Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas 2020-11-05T09:15:18+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas Open Journal Systems <p>Founded in 1997. Publishes articles on the critical study of contemporary social and cultural change – including the shifting status of sociology itself –&nbsp;from a variety of perspectives.</p> Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2020-01-15T09:01:19+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas <p>none</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2020-01-15T09:01:18+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors The Genealogy of the Political. The Age of Heroes and the Revolt of Youth 2020-01-15T09:01:17+00:00 Raimondas Kazlauskas <p>The article discusses the genesis of the political by treating this phenomena as a distinctive interaction between political and religious factors. The aim is to carry out the reconstruction of the premises of the political of ancient Greeks, by distinguishing its particular historic development features, exclusively characteristic for the Ancient Greece context. The rites of passage of Greek social communities are analyzed in order to understand why its youth initiation structure, formed during the Greek Dark Ages, became the basic model for Western Civilisation. The role of youth groups, the phenomena of Greek heroes, the educational structure of the young soldier class (<em xml:lang="ar-SA">ephebeia</em>), and the first ever political revolution, initiated by Lycurgus, are examined by reconstructing the genealogy of the political.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Vytautas Kavolis: Liberalism and Metaphysics 2020-01-15T09:01:17+00:00 Alvydas Noreika <p>The article deals with the Lithuanian-American political scholar Vytautas Kavolis’s approach to the metaphysical foundations of liberalism. It is argued that the scholar’s position in regard to this question has changed as time passed. Until the 1970s, Kavolis defended the position that pure (philosophical) liberalism does not presuppose any&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">a priori</em>&nbsp;metaphysics. It doesn’t dictate to its partisans in a normative way what they have to think about God, to accept His existence or not, or how they ought to treat reality as a whole. According to Kavolis, pure liberalism is neutral with regard to God and reality as a whole. It is an empty form in the metaphysical sense. The right to fill up an empty form with a metaphysical content is delegated to an individual in pure liberalism. From the 1970s, Kavolis took a much more moderate position regarding the metaphysical foundations of liberalism. In his view, pure liberalism is founded on some metaphysical presuppositions – namely, the metaphysical conception of order. Inquiring Kavolis’ approach to the meta­physical foundations of liberalism, wide attention is paid to its context of origin as well.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors The Transformation of the Soviet Agriculture 2020-01-15T09:01:16+00:00 Vylius Leonavičius Eglė Ozolinčiūtė <p>The Soviet past is crucial in understanding the processes of transformation of the Lithuanian kolkhoz system into the farming practices of free-market economy. The violent and forced incorporation of the nation-states into the Soviet Union radically transformed societies. In our analysis of kolkhoz system and its transformations, we use two different concepts –&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">Soviet modernity</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">modernity of the Soviet period.</em>&nbsp;These concepts let us to approach the agricultural project of the Soviet collective farming as an alternative system of social institutions for implementation of industrial farming of modern society. The concept of&nbsp;<em xml:lang="ar-SA">entangled modernity</em>&nbsp;refers to interaction of two trends of modernization and defines the kolkhoz as a hybrid or a result of intertwining of two models of modernity – the universal and the Soviet one. By applying the concept of entangled modernity and hybrids to the interpretation of the kolkhoz’s post-Soviet transformation, the article explores the experiences of social actors and the inevitable human and material losses of the hybrid’s transformation. In our theoretical interpretation, we use data from interviews with former agents of the kolkhoz system and legislative documents.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Transition to Adulthood: Leaving the Parental Home in the Last Soviet and the First Post-Soviet Generation 2020-01-15T09:01:15+00:00 Laura Daukšaitė <p>The article presents a research on trajectories of leaving the parental home in the last Soviet and the first post-Soviet generations. It focuses on social transformation of the state during the transition from the Soviet to the post-Soviet and its impact on the life-course of these generations. In our study, we applied a dyadic approach and conducted semi-structured interviews with women of the last Soviet generation (born in 1962–1972) and their children (born in 1992–2002), who represent the first post-Soviet generation. Early changes in and the differentiation of the timetable of transition to adulthood of the last Soviet generation indicated a declining effect of ideologically supported social structures on the life-course of young adults and the growing power of individual decision to leave the parental home or stay within. The rapidly increasing globalization and a transformed economy shaped a new structural environment for the coming of age for the first post-Soviet generation; therefore, we can interpret the further pluralization, de-standardization, and differentiation of the timetable of the transition to adulthood of this generation as a reaction of young people to the emerging risks and insecurities.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Apparitions of Virgin Mary: Sociological Analysis 2020-01-15T09:01:14+00:00 Darius Liutikas <p>&nbsp;The main purpose of this article is to discuss the social aspects of the apparitions of the Virgin Mary, the development of apparition places, as well as the motivation and behavioral characteristics of pilgrims going to the miraculous places of the Virgin Mary in Lithuania. The article reviews the criteria recognized by the Church for assessment of the authenticity of apparitions, their characteristics, paradigm, and other scientific researches, a list of the Vatican-approved apparitions and apparition places in Lithuania. We used the main elements of the paradigm of apparitions for an empirical study of the officially recognized apparition in Šiluva, Lithuania. Finally, we also explore the complex motivation of religious tourism and pilgrimage. It relates to the manifestation of pilgrims’ personal or community values and identity as well as other cognitive or social motives. The paper concludes that the apparitions of the Virgin Mary take place in locations where social groups resist political, social, or moral change. Therefore, places of apparitions become a continuously re-created and re-interpreted social reality.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Editorial Board and Table of Contents 2020-11-05T09:15:18+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2020-11-05T09:15:18+00:00 Liutauras Kraniauskas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Discourse on the Value of the Humanities in Lithuania: for the Sake of This Land, or for the People’s Well-Being? 2020-11-05T09:15:17+00:00 Kęstas Kirtiklis <p>The present paper deals with the polemics concerning the importance of the humanities in Lithua­nia. The arguments provided by the critics – natural scientists, politicians, businessmen, and general public opinion – are reconstructed from the humanities perspective, i.e. from the texts where humanitarians try to respond to them. The arguments for the value of the humanities, formed by prominent scholars Darius Kuolys, Alvydas Jokubaitis, and Viktorija Daujotytė are also presented. The paper argues that this debate is essentially a clash of two axiological positions. The critics of the humanities occupy the position of axiological collec­tivism and claim that the humanities must provide a measurable impact on human communities – a nation, society, or business corporation. Humanitarians, in their turn, adopt the perspective of axiological holism and argue the value of the humanities for the nation or the state as entities exceeding the sum of their parts. The paper suggests that the turn toward axiological individualism might be a way to escape the deadlock that these polemics have reached. The title of this article paraphrases two lines of the Lithuanian National Anthem.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Authors