Verbum <p>Founded in 2010. Publishes articles&nbsp;on the studies of Germanic, Roman and Slavic languages as well as on the issues of education.</p> en-US <p>Please read the Copyright Notice in&nbsp;<a href="">Journal Policy</a>.&nbsp;</p> (Danguolė Melnikienė) (Vigintas Stancelis) Wed, 09 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Narrative Form in Leonid Yuzefovich's Novel “Cranes and Dwarfs” <p lang="en-GB">The paper is devoted to the features of the narrative form of Leonid Yuzefovich’s novel “Cranes and dwarfs”. The authors of the paper focuses on the lexical and grammatical tools that allowed the author of the novel to introduce different types of a narrator into the text.<br><span lang="en-GB">Examples illustrating that in the text of the novel under analysis the speaker and the beholder do not always match: 641 examples were related to varieties of free indirect speech. The following types of the free indirect speech constructions were analysed:&nbsp;</span><span lang="en-US">when&nbsp;</span><span lang="en-GB">the subject of speech and the subject of consciousness differ in such cases: 1) indication of the spatial or temporal localization of the character; 2) an indication of the physical or intellectual perception of the situation (or object, or natural phenomena); 3) broadcast of the character's thoughts; 4) description of the character's emotions; 5) nomination of relatives and body parts of the character.<br></span>As well as a list of lexical-grammatical markers of the modernist narrative form of the novel "Cranes and dwarfs" are provided in the report.</p> Viktorija Makarova | Justyna Petrovska Copyright (c) 2020 Viktorija Makarova | Justyna Petrovska Wed, 20 Jan 2021 08:32:21 +0000 Syntactic Complexity of Learning Content in Italian for COVID-19 Frontline Responders: A Study on WHO’s Emergency Learning Platform <p>The goal of this paper is to offer a model to quantify the level of complexity of the linguistic content of a corpus in Italian extracted from OpenWHO, WHO’s health emergency learning platform (Rohloff&nbsp;<em>et al</em>. 2018; Zhao&nbsp;<em>et al</em>. 2019). The nature of the computational ranking costs of a typology of relativization strategies is investigated. To reach this goal, the results of the corpus are compared with other three syntactic annotated corpora from Italian belonging to different genres (news, social media, encyclopedic entries, legal). The results show that online learning contents in public health reduce complex structures in syntactic terms. The case study presented here provides a methodology to quantify syntactic and computational complexity in corpus studies.</p> Giuseppe Samo | Ursula Yu Zhao | Gaya Gamhewage Copyright (c) 2020 Giuseppe Samo | Ursula Yu Zhao | Gaya Gamhewage Wed, 20 Jan 2021 08:22:29 +0000 A Pilot Study of Four Phonetic Changes in General British <p>The pilot study reports on the prevalence of four phonetic changes (yod coalescence, yod dropping, /ʒ/ versus /ʤ/ in loan words, and GOAT allophony) in General British. The study consists of two stages to address the question from different perspectives: native speakers’ preferences and documentation of the changes in current pronouncing dictionaries.Sixty words likely to undergo one of the changes are chosen for the analysis. The survey is based on the framework by Wells (1998). Though the descriptive study resultsreveal a high degree of the respondents’ preference for ‘modern’ pronunciation, it varies across categories. The comparative analysis of the manifestation of the changes in the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2008), the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (2011), and the Current British English Searchable Transcriptions (N/A) indicate their gradual way into the ‘standard’ language.</p> Lina Bikelienė | Laura Černelytė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diary as a Means for a Student to Discover a Country <p>This paper aims to present a diary as a multifaceted means for incoming international students to become familiar with the host country (in this case, Lithuania), discover it through the ways of immersion and exploration, and reflect upon it on the diary pages. Every year the course of ‘Intercultural Communication’ taught at the Institute of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Philology, Vilnius University, welcomes a large number of incoming students from different parts of the world. Further to the subject syllabus, these students are given a special research task: to delve into the context of the host country, focus on a number of socio-cultural aspects, compare and contrast them to the similar ones in their native countries and reflect upon them in their diaries. The paper provides an overview of the accumulated empirical evidence on the attitudinal discoveries of 84 students representing 21 countries. The employed&nbsp;<em>Interpretive content analysis&nbsp;</em>proved to be a flexible and helpful research method to reveal the informants' existing cultural capital (Bourdieu 1994), to follow the flow of their interpretations consequently leading to the shifts in their attitudes, and thus, contribute to the development of the students' intercultural communicative competence. This paper sheds light on the informants’ attitudes towards Lithuania as the destination country for their&nbsp;<em>Erasmus</em>+ exchange, as well as their impressions of the academic environment of Vilnius University.