Verbum <p>Founded in 2010. Publishes articles&nbsp;on the studies of Germanic, Roman and Slavic languages as well as on the issues of education.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Verbum 2029-6223 <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> A Pedagogical Perspective on the Definite and the Indefinite Article in the Romanian Language. Challenges for Foreign Learners <p>All Romance languages have developed the definite and the indefinite article via the Vulgar Latin (Classical Latin did not use articles), the language of the Roman colonists. According to Joseph H. Greenberg (1978), the definite article predated the indefinite one by approximately two centuries, being developed from demonstratives through a complex process of grammaticalization. Many areas of nowadays` Romania were incorporated into the Roman Empire for about 170 years. After two military campaign, the Roman emperor Trajan conquered Dacia, east of Danube.The Romans imposed their own administration and inforced Latin as lingua franca.The language of the colonists, mixed with the native language and, later on, with various languages spoken by the many migrant populations that followed the Roman retreat resulted in a new language (Romanian), of Latin origins. The Romanian language, attested in the 16<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;Century, in documents written by foreign travellers, uses four different types of articles. Being a highly inflected language, Romanian changes the form of the articles according to the gender, the number and the case of the noun As compared to the other Romance languages, Romanian uses the definite article enclitically. Thus, the definite article and the noun constitute a single word. The present paper aims at discussing, analysing and providing an overview of the use of definite and indefinite articles. The general norm and its various exceptions are examined from a broader perspective, synchronically and diachronically. The pedagogical perspective is meant to offer a comprehensible synthesis to foreign learners.</p> Ovidiu Ivancu Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 1 1 10.15388/Verb.6 К вопросу о речевой агрессии и инвективах в современных антилиберальных новых медиа <p lang="en-US">The article explores the use of verbal aggression by anti-liberal “new media”. This source material was selected following the infamous Financial Times interview with Vladimir Putin, where he proclaimed that liberalism had become obsolete. The study explores the purpose, objects, and means of expressing verbal aggression. This study highlights the main ways in which a holistic trend of political philosophy comes under a sustained attack.</p> <p lang="en-US">The research establishes that lexemes without a default negative connotation, rather than pejorative invectives, are the primary means of expressing aggression. The study further maintains the existence of certain verbal aggression discourse algorithm whereby the use of one potentially aggressive lexeme automatically triggers the use of another lexeme. The analysis shows that anti-liberal discourse is intertwined with antisemitism, homophobia, and negative sentiment towards the internet.</p> <p lang="en-US">Anti-liberal environment is not limited to pro-government sentiment – occasionally the head of state alsocomes under its critique and its standard allegations. The source of verbal aggression is particularly crucial in the “new media” era: verbal aggression can originate both in governmental institutions and the demassified field. The origin of verbal aggression will further determine its consequences, ranging from impacting the fate of the object of verbal aggression to uniting the supporters sharing the sentiment behind the verbal aggression and/or pro-government opinion. Here neutral lexemes without a default negative connotation take on the function of the means of verbal aggression. This way neutral words such as liberal, Jew, gay become pejorative invectives. These words now carry a high potential for expressing aggression when used in conjunction with other words and phrases.</p> Liudmila Kravcova Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 2 2 10.15388/Verb.7 The Equivalents of the Verbs of Activity in the Spanish Translation of “Metai” (“The Seasons”) by Kristijonas Donelaitis <p>The equivalence of translation has become a concern for many Lithuanian researchers. The term equivalence is described in the monograph “Contrastive Semantics” (2007) by AloyzasGudavičius. LionginasPažūsis (2014) discusses problems that arise from the lack of equivalence at word level. There are many articles on approaches or strategies of equivalence (D. Masaitienė 1996; A. Leonavičienė 2010; L. Černiuvienė 2013). Some scholars choose to examine the strategies applied in the translation of some linguistic items in novels (V. Končius&amp; A. Nausėda 2006; C. Caro Dugo 2010, 2014, 2015, 2016; A. Cerri; I. Janavičienė 2016). However, there is a lack of research that analyses the Spanish translation of the poem “Metai” or a particular linguistic aspect of this Spanish text. Recent years saw several attempts to fill this gap(C. Caro Dugo 2014, 2015, 2016; A. Cerri 2015). The current research aims to examine the equivalents of the verbs of activity (VAs) in the Spanish translation of the poem. The paper focuses only on those VAs that express actions performed by persons. The VAs which denote actions performed by other living beings or forces of nature were excluded. The research covers 52 verses with verbs of activity, selected from the poem, and their equivalents in the translation into Spanish, which are subjected to qualitative content analysis and means ofcomparative methodology. 