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Author Guidelines

The journal of linguistics Kalbotyra focuses on research into various aspects of language studies as well as the ones addressing cross-linguistic issues. It publishes articles, reviews of books and reports of conferences. Proceedings of conferences are also invited.

Papers submitted for publication should not have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. They are reviewed by at least two anonymous referees following the double blind refereeing procedure.

All manuscripts in an electronic version should be sent to the editors-in-chief Jolanta Šinkūnienė and Vaiva Žeimantienė by e-mail ( in two formats: MS Word (*.doc or *.docx ) and Portable Document Format (*.pdf). Please check the converted PDF for formatting errors (margins, paragraphing, charts, pictures, etc.)

Papers should not normally exceed 8,000 words in length; only in exceptional circumstances can significantly longer papers be considered.

Papers should be prepared according to the requirements set out below in one of the following languages: English, French, German or Lithuanian. If the language of the paper is not a native language of the author(s), the paper should be proof-read by a native-language specialist to check its correctness.

It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure that the final version of their paper fully conforms to this style sheet.

The author(s) warrant that their paper is original and no property rights (including copyright or other intellectual property rights) of any third parties have been violated. Kalbotyra follows the policy of screening for plagiarism. The authors will be required to sign a licence agreement and an honesty declaration. Articles published in Kalbotyra are distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (CC BY-NC 4.0).

The editorial team and reviewers of Kalbotyra follow the COPE (the Committee on Publication Ethics) code of conduct and best practice guidelines which aim to define best practice in the ethics of scholarly publishing. The authors who submit articles for publication to Kalbotyra are also strongly recommended to follow the guidelines of COPE for best publishing practices.

Since the journal follows a double blind review policy, the author(s) have to submit two versions of the paper. Version one should be prepared according to this style sheet and version two should have all author identifying features removed both from the text of the article and from the document properties.

1 Structure and form
Papers submitted for publication should correspond to the general requirements of research papers and cover the following points: the research question/problem, review of previous research on the subject, data and methods, research findings/results (evaluated and validated), evidence (documented), conclusions and references. Papers that do not conform to the requirements will be returned to the authors for revision before further processing.

Papers should be printed on A4 paper size with a 1.5 cm margin on the right and 2.5 cm margins on the top, left and bottom; the pages should be numbered beginning with the title page at the top right corner of the page. The authors should use 1.5 spacing between the lines throughout the paper. The font is 12 pt Times New Roman. The text should be justified left.

The paper should contain:

(1) the title of the paper, 14 pt, bold

(2) the full name(s) in bold and affiliation(s) of the author(s),12 pt. The affiliation should be given in the language of the publication in full, including departments/centres, postal address, authors’ e-mail address (hyperlink should be removed), in this order

Evidential adjectives in Lithuanian academic discourse

Anna Ruskan
Department of English Philology
Vilnius University
Universiteto g. 5
LT-01513 Vilnius, Lithuania

(3) Abstract
All articles must have an abstract in English (180-350 words). An abstract should clearly describe the purpose of the research, data and methodology, the main results and the principal conclusions. The second abstract in Lithuanian or any other language of the journal is optional. Abstracts in languages other than the language of the publication should bear the title (in bold, 12 pt) and the words Abstract / Santrauka.

(4) Keywords: a list of 5–7 key words separated by commas is provided below every abstract in the language of the abstract. For example, articles written in English should have keywords in English.

2 The text
The text should be divided into sections and subsections, each of them decimally numbered beginning with 1 (e.g.: 1, 1.1, 1.1.1, etc.) and titled. The number and title should be in bold type. The block organisation of paragraphs (not indented) should be used throughout the whole text with spaces of 12 pt before each new paragraph.

Figures and tables (12 pt) should be numbered and titled separately under the figure/table. The illustrations will be printed black and white, their resolution should not be less than 300 dpi.

Use italics for foreign words (especially et al.); use bold face for emphasis. Use square brackets [like this] for personal additions.

Quotations. Short quoted sections in the running text should be enclosed in double quotation marks “like this” (the original citation is given in round brackets). Use single quotes for special forms, for quotations within quotations, and for glosses and paraphrases of (foreign) words. Quotations longer than three lines (ca. 40 words) should be given in a separate indented paragraph (5 pt) in italics.

