The recognition and modelling of a backbone and its deformity
Ramūnas Markauskas
Vilnius University, Lithuania
Algimantas Juozapavičius
Vilnius University, Lithuania
Kęstutis Saniukas
Vilnius University, Lithuania
Giedrius Bernotavičius
Vilnius University, Lithuania
Published 2014-01-20


active contours
Falling Ball
mathematical modelling of the backbone
adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
spinal deformities

How to Cite

Markauskas R., Juozapavičius A., Saniukas K. and Bernotavičius G. (2014) “The recognition and modelling of a backbone and its deformity”, Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, 19(1), pp. 55-66. doi: 10.15388/NA.2014.1.4.


In this article the authors present a method for the backbone recognition and modelling. The process of recognition combines some classical techniques (Hough transformation, GVF snakes) with some new (authors present a method for initial curvature detection, which they call the Falling Ball method). The result enables us to identify high-quality features of the spine and to detect the major deformities of backbone: the intercrestal line, centre sacral vertical line, C7 plumbline; as well as angles: proximal thoracic curve, main thoracic curve, thoracolumbar/lumbar. These features are used for measure in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, especially in the case of treatment. Input data are just radiographic images, meet in everyday practice.

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