52 constructions that express the concepts of Work, Damaging, Speakon topic, Motion, Ingestion and Entertainment were selected applying the qualitative content analysis. The Spanish equivalents of these constructions are examined through the comparative methodology. The obtained results indicated that the translator is faithful to the original text. In order to preserve the expressiveness of the poem, the Spanish translation uses an abundance of verbal lexemes. It was noticed that the equivalents of the same meaning or verbs with a more general meaning specified by an additional lexeme or construction were the main strategies adopted in VA translation into Spanish. In one case only was a Lithuanian verb changed into a Spanish noun. Idioms and figurative words were also chosen as a VA translation strategy in several instances. Nonetheless, all of these lexemes, as derivative of verbs or verbal forms, preserve the verbal nature.This workshould be useful tothe semanticists and translators.</p> Agnė Lisauskaitė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 3 3 10.15388/Verb.8 Encyclopedic Information in Bilingual Dictionaries: Field of Geography <p>When preparing a dictionary it is impossible to ignore outside world or so called encyclopedic knowledge. In megastructure level of a bilingual dictionary, various appendices are often addede.g. toponyms, anthroponyms, and ethnonyms. Arranged before or after the corpus, these appendices are most commonly used for grammatical descriptions as well as toponyms (hydronyms and oikonims) and lists of commonly used abbreviations. At the macrostructure and microstructure level, the presentation of encyclopedic knowledge is even more evident: the nomenclature of the modern linguistic monolingual or bilingual dictionary includes a number of lexis related to a particular cognitive domain (ethnography, history, mythology, geography, economics, etc.); therefore, a lot of different encyclopedic information is provided in order to explain it. Recently, many European lexicographers have been discussing the need to avoid any appendices to the vocabulary and to instead incorporate the information contained into the text of lexicographic publication wherever possible. Researchers base this view on the fact that each additional source of information in the dictionary requires further time and energy from the user looking for the lexical unit they want. The user may also be unfamiliar or insufficiently familiar with the dictionary structure and simply be unaware that additional information can be found elsewhere rather than in the dictionary text itself. Thus, the goal of this study is to examine, based on the analytical and descriptive method, four dictionaries published in Lithuania (The Great Lithuanian-English Dictionary (2006), Lithuanian-Russian Dictionary (2015), The Great Lithuanian-French Dictionary (2012) and Lithuanian-Norwegian Dictionary (2001))in terms of geographical knowledge presentation: evaluate the presentation of this knowledge at megastructure, macrostructure and microstructure levels.</p> Aušra Valančiauskienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 4 4 10.15388/Verb.9 The teaching of frozen expressions through the graphic novel Persépolis <p>The constant search for suitable teaching materials to achieve the linguistic skills provided by a language teaching course, finds in authentic documents an important instrument for teaching foreign languages. The scientific literature attesting to the effectiveness of the authentic material is wide and consolidated; indeed, a text conceived by a native for a native, and, therefore, not developed for the sole purpose of teaching a foreign language, is intrinsically carrying a cultural richness and a linguistic variety, which are rarely present in any didactic artifact. The authentic material therefore represents an opportunity to meet the fixed expressions that are part of the communicative potential of a language; their teaching is not always taken into account, or is considered, at most, as a positive side effect of the natural process of linguistic acquisition. A communicative act for it to be effective must be able to be understood by the interlocutor ; it is therefore necessary to ensure not only grammatical accuracy and correct pronunciation, but also the understanding and use of frozen sequences. The graphic novel can offer the opportunity to benefit from an authentic language rich