</p> Loreta Chodzkienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Interpreter Training in the Republic of Ireland: An Overview <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Although the Republic of Ireland is a bilingual country,this study illustrates that there are comparatively few domestic training options available for interpreters of spoken languages. In providing an overview of the present state of affairs, this article contextualises the current linguistic situation both within the country and at the European level. Attention is paid to the recognition of Irish as an official language of the European Union (EU), as well as tothe corresponding implications for interpreter training. In addition, the domestic situation regarding community interpreters is also outlined, with the lack of official regulation of the interpreting profession also noted. Subsequently, the options for interpreter training in tertiary education are outlined, both at the undergraduate and the postgraduate level. In addition, relevant information regarding the structure and content of the modules and courses is provided. To conclude, some thoughts regarding potential developments of interpreter training in the Irish context are outlined.</p> Antony Hoyte-West Copyright (c) 2020 Antony Hoyte-West Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phrasemes and problem oriented approach <p>Studies as Jazbec &amp; Enčeva (2012), Jazbec &amp;Kacjan (2013) and Miletić (2018) show that although the didactic of phrasemes (Fleischer 1982, Lüger 1997, Hessky&amp; Ettinger 1997) is pleading for a relevant, systematic, continuous and frequent use of phrasemes in German as a foreign language class, they appear predominantly at high levels of foreign language learning, only sporadically and often from the perspective of language comparison. The analysis of schoolbooks shows the presence of phrasemes which are often not appropriately didacticized and regarding data banks and vocabulary not always up-to date. In some recent studies (e.g. Hallsteinsdóttir 2016, Miletić 2018) we can find suggestions and models for the integration of phrasemes in German as a foreign language class, some with incorporation of multimodality. In this article we would like to consider the possibilities for the sensitization and receptive / productive acquisition of phrasemes as offered by the integration of a problem oriented approach in German as a foreign language class. We assume that the problem oriented approach is motivating and benefits transdisciplinary learning. The subject of this paper will be discussed based on some samples of different problem types (<em>metalinguistic</em>,&nbsp;<em>intercultural</em>&nbsp;and so-called&nbsp;<em>non-linguistic</em>&nbsp;problems). The so-called non-linguistic problems seem to be most appropriate because their concept is interdisciplinary, they foster motivation and in this type of problems phrasemes are not explicitly discussed, but appear in non-linguistic contexts to accomplish different non-linguistic goals, without neglecting the accomplishment of linguistic goals. As with the other types of problems, the non-linguistic problems should be adapted to the age of students and their cognitive development. Provided this criterion is fulfilled, the phrasemes appropriate to students’ age and cognitive development can also be included.</p> Alja Lipavic Oštir Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 New Dictionary Lithuanian-French <p><strong>Danguolė MELNIKIENĖ.&nbsp;<em>Dictionnaire lituanien-français. Lietuvių-prancūzų kalbų žodynas. Collection Vertige de la langue,</em></strong><em>&nbsp;</em>Paris, Hermann Éditions, 2020, 1200 p.