Fit to Last? Investigating How Person-Job Fit and Person-Organization Fit Affect Turnover Intention in the Retail Context
Gentrit Berisha
Department of Management, University of Prishtina
Rrezon Lajçi
Department of Economics and Management, University of Padova
Published 2020-12-30


person-job fit
person-organization fit
job satisfaction
organizational commitment
turnover intention

How to Cite

Berisha G. and Lajçi R. (2020) “Fit to Last? Investigating How Person-Job Fit and Person-Organization Fit Affect Turnover Intention in the Retail Context”, Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, 11(2), pp. 407-428. doi: 10.15388/omee.2020.11.40.


Retail supermarket chains face high turnover that creates costs and compromises customer satisfaction. Turnover intention is influenced by the fit or misfit of employees to the job and the organization, as well as their satisfaction with the job and the commitment to the organization. This paper investigates the relationship of person-job (P-J) and person-organization (P-O) fit with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A total of 211 questionnaires from employees in the retail supermarket chains in Kosovo were collected. Regression analysis is used to test the relationships between fit constructs and work attitudes as outcomes and their effect on turnover intention. Bootstrap mediation is used to test the direct and indirect effect of fits on turnover intention. Results show that person-job fit and person-organization fit have a significant positive effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. All these constructs have a negative effect on turnover intention. P-J and P-O fit have a direct negative effect on turnover intention, which is also partially mediated by job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This paper supports previous evidence that P-J and P-O fit have a positive effect on work attitudes and eventually reduce turnover intention. The direct effect of fits on turnover intention is stronger than the indirect effect, mediated by job satisfaction and organizational commitment.



1. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of vocational behavior, 49(3), 252-276. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1996.0043
2. Arthur Jr, W., Bell, S. T., Villado, A. T., & Doverspike, D. (2006). The use of person-organization fit in employment decision making: an assessment of its criterion-related validity. Journal of applied psychology, 91(4), 786-801. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.786
3. Astakhova, M. N. (2016). Explaining the effects of perceived person-supervisor fit and person-organization fit on organizational commitment in the US and Japan. Journal of Business Research, 69(2), 956-963. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.08.039
4. Barber, A. E. (1998). Recruiting employees : individual and organizational perspectives. Thousand Oaks: Sage. doi:10.4135/9781452243351
5. Barnette, J. J. (2000). Effects of stem and Likert response option reversals on survey internal consistency: If you feel the need, there is a better alternative to using those negatively worded stems. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60(3), 361-370. doi:10.1177/00131640021970592
6. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator - mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.51.6.1173
7. Betz, N. E. (2008). Advances in vocational theories. In S. D. Brown, & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (4 ed., pp. 357-374). Haboken: John Wiley & Sons.
8. Bhuian, S. N., & Mengue, B. (2002). An extension and evaluation of job characteristics, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an expatriate, guest worker, sales setting. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 22(1), 1-11. doi:10.1080/08853134.2002.10754288
9. Blau, G. J. (1987). Using a person-environment fit model to predict job involvement and organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30(3), 240-257. doi:10.1016/0001-8791(87)90003-0
10. Boushey, H., & Glynn, S. J. (2012). There are significant business costs to replacing employees. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.
11. Bowen, D. E., Ledford Jr, G. E., & Nathan, B. R. (1991). Hiring for the organization, not the job. Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(4), 35-51. doi:10.5465/ame.1991.4274747
12. Bretz Jr, R. D., & Judge, T. A. (1994). Person-organization fit and the theory of work adjustment: Implications for aatisfaction, tenure, and career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44(1), 32-54. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1994.1003
13. Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 1(3), 185-216. doi:10.1177/135910457000100301
14. Broadbridge, A. (2003). Student perceptions of retailing as a destination career. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 31(6), 298-309. doi:10.1108/09590550310476033
15. Cable, D. M., & DeRue, D. S. (2002). The convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. Journal of applied psychology, 87(5), 875-884. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.5.875
16. Cable, D. M., & Edwards, J. R. (2004). Complementary and supplementary fit: a theoretical and empirical integration. Journal of applied psychology, 95(9), 822-834. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.822
17. Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person–organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 67(3), 294-311. doi:10.1006/obhd.1996.0081
18. Caplan, R. D. (1987). Person-environment fit theory and organizations: Commensurate dimensions, time perspectives, and mechanisms. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31(3), 248-267. doi:10.1016/0001-8791(87)90042-X
19. Carless, S. A. (2005). Person–job fit versus person-organization fit as predictors of organizational attraction and job acceptance intentions: A longitudinal study. Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(3), 411-429. doi:10.1348/096317905X25995
20. Chatman, J. A. (1989). Improving interactional organizational research: A model of person-organization fit. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 333-349. doi:10.2307/258171
21. Chhabra, B. (2015). Person–job fit: Mediating role of job satisfaction & organizational commitment. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 50(4), 638-651.