in idiomatic expressions, because the effectiveness of dialogues is a transposition of the language spoken in everyday life and familiar expressions. The article aims to show the didactic advantages of a graphic novel in the teaching of the French language. We explain the importance of the text-image relationship and the potential of the verbal language of the graphic novel, and we talk about the need to learn frozen expressions for a good command of the language and the distinctive aspects specific to comics that contribute to their understanding and learning; we show, finally, how the adoption, within the framework of a contrastive analysis of the language, of the graphic novel Persépolis by Marjane Satrapi could help the students to understand more easily the fixed expressions</p> Marie-Denise Sclafani Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 5 5 10.15388/Verb.10 "Modern Hellenism": the pragmatem <p>Xavier BLANCO, Salah MEJRI, Les pragmatèmes. Préface d’Alain Rey, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2018, 214 p.</p> Danguolė Melnikienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 6 6 10.15388/Verb.11 Editorial Board <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Danguolė Melnikienė Copyright (c) 2019 Authors 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 1 1 The Coda Voicing Contrast in Lithuanian Learners’ English <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p><span lang="lt">Vowel duration, though not belonging to the three main factors in the decription of vowels, plays an important role in the English language. Alongside qualitative differences, it helps to distinguish between the meaning of such words as&nbsp;</span><span lang="en-GB">‘ship’ and ‘sheep’.&nbsp;</span><span lang="lt">Vowel duration has been recognised to be a complex phenomenon, which depends on a combination of factors: internal and external (Delattre 1962). The present pilot study focuses on one of the factors belonging to the latter group, i.e. the influence of the postvocalic voicing on vowel duration in minimal pairs of one sylable CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) words, a phenomenon reffered to as&nbsp;</span>‘pre-fortis clipping’ (Wells 1990), ‘voicing effect’ (Yoneyama and Kitahara 2014), ‘consonantal voicing effect’ (Beller-Marino 2014), ‘vowel-length effect’ (Ko 2007), ‘shortening’ (Cruttenden 2014), ‘post-vocalic consonant voicing effect’ (Taubeber and Evanini 2009), etc. The scope of this research was limited to four checked unrounded English monophthongs: the front-central, close-mid /ɪ/, the front, mid /e/, the front, open /æ/, and the central, open-mid /ʌ/. The durational differences were analysed from a perceptive and productive perspectives. The obtained results indicated that the Lithuanian learners showed an effect of voicing on vowel-duration, manifested in a number of languages:<span lang="en-GB">&nbsp;the mean duration of the examined vowels was shorter before a fortis than before a lenis coda. The analysis of individual students’ production data proved the importance of the individual variable.</span></p> Lina Bikelienė Milda Vaitkevičiūtė Copyright (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 11 20 10.15388/Verb.2018.2 Fossiles lexicaux dans des expressions figées <p>[full article and abstract in French, summary in English]</p> <p>Un certain nombre d’unités lexicales du français qui ont disparu de l’usage se conservent, cependant, dans des expressions figées de différents types (locutions ou collocations surtout). Nous les appellerons «&nbsp;fossiles lexicaux&nbsp;». C’est le cas, par exemple, de fur (dans au fur et à mesure), noise (dans chercher noise) ou coi (dans se tenir coi). Dans certains cas, c’est une acception particulière d’une unité lexicale donnée qui est conservée au sein d’une expression figée (par exemple soupe ‘tranche de pain arrossée de bouillon chaud’ dans trempé comme une soupe), donnant lieu parfois à des remotivations. Dans d’autres cas encore, c’est une forme morphologique (flexionnelle ou dérivationnelle) qui est préservée, par exemple vif dans plus mort que vif ou insu dans l’expression à l’insu de. Nous passerons en revue un certain nombre de ces expressions et nous donnerons des exemples du fonctionnement de ces formes dans des états de langue anciens.</p> <h3>Lexical Fossils in Frozen Expressions</h3> <p>A certain amount of French lexical units that have disappeared survive, nevertheless, in different kinds of frozen expressions (such as idioms or collocations). We call them «&nbsp;lexical fossils&nbsp;». Some examples could be&nbsp;: fur (in au fur et à mesure), noise (in chercher noise) or coi (in se tenir coi). Sometimes it is a particular sense of a given lexical unit that persists inside a frozen expression (for example, soupe ‘slide of bread soaked in warm broth’ in trempé comme une soupe), giving rise occasionally to remotivations. In some other cases a morphological form (inflectional or derivational) is preserved, for instance vif in plus mort que vif or insu in à l’insu de. We will comment some of these expressions and we will give examples from different periods of French.