 Milda Pivoriūtė <p>In today’s post-industrial societies, young people, compared to previous generations, experience longer and more complex processes of creating professional identity, developing a career or finding “one’s vocation”. They also face difficulties in achieving financial independence, starting a family, and leaving parental homes, which altogether define the status of an adult person. Based on the overview of sociological and psychological scholarly literature, the complexity of young people’s identity formation in the context of a passage towards social maturity is analysed. The most significant tensions related to the question of “who am I and what do I want” are emphasized in the article, together with the circumstances of contemporary society that stimulate them. (Non-)applicability of the concept of the quarter-life crisis is finally highlighted in order to summarise, reflect, and explain some of the experiences and life events of young people. The title of the article is a famous quotation of Tennessee Williams.</p> 2021-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Authors Analytical Philosophy of History on the Second Wave of Serfdom: Revival of the Theoretical History of Central Europe 2021-06-21T09:26:41+00:00 Nerijus Babinskas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2021-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Authors I – “miesjcova“, You – “przyjiezny”: Drawing the Boundary of Identity in Šalčininkai District 2021-04-08T08:46:28+00:00 Vidmantas Vyšniauskas <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus" xml:lang="lt-LT">In this article, I seek to investigate how people living in the Šalčininkai district perceive the cultural boundary between&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">locals</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">newcomers</em>. Based on biographical interviews collected during the ethnographic field research, I argue that historical circumstances and frequent changes in state affiliation have influenced the drawing of the cultural boundary between locals and newcomers. In the article, I present how this division is understood by people of different generations living in the Šalčininkai district.</p> <p class="ISSN-abst-vidus" xml:lang="lt-LT">The cultural boundary between locals and newcomers is very important to the oldest generation (born before World War II). People who grew up during Soviet times understand this boundary and its significance, but pay less attention to it. The youngest generation (people born around 1990) perceive this cultural boundary as a useless remnant of the past and want to distance themselves from it.</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Authors