22. Chung, T.‐L., Rutherford, B., & Park, J. (2012). Understanding multifaceted job satisfaction of retail employees. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 40(9), 699-716. doi:10.1108/09590551211255974
23. Cojocaru, A. (2017). Kosovo jobs diagnostic. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from
24. Cooman, R. D., Mol, S. T., Billsberry, J., Boon, C., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2019). Epilogue: Frontiers in person-environment fit research. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(5), 646-652. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2019.1630480
25. Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of applied psychology, 78(1), 98-104. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.98
26. Culkin, N., & Simmons, R. (2018). Study of the Challenges That Hinder MSME Development in Kosovo. Hertfordshire: University of Hertfordshire. Retrieved from
27. Darden, W. R., Hampton, R., & Howell, R. D. (1989). Career versus organizational commitment: antecedents and consequences of retail salespeople's commitment. Journal of Retailing, 65(1), 80-107.
28. De Villiers, J. R., & Stander, M. W. (2011). Psychological empowerment, work engagement and turnover intention: The role of leader relations and role clarity in a financial institution. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 21(3), 405-412. doi:10.1080/14330237.2011.10820474
29. Edwards, J. R. (1991). Person-job fit: A conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique. In C. L. Cooper, & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology. International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 283-357). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
30. Edwards, J. R. (2008). Person-Environment Fit in Organizations: An Assessment of Theoretical Progress. Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 167–230. doi:10.1080/19416520802211503
31. Edwards, J. R., & Cooper, C. L. (1990). The person‐environment fit approach to stress: recurring problems and some suggested solutions. Journal of organizational behavior, 11(4), 293-307. doi:10.1002/job.4030110405
32. Fabi, B., Lacoursière, R., & Raymond, L. (2015). Impact of high-performance work systems on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to quit in Canadian organizations. International Journal of Manpower, 36(5), 772-790. doi:10.1108/IJM-01-2014-0005
33. Foster, C., Whysall, P., & Harris, L. (2008). Employee loyalty: an exploration of staff commitment levels towards retailing, the retailer and the store. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 18(4), 423-435. doi:10.1080/09593960802299494
34. Frank, B. (2000). New Ideas for Retail Store-level Employees. Coca-Cola Retailing Research Council.
35. Good, L. K., Page, T. J., & Young, C. E. (1996). Assessing hierarchical differences in job-related attitudes and turnover among retail managers. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(2), 148-156. doi:10.1177/0092070396242005
36. Good, L. K., Sisler, G. F., & Gentry, J. W. (1988). Antecedents of turnover intentions among retail management. Journal of Retailing, 63(4), 295.
37. Greguras, G. J., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). Different fits satisfy different needs: Linking person-environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory. Journal of applied psychology, 94(2), 465-477. doi:10.1037/a0014068
38. Griffin, R. W., & O'Leary-Kelly, A. M. (1995). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. In N. Brewer, & C. Wilson (Eds.), Psychology and Policing (pp. 367-394). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
39. Han, M., Håkansson, J., & Lundmark, M. (2019). Intra-urban location of stores and labour turnover in retail. The International Review of Retail, Distribution andConsumer Research, 29(4), 359-375. doi:10.1080/09593969.2019.1591480
40. Hancer, M., & George, R. T. (2003). Job satisfaction of restaurant employees: An empirical investigation using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire`. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 27(1), 85-100. doi:10.1177/1096348002238882
41. Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L. (2006). How important are job attitudes? Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 305-325. doi:10.5465/amj.2006.20786077
42. Harrison, S., & Gordon, P. A. (2014). Misconceptions of employee turnover: Evidence-based information for the retail grocery industry. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 12(2), 145-152. doi:10.19030/jber.v12i2.8528
43. Hartmann, N. N., & Rutherford, B. N. (2015). Psychological contract breach's antecedents and outcomes in salespeople: The roles of psychological climate, job attitudes, and turnover intention. Industrial Marketing Management, 51, 158-170. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2015.07.017
44. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: The Gulford Press. doi:10.1111/jedm.12050
45. Hoffman, B. J., & Woehr, D. J. (2006). A quantitative review of the relationship between person-organization fit and behavioral outcomes. Journal of vocational behavior, 68(3), 389-399. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2005.08.003
46. Holland, J. L. (1985). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
47. Jansen, K. J., & Kristof-Brown, A. (2006). Toward a Multidimensional Theory of Person-Environment Fit. Journal of Managerial Issues, 18(2), 193-212.