</p> Xavier Blanco Copyright (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 31 40 10.15388/Verb.2018.4 Begegnungsschule und Fremdsprache: Der pädagogisch-institutionelle Diskurs in Bezug auf die mehrsprachige und plurikulturelle Kompetenzförderung in einer deutschen Auslandsschule <p>[full article, abstract in German; abstract in English]</p> <p>Im Kapitel 8 des&nbsp;Gemeinsamen europäischen Referenzrahmens für Sprachen (GER) wird die sogenannte mehrsprachige und plurikulturelle Kompetenz als weiteres Ziel des Sprachenlernens erläutert. Dementsprechend wird die allgemeine Sprachkompetenz „nicht als Schichtung oder als ein Nebeneinander von getrennten Kompetenzen verstanden, sondern vielmehr als eine komplexe oder sogar gemischte Kompetenz“ (Trim et al. 2001, p. 163) betrachtet. Insgesamt werden 140 Auslandsschulen mit Ressourcen des deutschen Auswärtigen Amtes in 71 Ländern gefördert. Von 80.000 Schülern besitzen ca. 73% weder die deutsche Staatsbürgerschaft noch sprechen sie Deutsch als Erstsprache. Meistens handelt es sich um private Bildungsanstalten, welche als bikulturelle Begegnungsschulen bezeichnet und von Kindern und Jugendlichen aus ökonomisch privilegierten Elternhäusern besucht werden. In diesem Zusammenhang stellt sich die Kernfrage: Inwiefern entspricht der dabei erwartete interkulturelle Dialog den Austauschdynamiken und Identitätsprozessen, wie sie im Schulalltag festgestellt werden können, und auch den Prämissen des GER in Bezug auf interkulturelle und mehrsprachige Kompetenz? An welcher sprachlichen Ideologie orientiert sich der Diskurs und die pädagogische Praxis in solchen binationalen Schuleinrichtungen? Die Analyse des institutionellen Diskurses der untersuchten Einrichtung zeigt ihren ideologischen Unterbau und die soziopolitische Zielgruppe auf, die sie in den Blick nimmt, sowie ihre Einstellung zu Interkulturalität und Mehrsprachigkeit. Die überwiegende Spracheinstellung verweist noch auf den „Nativitätsmythos“ (Rajagopalan 1997, p. 226 f.), indem die Sprachkompetenz des zweisprachigen Individuums hinsichtlich eines anachronistischen, imaginären ‚Muttersprachlers‘ bewertet wird.</p> <h3>Encounter Schools and Foreign Language: The Pedagogical-Institutional Discourse about Multilingual and Pluricultural Competence Promotion in a German School Abroad</h3> <p lang="en-US">Among the 80,000 students attending the 140 German schools abroad, about 73% are not German or ‘native’ German speakers. These are usually private schools, called “bicultural schools of encounter” frequented by children and young people from the economically privileged classes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the permeability of the space of this encounter and between the internal structures of the same. We seek to elucidate the extent to which the model of intercultural dialogue envisaged by this political project corresponds to the dynamics of exchanges and identity re-elaborations that occur organically and to the assumptions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in relation to the development of intercultural and plurilingual competences. Analyzing the presentation of the institutional profile and pedagogical plan in the homepage of one of these schools, we hope to counter the vestiges of this proposal of literacy in the school environment to the social and linguistic representations shared by these institutions and their target audience. In this context, the key question arises: To what extent does the expected intercultural dialogue correspond to the exchange dynamics and identity processes that can be identified in everyday school life, and to the premises of the CEFR in relation to intercultural and multilingual competence? At which linguistic ideology is the discourse and pedagogical practice in such binational institutions oriented?</p> <p lang="en-US">The analysis of the institutional discourse of a bilingual German school located in Brazil aims to reveal its ideological substructure and the socio-political target group that it looks at, as well as its attitude to interculturality and multilingualism. According to the results, the predominant language attitude still refers to the "myth of nativity" (Rajagopalan 1997: 226 f.), in which the linguistic competence of the bilingual individual is evaluated in terms of an anachronistic, imaginary 'native speaker'.</p> <p lang="en-US">The theoretical basis for this study is presented in the first two chapters, followed by a brief discussion of the methodology applied on this research. Afterwards, chapter 5 deals in depth with the institutional discourse on the examined school concept. Chapter 6 deals with language attitudes and transcultural processes in reports on multidisciplinary activities and the following concluding chapter tries to reconstruct the challenges of a partly organic, partly planned development towards a multilingual (school) identity.</p> Robson Carapeto-Conceição Copyright (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 41 50 10.15388/Verb.2018.5