</p> Xavier Blanco Escoda Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Emploi et traduction des unités phraséologiques en lituanien dans « La vie devant soi » de Romain Gary <p>Le but de cet article est d’analyser une répartition des unités phraséologiques et les stratégies de leur traduction dans le roman «&nbsp;La vie devant soi&nbsp;» de Romain Gary et répondre aux questions&nbsp;suivantes : Quelles unités phraséologiques sont utilisées dans le roman et comment transmettent-ils des idées de l’auteur&nbsp;? Quelles stratégies de la traduction des unités phraséologiques étaient utilisées par la traductrice Jūratė Navakauskienė et pourquoi ces stratégies ont été choisies&nbsp;? Lors de l’analyse de l’emploi des unités phraséologiques dans le roman, parmi les groupes prédominants nous avons identifié ceux des unités phraséologiques qui représentaient les phénomènes du monde intérieur de l’homme, des relations entre les gens et la vie sociale. Notre analyse de la traduction nous permet de constater les stratégies les plus fréquentes celles de la traduction par paraphrase, par les équivalents et par le synonyme phraséologique. Dans notre recherche, nous parlons également du style de Romain Gary et de l’importance de l’emploi des unités phraséologiques dans son roman. Les résultats de notre recherche nous permettent d’affirmer que la traductrice maîtrisait bien les connaissances linguistiques et extralinguistiques dans les contextes donnés, et a effectué le choix créatif des stratégies de la traduction.</p> Viktorija Rogalskaja | Aurelija Leonavičienė Copyright (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 09 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Pedagogical Perspective on the Definite and the Indefinite Article in the Romanian Language. Challenges for Foreign Learners <p>All Romance languages have developed the definite and the indefinite article via the Vulgar Latin (Classical Latin did not use articles), the language of the Roman colonists. According to Joseph H. Greenberg (1978), the definite article predated the indefinite one by approximately two centuries, being developed from demonstratives through a complex process of grammaticalization. Many areas of nowadays` Romania were incorporated into the Roman Empire for about 170 years. After two military campaign, the Roman emperor Trajan conquered Dacia, east of Danube.The Romans imposed their own administration and inforced Latin as lingua franca.The language of the colonists, mixed with the native language and, later on, with various languages spoken by the many migrant populations that followed the Roman retreat resulted in a new language (Romanian), of Latin origins. The Romanian language, attested in the 16<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;Century, in documents written by foreign travellers, uses four different types of articles. Being a highly inflected language, Romanian changes the form of the articles according to the gender, the number and the case of the noun As compared to the other Romance languages, Romanian uses the definite article enclitically. Thus, the definite article and the noun constitute a single word. The present paper aims at discussing, analysing and providing an overview of the use of definite and indefinite articles. The general norm and its various exceptions are examined from a broader perspective, synchronically and diachronically. The pedagogical perspective is meant to offer a comprehensible synthesis to foreign learners.</p> Ovidiu Ivancu Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 К вопросу о речевой агрессии и инвективах в современных антилиберальных новых медиа <p lang="en-US">The article explores the use of verbal aggression by anti-liberal “new media”. This source material was selected following the infamous Financial Times interview with Vladimir Putin, where he proclaimed that liberalism had become obsolete. The study explores the purpose, objects, and means of expressing verbal aggression. This study highlights the main ways in which a holistic trend of political philosophy comes under a sustained attack.</p> <p lang="en-US">The research establishes that lexemes without a default negative connotation, rather than pejorative invectives, are the primary means of expressing aggression. The study further maintains the existence of certain verbal aggression discourse algorithm whereby the use of one potentially aggressive lexeme automatically triggers the use of another lexeme. The analysis shows that anti-liberal discourse is intertwined with antisemitism, homophobia, and negative sentiment towards the internet.</p> <p lang="en-US">Anti-liberal environment is not limited to pro-government sentiment – occasionally the head of state alsocomes under its critique and its standard allegations. The source of verbal aggression is particularly crucial in the “new media” era: verbal aggression can originate both in governmental institutions and the demassified field. The origin of verbal aggression will further determine its consequences, ranging from impacting the fate of the object of verbal aggression to uniting the supporters sharing the sentiment behind the verbal aggression and/or pro-government opinion. Here neutral lexemes without a default negative connotation take on the function of the means of verbal aggression. This way neutral words such as liberal, Jew, gay become pejorative invectives. These words now carry a high potential for expressing aggression when used in conjunction with other words and phrases.</p> Liudmila Kravcova Copyright (c) 2019 Authors Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000