48. Jaramilloa, F., Mulkib, J. P., & Marshall, G. W. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational commitment and salesperson job performance: 25 years of research. Journal of Business Research, 58(6), 705–714. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2003.10.004
49. Judge, T. A. (1994). Person–organization fit and the theory of work adjustment: Implications for satisfaction, tenure, and career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44(1), 32-54. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1994.1003
50. Judge, T. A., & Klinger, R. (2008). Job satisfaction: Subjective well-being at work. In M. Eid, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The Science of Subjective Well-Being (pp. 393-413). New York: The Gulford Press.
51. Kim, S., Sturman, E., & Kim, E. S. (2015). Structural Equation Modeling: Principles, Processes, and Practices. In K. D. Strang (Ed.), The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management (pp. 153-172). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9781137484956
52. Koch, J. L., & Steers, R. M. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction, and turnover among public sector employees. Journal of vocational behavior, 12(1), 119-128. doi:10.1016/0001-8791(78)90013-1
53. Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person‐organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 1-49. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1996.tb01790.x
54. Kristof-Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences of individuals' fit at work: a meta‐analysis of person-job, person-organization, person–group, and person–supervisor fit. Personnel Psychology, 58(2), 281-342. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00672.x
55. Kristof-Brown, A., & Guay, R. P. (2011). Person-Environment Fit. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology: Maintaining, expanding, and contracting the organization (Vol. 3, pp. 3-55). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12171-000
56. Lauver, K. J., & Kristof-Brown, A. (2001). Distinguishing between employees' perceptions of person-job and person-organization fit. Journal of vocational behavior, 59(3), 454-470. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2001.1807
57. Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of topological psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill. doi:10.1037/10019-000
58. Liu, B., Liu, J., & Hu, J. (2010). Person-organization fit, job satisfaction, and turnover intention: An empirical study in the Chinese public sector. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 38(5), 615-625. doi:10.2224/sbp.2010.38.5.615
59. Livingstone, L. P., Nelson, D. L., & Barr, S. H. (1997). Person-environment fit and creativity: An examination of supply-value and demand-ability versions of fit. Journal of Management, 23(2), 119-146. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063(97)90040-4
60. Locke, E. A. (1969). What is job satisfaction? Organizational behavior and human performance, 4(4), 309-336. doi:10.1016/0030-5073(69)90013-0
61. Lucas, G. H., Babakus, E., & Ingram, T. N. (1990). An empirical test of the job satisfaction-turnover relationship: Assessing the role of job performance for retail managers. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18(3), 199-208. doi:10.1177/009207039001800302
62. MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
63. Mason, C. H., & Perreault Jr, W. D. (1991). Collinearity, power, and interpretation of multiple regression analysis. Journal of marketing research, 28(3), 268-280. doi:10.1177/002224379102800302
64. Mauno, S., Kiuru, N., & Kinnunen, U. (2011). Relationships between work-family culture and work attitudes at both the individual and the departmental level. Work & Stress, 25(2), 147-166. doi:10.1080/02678373.2011.594291
65. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1), 61-89. doi:10.1016/1053-4822(91)90011-Z
66. Meyer, J. P., Paunonen, S. V., Gellatly, I. R., Goffin, R. D., & Jackson, D. N. (1989). Organizational commitment and job performance: It's the nature of the commitment that counts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 152-156. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.152
67. Muchinsky, P. M., & Monahan, C. J. (1987). What is person-environment congruence? Supplementary versus complementary models of fit. Journal of vocational behavior, 31(3), 268-277. doi:10.1016/0001-8791(87)90043-1
68. Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1980). A model for diagnosing organizational behavior. Organizational Dynamics, 9(2), 35-51. doi:10.1016/0090-2616(80)90039-X
69. Nadler, D., & Tushman, M. (1988). Strategic Organization Design. Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Company. doi:10.1177/103841118902700214
70. Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
71. O’brien, R. M. (2007). A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors. Quality & quantity, 41(5), 673-690. doi:10.1007/s11135-006-9018-6
72. Oh, H., Weitz, B., & Lim, J. (2010). Retail career attractiveness to college students: Connecting individual characteristics to the trade-off of job attributes. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 31, 345-354. doi:10.1007/s11135-006-9018-6
73. O'Reilly III, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of management journal, 34(3), 487-516. doi:10.5465/256404
74. Parsons, F. (1909). Choosing a vocation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
75. Pettijohn, C. E., Pettijohn, L. S., & Taylor, A. J. (2007). Does salesperson perception of the importance of sales skills improve sales performance, customer orientation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, and reduce turnover? Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27(1), 75-88. doi:10.2753/PSS0885-3134270105