Listings for the purpose of classification should be written in a new indented (5 pt) line, e.g.:

a)         the first model …

b)        the second model …

Examples (words, phrases, sentences, etc.) are not indented, they are given in italics and numbered consecutively throughout the article; the numbers (regular) are enclosed in round brackets, e.g.: (1), (2). References for cited examples should be indicated, translation correspondences of all language data in a language other than the language of the paper should be given in single commas, e.g.: eiti ‘to go’.

Translation and word-by-word glosses are provided for all quotations/examples from languages other than the language of the article. Translation is given in single quotation marks. Words are aligned vertically using tab key rather than space bar key. Use small caps to indicate grammatical information (NOM.SG.F), for example:

(1) Jai                                 reikia             eiti                 namo.

      she.DAT.SG                   need.3PRS     go.INF           home.ADV

      ‘She has to go home’

For more details about glossing refer to:

Footnotes set in 10 pt can be used only for very brief explanatory remarks and their frequency of occurrence is limited to no longer than 3 lines. They should be numbered consecutively throughout the text using superscript Arabic numerals.

They follow the main text of the paper.

List of Abbreviations should precede Data sources or References.

Below the body of the article, the date of its submission for publication should be indicated.

3 References in the text
All references should be given at the appropriate point in the text in brackets (author’s name or title of publication, year of publication, comma page(s) referred to, if relevant), like this: (Howarth 1998, 27–28). Different sources of reference should be separated by semi-colons (Aijmer 1996, 1997; van der Auwera, Schalley & Nuyts 2005). If letters of Slavic or some other non-Latin alphabet have been used, the names and titles should be transliterated.

4 Reference list
All data sources cited in the text, and only those, should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper in separate sections under the headings Data Sources and References. Each reference entry is given in a separate paragraph; the second line of the paragraph is indented by 10 pt. All lexical words are capitalized only in the Names of Periodicals; only the first word is capitalized in the Titles of books (proper names, etc. are exceptions). Papers written in languages other than Lithuanian should provide translations of Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian, Polish book and article titles in brackets. Please follow the pattern given below:

Holvoet, Axel, Loreta Semėnienė, red. 2004. Gramatinių kategorijų tyrimai. [Studies in grammatical categories]. Vilnius: Lietuvių kalbos institutas.

Data Sources
BNC           The British National Corpus. Davies, M. 2004–. BYU–BNC. Available at:
CorALit     Lietuvių mokslo kalbos tekstynas (Corpus Academicum Lithuanicum). Interneto prieiga:

Ambrazas, Vytautas. 1990. Sravnitel’nyj sintaksis pričastij baltijskich jazykov. [Comparative syntax of participles in Baltic languages]. Vilnius: Mokslas.
Barbieri, Federica. 2008. Patterns of age-based linguistic variation in American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12 (1), 58–88.
Bolinger, Dwight. 1965. The atomization of meaning. Language 41, 555–573.
Gansel, Christina, Frank Jürgens. 2007. Textlinguistik und TextgrammatikEine Einführung. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Haß, Ulrike, Hg. 2005. Grundfragen der elektronischen Lexikographieelexiko – das Online-Informationssystem zum deutschen Wortschatz. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Holvoet, Axel, Loreta Semėnienė, red. 2004. Gramatinių kategorijų tyrimai. [Studies in grammatical categories]. Vilnius: Lietuvių kalbos institutas.
Huddleston, Rodney & Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jaszczolt, Katarzyna. 2009. Default semantics. In The Oxford handbook of linguistic analysis. Bernd Heine & Heiko Narrog, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 193–221.
Kleiber, Georges. 1990. La sémantique du prototype: catégories et sens lexical. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Langacker, Ronald W. 1991. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. 2. Descriptive application. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Rayson, Paul. 2004. Log-likelihood calculator. Available at: Accessed: 5 October 2008.
Šinkūnienė, Jolanta. 2011. Autoriaus pozicijos švelninimas rašytiniame moksliniame diskurse: gretinamasis tyrimas. [Hedging in written academic discourse: A cross-linguistic and cross-disciplinary study], (ms.). Humanitarinių mokslų daktaro disertacija [PhD dissertation]. Vilnius: Vilniaus universitetas.

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