76. Phillips, J. J., & Connell, A. O. (2004). Managing employee retention. London: Routledge.
77. Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of applied psychology, 59(5), 603-609. doi:10.1037/h0037335
78. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior research methods, 36(4), 717-731. doi:10.3758/BF03206553
79. Randall, D. M., Fedor, D. B., & Longenecker, C. O. (1990). The behavioral expression of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36(2), 210-224. doi:10.1016/0001-8791(90)90028-Z
80. Resick, C. J., Baltes, B. B., & Shantz, C. W. (2007). Person-organization fit and work-related attitudes and decisions: Examining interactive effects with job fit and conscientiousness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1446-1455. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1446
81. Rounds, J. B., & Tracey, T. J. (2014). From Trait-and-Factor to Person-Environment Fit Counseling: Theory and Process. In W. B. Walsh, & S. H. Osipow (Eds.), Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology (pp. 1-44). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
82. Sager, J. K., Futrell, C. M., & Varadarajan, R. (1989). Exploring salesperson turnover: A causal model. Journal of Business Research, 18(4), 303-326. doi:10.1016/0148-2963(89)90024-6
83. Salleh, R., Nair, M. S., & Harun, H. (2012). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention: A case study on employees of a retail company in Malaysia. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 72(12), 316-323.
84. Schneider, B. (2001). Fits About Fit. Fits About Fit. Applied Psychology, 50(1), 141-152. doi:10.1111/1464-0597.00051
85. Sekiguchi, T. (2004). Person-organization fit and person-job fit in employee selection: A review of the literature. Osaka Keidai Ronshu, 54(6), 179-196.
86. Sekiguchi, T., & Huber, V. L. (2011). The use of person-organization fit and person-job fit information in making selection decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116(2), 203-216. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2011.04.001
87. Shore, L. M., & Martin, H. J. (1989). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment in relation to work performance and turnover intentions. Human Relations, 42(7), 625-638. doi:10.1177/001872678904200705
88. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in Experimental and Nonexperimental Studies: New Procedures and Recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422-445. doi:10.1037//1082-989X.7.4.422
89. Silverthorne, C. (2004). The impact of organizational culture and person‐organization fit on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in Taiwan. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(7), 592-599. doi:10.1108/01437730410561477
90. Simintiras, A., Watkins, A., Ifie, K., & Georgakas, K. (2012). Individual and contextual influences on the affective commitment of retail salespeople. Journal of Marketing Management, 28(11-12), 1377-1398. doi:10.1080/0267257X.2012.691529
91. Sjöberg, A., & Sverke, M. (2000). The interactive effect of job involvement and organizational commitment on job turnover revisited: A note on the mediating role of turnover intention. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43(3), 247-252. doi:10.1111/1467-9450.00194
92. Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. doi:10.4135/9781452231549
93. Steers, R. M. (1977). Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27(1), 46-56. doi:10.2307/2391745
94. Stengård, J., Berntson, E., Leineweber, C., & Bernhard-Oettel, C. (2019). Who Gets Stuck in Their Workplaces? The Role of Matching Factors, between Individual and Job, and Demographics in Predicting Being Locked In. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 4(1), 1-18. doi:10.16993/sjwop.56
95. Stringer, C., Didham, J., & Theivananthampillai, P. (2011). Motivation, pay satisfaction, and job satisfaction of front‐line employees. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 8(2), 161-179. doi:10.1108/11766091111137564
96. Su, R., Murdock, C., & Rounds, J. (2015). Person-environment fit. In P. J. Hartung, M. L. Savickas, & W. B. Walsh (Eds.), APA handbook of career intervention: Foundations (Vol. 1, pp. 81-98). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
97. Suls, J., Martin, R., & David, J. P. (1998). Person-environment fit and its limits: Agreeableness, neuroticism, and emotional reactivity to interpersonal conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(1), 88-98. doi:10.1177/0146167298241007
98. Swider, B. W., Zimmerman, R. D., & Barrick, M. R. (2015). Searching for the right fit: Development of applicant person-organization fit perceptions during the recruitment process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 880-893. doi:10.1037/a0038357
99. Tak, J. (2011). Relationships between various person-environment fit types and employee withdrawal behavior: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78(2), 315-320. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2010.11.006
100. Tang, C., Liu, Y., Oh, H., & Weitz, B. (2014). Socialization tactics of new retail employees: A pathway to organizational commitment. Journal of Retailing, 90(1), 62-73. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2013.11.002
101. Taris, R., & Feij, J. (2001). Longitudinal examination of the relationship between supplies–values fit and work outcomes. Applied Psychology, 50(1), 52-80. doi:10.1111/1464-0597.00048
102. Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: path analyses based on meta‐analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259-293. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00874.x
103. Tian, A. (2009). Job satisfaction and turnover in the Chinese retail industry. Chinese Management Studies, 3(4), 356-378. doi:10.1108/17506140911007503
104. Tims, M., Derks, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2016). Job crafting and its relationships with person–job fit and meaningfulness: A three-wave study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 92, 44-53. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2015.11.007
105. Tuomi, K., Vanhala, S., Nykyri, E., & Janhonen, M. (2004). Organizational practices, work demands and the well-being of employees: a follow-up study in the metal industry and retail trade. Occupational Medicine, 54(2), 115-121. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqh005
106. Valentine, S., Godkin, L., & Lucero, M. (2002). Ethical context, organizational commitment, and person-organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(4), 349-360. doi:10.1023/A:1021203017316
107. Valentine, S., Varca, P., Godkin, L., & Barnett, T. (2010). Positive job response and ethical job performance. Journal of business ethics, 91(2), 195-206. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0077-1
108. Venkatraman, N., & Camillus, J. C. (1984). Exploring the concept of “fit” in strategic management. Academy of management review, 9(3), 513-525. doi:10.2307/258291
109. Verquer, M. L., Beehr, T. A., & Wagner, S. H. (2003). A meta-analysis of relations between person-organization fit and work attitudes. Journal of vocational behavior, 63(3), 473-489. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00036-2
110. Vogel, R. M., & Feldman, D. C. (2009). Integrating the levels of person-environment fit: The roles of vocational fit and group fit. Journal of vocational behavior, 75(1), 68-81. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2009.03.007
111. von Bonsdorff, M. E., Janhonen, M., Zhou, Z. E., & Vanhala, S. (2015). Team autonomy, organizational commitment and company performance–a study in the retail trade. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(8), 1098-1109. doi:10.1080/09585192.2014.934881
112. Wang, M., Zhan, Y., McCune, E., & Truxillo, D. (2011). Understanding newcomers’ adaptability and work‐related outcomes: testing the mediating roles of perceived p–e fit variables. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 163-189. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01205.x
113. Warr, P., & Inceoglu, I. (2012). Job engagement, job satisfaction, and contrasting associations with person-job fit. Journal of occupational health psychology, 17(2), 129-138. doi:10.1037/a0026859
114. Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., England, G. W., & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire. Minnesota: University of Minnesota.
115. Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: Separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human resource management review, 12(2), 173-194. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00045-1
116. Werbel, J. D., & Gilliland, S. W. (1999). Person–environment fit in the selection process. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in human resources management (Vol. 17, pp. 209–243). Oxford: Elsevier Science/JAI Press.
117. Westerman, J. W., & Cyr, L. A. (2004). An integrative analysis of person-organization fit theories. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12(3), 252-261. doi:10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.279_1.x
118. Wheeler, A. R., Gallagher, V. C., Brouer, R. L., & Sablynski, C. J. (2007). When person-organization (mis) fit and (dis) satisfaction lead to turnover. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(2), 203-219. doi:10.1108/02683940710726447
119. Whysall, P., Foster, C., & Harris, L. (2009). Job dissatisfaction among retail employees: a study of three leading UK retailers. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 19(2), 179-198. doi:10.1080/09593960903109519
120. Work Institute. (2019). 2019 Retention Report. Franklin: Work Institute.
121. Wright, P. M., & Snell, S. A. (1998). Toward a Unifying Framework for Exploring Fit and Flexibility in Strategic Human Resource Management. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 756-772. doi:10.2307/259061
122. Yang, L.‐Q., Che, H., & Spector, P. E. (2008). Job stress and well‐being: An examination from the view of person‐environment fit. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(3), 567-587. doi:10.1348/096317907X243324
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Please read the Copyright Notice in Journal Policy.